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Diabetic nephropathy refers to diabetic kidney disease (nehpro=kidneys, pathy=disease). In 2011, diabetes caused nearly 44% of kidney failure cases. This makes diabetic kidney disease the number one complication of diabetes; one that is likely to affect almost every diabetic to some extent. In nearly half the cases of kidney disease, it could lead to kidney failure as well.
Diabetes and kidneys:
The kidneys filter nearly 200 quarts of our blood every day. Diabetes is a disease of excess sugar in our blood. Read these two sentences together and the link between diabetes and kidneys becomes obvious!
Every single day of our lives, the kidneys perform these functions:
Remove waste from our body (in the form of urine) retain whatever proteins, vitamins and other nutrients we can still usebalance the fluids in the bodyhelp maintain proper blood pressure by managing potassium and calcium levelskeep bones healthyhelp make red blood cells.
Diabetes damages the kidneys and the urinary system in three main ways:
Damage to blood vessels in the kidneys: too much sugar damages the filters in the kidneysdamage to nerves: fine nerves in the hands, feet, etc. Are corroded by the extra sugar in the blooddamage to the urinary tract: nerves run from our bladder to our brain and let us know when the bladder is full and we need to go. Damage to these nerves could mean we don’t react when our bladder is full. Result: extra pressure on the kidneys. Retained urine can also allow urinary tract infections to grow and migrate back to the kidneys.
Diabetes damage to blood vessels inside kidneys: The filtering units of the kidneys are called glomerules. They have tiny blood vessels that are easily clogged and damaged by excess sugar in our blood. Damage to these vessels also causes albumin, a kind of protein to leak via the urine. Ideally, albumin should be retained in the body. It is a condition called microalbuminuria in the early stages and albuminuria in the later stages.
Diabetes damage to nerves: Diabetes can also damage nerves everywhere in the body, a condition that is called diabetic neuropathy. When this happens in our hands and feet, we lose sensation there or begin to feel ‘pins and needles’. Nerves also convey messages from the brain to the urinary bladder and back. They inform the brain when our bladder is full. However, when these nerves are damaged by excess blood sugar, the brain does not realize when the bladder is full. The pressure from a full bladder can damage our kidneys over time.
Diabetes damage to urinary tract damage: When urine is retained in the bladder for long, the risk of bacterial infections increases. Bacteria also thrive on sugar, so diabetes increases infection risk. These infections usually stay limited to the urinary bladder. However, if they last for long, they may migrate to the kidneys and damage them too.
Consider all this in an organ that is working 24×7. Now you see why diabetic kidney failure is such a real danger for diabetics over the long term.
Diabetic kidney failure: early stages and symptoms
Diabetic kidney failure is a very real threat. It is a slow but relentless process that is divided into five stages of deterioration. The last stage called diabetic kidney failure or end stage renal disease (esrd)
The 5 stages leading to diabetic kidney failure are:
Stage 1: Kidney damage with normal gfr (90 or more). Gfr or glomuler filtration rate is the most widely accepted measure of kidney function. There are often no symptoms at this stage.
Stage 2: Kidney damage with mild decrease in gfr (60 to 89). Again, most patients feel no specific symptoms till this point.
Stage 3: Moderate decrease in gfr (30 to 59). At this stage, you may be losing too much protein, calcium and other nutrients. Some patients may feel breathless (due to loss of iron and anemia). Some puffiness and water retention could also be visible in the body. Urine may turn brown in colour. Some patients feel back pain too.
Stage 4: Severe reduction in gfr (15 to 29). All of the symptoms of stage 3 will are felt even more acutely now. Some blood may be seen in the urine. Breathlessness and swelling are usually quite severe. The stage at which you will need to finalize dialysis or kidney transplant options
Stage 5: Kidney failure (gfr less than 15). The kidneys give up at this stage. You will need dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Symptoms of kidney disease in diabetic patients
• Frequent urination, especially at night
• Blood or other dark discharge in the urine
• Swelling in the ankles
• Cramps in the calf muscles of the legs
• Feeling sick, feeling like throwing up, first thing in the morning
• Feeling weak, tired, breathless, looking pale
• Unexplained and consistent high blood pressure
• Unexplained urge to itch
• Lab tests: protein or albumin in the urine
• Lab tests: higher than normal levels of creatinine or bun in the blood
Diabetes and kidneys: how to protect yourself
First, you doctor needs to be sure that the underlying diabetes is the main cause of the kidney damage. Once this is done, the standard approach is to keep the kidneys working well for as long as possible. You doctor will likely add the hypertension-reducing medications called angiotensin converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors to your regimen. This is because ace inhibitors have been shown to help slow the loss of kidney function.
Here’s what diabetics can do to protect themselves from kidney damage:
• Control your blood sugar better. Don’t rely only on medications, but make changes to diet and lifestyle too. Many doctors endorse intermittent fasting to reverse diabetes today.
• Control high blood pressure. Take prescribed medicines on time. Daily moderate exercise and stress management techniques like meditation can help too.
• Watch out for and get timely treatment for urinary tract infections
• Don’t take medications like over-the-counter pain medications without telling your doctor. These may damage the kidneys, especially if you’re already at risk.
• Watch out for and take steps to prevent diabetic neuropathy. Damaged urinary tract nerves can lead to urinary retention and kidney damage. Some drugs like& metformin can contribute to diabetic nerve damage and supplements like vitamin b12 (as part of a good vitamin b complex) and alpha lipoic acid can help prevent this. Be aware and act soon.
• For people with diabetes, kidney screening once a year is mandatory. This can help to detect any protein or other substances that shouldn’t normally be in the urine.
• Use the right dietary supplements to protect your kidneys from diabetes damage.
Diabetic nephropathy: dietary supplements that help
Vitamin c (200mg- 1250mg per day)
Vitamin c is known to reduce excretion of urinary albumin. This suggests it may slow progression of diabetic nephropathy.
In a study published in the scientific journal nephron, researchers found that supplementation with vitamin c (also known as ascorbic acid or aa) reduced micro albumin loss in diabetic patients. The researchers concluded that “dietary supplementation of aa in diabetic subjects may have long-term benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications”
Vitamin e (100iu-680iu per day)
Studies have found that vitamin e, when administered along with vitamin c, has the ability to reduce urinary albumin excretion. In the first study, published in the journal diabetes care, one groups was given just vitamin e and vitamin c. A second group received these and also the minerals magnesium and zinc. Both groups showed improved kidney function on lab parameters. In the second study, published in the diabetic medicine journal, type 2 diabetics took 1250mg of vitamin c plus 680 iu of vitamin e daily. In four weeks, their albumin excretion rate or aer was 19% lower compared to the placebo group.
Alpha lipoic acid (600mg per day).
Alpha lipoic acid (ala) is found in spinach, broccoli and potatoes and is a known anti-oxidant. A research study in 2001 set out to see if ala could help patients with diabetic kidney damage. The study group received 600 mg of alpha lipoic acid as a supplement. Another group received no supplement. The first group was able to maintain the same rate of urinary albumin loss, while the control group, saw their albumin loss worsen during the same period. Since alpha lipoic acid helps diabetics fight diabetic nerve damage too, it may well be a useful addition to all diabetics.
Everything we eat, including dietary supplements, has to be processed by the kidneys at some point of time. So do involve your doctor in your choice of dietary supplements if you have diabetic kidney disease.
Just remember: diabetic nephropathy or kidney damage is a result of the underlying diabetes. M. D. S are today saying that type 2 diabetes is reversible, through dietary and lifestyle changes. The better your control over the underlying blood sugar levels, the fewer the complications of diabetes. There are dietary supplements that are proven to help you improve blood sugar control, often without the side effects of prescription medications.
Could not intercourse with my husband due to vaginal tightness. No child. Lubrication during intercourse very less.
I am 25 year old. I got married in oct 2015. We are trying but I am not at all conceiving. Is it necessary to go to doctor for pre pregnancy tests. What tests do you prefer if test is necessary for me and my husband. Please suggest what kind of diet should I take to become pregnant as I am overweight.
Sir we have sex 2 days before and today in 3rd day I am getting pain in stomach because I think periods are going to start. Can I take i-pill in this situation since we don't use condom during sex.
I'm a 21 years old woman and I always suffer from severe pain during my periods. Its always been this way since the beginning year. What could be the reason behind this?
Hello doctor, again same thing happening with me as last time. My period is due. I have to get my periods on 4 may. V had our intercourse on 16 April nd alternative days till may 1 nd last month I got on 4 April. Last month I got my periods delay for 12 days. Nd taken test it was negative. Nd this tym also not got my periods. My periods usually 30 to 33 days. Cycle. So please suggest me till how many days I have to wait for my periods. Nd take pregnancy test. My weight is 61 kg. Having hypothyroid taking tab 62 mg thyronorm. Daily. M worried please suggest me.
Sex ke dauran sperm vergina se bahr aa jata hai. Iski vajah se pregnancy nii ho pa rhi hai. Iska kya reason hai. please Hindi me bataiye.
I have severe itching in my anus since the last 3 months. I have de-wormed twice over this period, but it hasn't decreased. Please help.
Hi, I had unprotected sex on the first day of my period. I'm not using any contraceptive method. My cycle is of around 30 days and my period is usually around 5-6 days. I would really appreciate it if you could guide me regarding my chances of pregnancy and whether I should take the morning after pill or not.
If we do marriage in close relations for example me marrying with my father's sister's daughter, is there any problems for children if so what are the mostly caused genetic problems and should we undergo any tests as a preventive measure or any other remedy.
I've had vaginal itching for around two years now, as with most posts I've read I've been told it's just thrush but then I've been tested for that twice now and both tests came back negative. The GUM clinic said it could just be an allergy or thrush of the vulva (if that is even possible?). I have.
Due to my scanty periods I was advised to go for: 1: pelvic ultrasound before my periods, 2: OGTT on the second day of periods 3: LH/FSH on the third day of periods, I had my periods on 26/12/2015 exactly 28th day from my last periods as usual. The ultrasound suggests that both ovaries show multiple small follicles arranged peripherally with increased stromal echogenecity. Impression being: polycystic pattern of ovaries. For OGTT three blood samples were taken. First was while fasting then I was given 75gm of glucose, second sample was taken exactly 1 hour later and the last blood sample 1 hour after that. Results are: Fasting: 99.76 mg/dl 1 hr glucose: 156.80 mg/dl 2 hr glucose: 185.83 mg/dl LH: 3.28 mIu/mL FSH: 5.21mIu/ml The tests were advised because the doctor doubted PCOS. I won't be able to visit the doctor as of now. Can you please help me if I have this problem and what is the next step I have to take? And any medicines suggested? For further reference I stand 165 cm tall and weigh 75 kgs. And always get my periods on time. But they are very scanty. Just 2-3 days of cycle.
What is Cosmetogynaecology?
Cosmetogynaecology refers to the specialization in female cosmetic medicine and surgery. We live in an age where appearance primarily defines your personality and acts a great deal in boosting self-confidence and morale.
Since time immemorial, we have never been pleased with what have been given to us. Thanks to this trait, scientists are always looking for new ways to satisfy our needs. Don’t like your nose? Think it’s too fat? Want to look like Megan Fox?
Medical science can now do all this, and beyond!
What does Cosmetogynaecology include?
Cosmetogynaecology is a subset of cosmetic surgery that mainly caters to the needs of women and includes cosmetic procedures such as-
G-spot Augmentation: This procedure mainly concentrates on increasing the size and sensitivity of the G-spot to amplify pleasure during intercourse. It is also known as G-spot amplification
Genital area Bleaching and Resurfacing: Genital bleaching is a safe and easy way to whiten your intimate areas. As for genital resurfacing, it is a procedure to even out the appearance around the intimate area or to improve the colour on the clitoral hood.
Labia Augmentation: This procedure includes the surgical enlargement of the Labia Majora (part of women’s genitalia) in order to improve the contour or increase the fullness to make it look more appealing.
Vaginal Tightening: Several factors can lead to the loosening of the vaginal walls, including childbirth. This can reduce the pleasure during intercourse for you and your man. These treatments can be done by lasers, which are non-invasive and work wonders!
Permanent Laser Hair Removal: We all know the extent of pain that women go through in order to make themselves fuzz-free. And the amount of money that goes in doing that annually is probably enormous. Laser hair removal can permanently take care of this issue and you will be ever ready for a party.
Breast Size Augmentation or Reduction: Getting breast implants (silicone or saline) can be used to increase the size of your breasts if you are not too happy with your gifted assets. It can also be done for reconstructive purposes after undergoing mastectomy post breast cancer. On the other hand, large breasts can be the cause of chronic back pain. If that bothers you too much, you can have them reduced to your desired size.
Vaginoplasty: Vaginoplasty is a plastic surgery for both the vaginal canal and the tissues of its mucous membrane that tightens. The procedure strengthens those muscles and tissues while removing excess or damaged lining from the canal. It is specifically designed to strengthen and enhance the working of the vulva-vaginal body structures. When vaginal plastic surgery is performed to specifically construct or reconstruct the vulva-vaginal complex, either partially or totally, it is referred to as a neovaginoplasty. When the surgery is performed to specifically reshape the tissue and firm the muscles and lining of the vaginal canal for a more youthful appearance plus tighten up the canal after the stretching it endures through childbirth, then it is termed a vagina reduction for cosmetic reconstruction and is considered an elective surgical procedure.
Hymenoplasty: Hymenoplasty is the procedure to restore natural hymen to regain virginity. In simple words, hymenoplasty is repair of broken hymen or ruptured hymen and is the sure shot way to restore or regain virginity. The layered ultrafine microsurgical repair of hymen being done at Olmec leads to a normal hymen without any sign of repair and without any sign of lost virginity.
Clitoroplasty: A clitoroplasty is a surgical procedure that refines or improves the appearance of a woman’s clitoris. It can also be performed to create an artificial clitoris in men undergoing sex reassignment surgery. It is also known as clitoral hood reduction, as it can reduce the size of the clitoral hood in some patients.
Labiaplasty: Labia surgery, which usually involves labia reduction—and vaginal rejuvenation, or tightening, are becoming as common today as other cosmetic procedures. New advancements and techniques in Labiaplasty and Vaginoplasty typically lessen scarring, pain, recovery time, and show excellent results in the area sometimes referred to as Vaginal Cosmetic Surgery.