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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation that is one or more missed menstrual periods. Women who have missed at least three menstrual periods in a row have amenorrhea, as do girls who haven't begun menstruation by age 16. The most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy. Other causes of amenorrhea include problems with the reproductive organs or with the glands that help regulate hormone levels.
Treatment of the underlying condition often resolves amenorrhea.The main sign of amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. Depending on the cause of amenorrhea, you might experience other signs or symptoms along with the absence of periods, such as:
- Milky nipple discharge (galactorrhoea)
- Hair loss
- Vision changes
- Excess facial hair (Hirsuitism)
- Pelvic pain
You should consult a doctor if you've missed at least three menstrual periods in a row, or if you've never had a menstrual period and you're age 16 or older.
Causes: Amenorrhea can occur for a variety of reasons. Some are normal during the course of a woman's life, while others may be a side effect of medication or a sign of a medical problem.
During the normal course of your life, you may experience amenorrhea for natural reasons, such as:
Some women who take birth control pills may not have periods. Even after stopping oral contraceptives, it may take some time before regular ovulation and menstruation return. Contraceptives that are injected or implanted also may cause amenorrhea, as can some types of intrauterine devices.
Certain medications can cause menstrual periods to stop, including some types of:
- Psychiatric medications
- Cancer chemotherapy
- Blood pressure drugs
- Allergy medications
- Lifestyle factors
Sometimes lifestyle factors contribute to amenorrhea, for instance:
- Low body weight: Excessively low body weight, about 10 percent under normal weight interrupts many hormonal functions in your body, potentially halting ovulation. Women who have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, often stop having periods because of these abnormal hormonal changes.
- Excessive exercise: Women who participate in activities that require rigorous training, such as gymnastics,athletics may find their menstrual cycles interrupted. Several factors combine to contribute to the loss of periods in athletes, including low body fat, stress and high energy expenditure.
- Stress: Mental stress can temporarily alter the functioning of your hypothalamus an area of your brain that controls the hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle. Ovulation and menstruation may stop as a result. Regular menstrual periods usually resume after your stress decreases.
Many types of medical problems can cause hormonal imbalance, including:
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS causes relatively high and sustained levels of hormones, rather than the fluctuating levels seen in the normal menstrual cycle.
- Thyroid malfunction: An overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) can cause menstrual irregularities, including amenorrhea.
- Pituitary tumor: A noncancerous (benign) tumor in your pituitary gland can interfere with the hormonal regulation of menstruation.
- Premature menopause: Menopause usually begins around age 50. But, for some women, the ovarian supply of eggs diminishes before age 40, and menstruation stops.
Problems with the sexual organs themselves also can cause amenorrhea. Examples include:
- Uterine scarring: Asherman's syndrome, a condition in which scar tissue builds up in the lining of the uterus, can sometimes occur after a dilation and curettage (D&C), cesarean section or treatment for uterine fibroids. Uterine scarring prevents the normal buildup and shedding of the uterine lining.
- Lack of reproductive organs: Sometimes problems arise during fetal development that lead to a girl being born without some major part of her reproductive system, such as her uterus, cervix or vagina. Because her reproductive system didn't develop normally, she can't have menstrual cycles.
- Structural abnormality of the vagina: An obstruction of the vagina may prevent visible menstrual bleeding. A membrane or wall may be present in the vagina that blocks the outflow of blood from the uterus and cervix.
Clinical examination by the doctor includes a pelvic exam to check for any problems with your reproductive organs. If you've never had a period, the doctor may examine your breasts and genitals to see if you're experiencing the normal changes of puberty.
Amenorrhea can be a sign of a complex set of hormonal problems. Finding the underlying cause can take time and may require more than one kind of test/investigation.
A variety of blood tests may be necessary, including:
- Pregnancy test: This will probably be the first test your doctor suggests, to rule out or confirm a possible pregnancy.
- Thyroid function test: Measuring the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood can determine if your thyroid is working properly.
- Ovary function test: Measuring the amount of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or AMH (anti-mullerian hormone) in your blood can determine if your ovaries are working properly.
- Prolactin test: Low levels of the hormone prolactin may be a sign of a pituitary gland tumor.
- Male hormone test: If you're experiencing increased facial hair and a lowered voice, the doctor may want to check the level of male hormones in your blood.
Hormone challenge test
For this test, you take a hormonal medication for seven to 10 days to trigger menstrual bleeding. Results from this test can tell the doctor whether your periods have stopped due to a lack of estrogen.
Depending on your signs and symptoms — and the result of any blood tests you've had, the doctor might recommend one or more imaging tests, including:
- Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to produce images of internal organs. If you have never had a period, your doctor may suggest an ultrasound test to check for any abnormalities in your reproductive organs.
- Computerized tomography (CT): CT scans combine many X-ray images taken from different directions to create cross-sectional views of internal structures. A CT scan can indicate whether your uterus, ovaries and kidneys look normal.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): MRI uses radio waves with a strong magnetic field to produce exceptionally detailed images of soft tissues within the body. Your doctor may order an MRI to check for a pituitary tumor.
If other testing reveals no specific cause, the doctor may recommend a hysteroscopy — a test in which a thin, lighted telescope is passed through your vagina and cervix to look at the inside of your uterus.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause of your amenorrhea. In some cases, contraceptive pills or other hormone therapies can restart your menstrual cycles. Amenorrhea caused by thyroid or pituitary disorders may be treated with medications. If a tumor or structural blockage is causing the problem, surgery may be necessary. Some lifestyle factors — such as too much exercise or too little food — can cause amenorrhea, so strive for balance in work, recreation and rest. Assess areas of stress and conflict in your life. If you can't decrease stress on your own, ask for help from family, friends or your doctor.
Be aware of changes in your menstrual cycle and check with the doctor if you have concerns. Keep a record of when your periods occur. Note the date your period starts, how long it lasts and any troublesome symptoms you experience.
I have a shape of female with wide hips large thighs and narrower chest. I am losing my confidence even to walk on road because of this shape. Please help me.
I am trying to conceive till 1 yr. My Dr. ask me to do IUI test. Can this process works to conceive and how many chances of get pregnant after iui? Please answer this question soon its urgent.
Sir, I got married before 6 month. But now my wife is not pregnant. So please suggest me what can I do?
I miscarriage last year. N now still v don't want to plan baby due to some reasons. N is dis gap create problem in future or not. N wat type of diet I can take.
I'm 5mnth pregnant. Now a days my excretion is not well. 7 days may occur to go excretion. What can I will do. Pls help me.
I've got a very faint line in the urine pregnancy test. I'm not sure if I'm pregnant. If so what are the natural ways to terminate pregnancy as we are not in a position to have a baby. and what are the confirmation sign of pregnancy. My last period was on march 12 I also have an irregular period. Please guide me with the right procedure to be followed.
Sir please tell me agr 3 mhine ka fetous ho aur pregnant lady ko agr mtp di gyi ho uske bad bhi abortion nhi hua ho to kya fetus ki death ho jayegi.
Think Diwali and you can’t help but think of firecrackers. The festival of lights is synonymous with the bursting of firecrackers all night long. But stop a minute to think: are burning firecrackers really good for your health? The answer would be a resounding ‘No!’ Bringing out the fireworks is not only bad for the environment, the old and the infirm, and the animals all around, but it is also bad for you. Here are 5 deadly effects of firecrackers on your health that perhaps we tend to ignore every Diwali!
1. Harmful for your ears: First and foremost, you can’t deny the loud booms and bangs of firecrackers; and considering the trend these days, the louder the better. An average human being can bear noise levels of up to a maximum of 85 decibels. Sound produced by firecrackers can go as high as 140 decibels! That’s way beyond what human ears can handle, and such high levels can cause hearing impairments and even permanent ear damage. Increased heartbeat and high blood pressure are other things you can suffer from due to excessively high noise levels.
2. Injuries and burns: This is something you do know. A lot of burns and injuries take place due to unsafe practices used while bursting firecrackers. Burns on the hands and legs are pretty common, especially among children. In fact, in some serious cases a misfired rocket or a chocolate bomb can lead to massive fires, which is, needless to say, definitely not good for you and your health.
3. Respiratory and skin troubles: When you launch the fireworks one after the other, you give rise to excessive smoke. This smoke contains miniscule metallic particles, which produce very dense and foggy smog. A lot of road accidents take place because of this obstruction in visibility. The chemicals in this smog are specifically harmful for those suffering from asthma and other respiratory diseases. In fact, these chemicals can also give rise to skin rashes, sinusitis, eye infections, headaches and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Children and pregnant women seem to fall into the high-risk zones.
4. Stomach Problems: While lighting firecrackers, or by simply holding them in your hands, your body absorbs the chemicals they are composed of. Even washing hands is not enough to get rid of these hazardous chemicals entirely. Minute traces of these are left in your hands, which are ingested while you have your meals. This can lead to indigestion, and other digestive problems. Even the water you consume becomes tainted with the pollution in the air at this time of the year, making it unfit for consumption.
5. Other health hazards: Nausea and mental impairment, and even heart attack are some of the other things that can happen to you while indulging in the fireworks fun. Sleeping disturbance is another common problem faced at this time of the year. The loud noise gives rise to sleepless nights for many, and results in fatigue the next day.
Before watching the sparkles, colours and magical lights of fire crackers this Diwali, be sure to ask yourself, is it really worth it?
WISH YOU A HAPPY AND SAFE DIWALI!
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Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) is stiffness, pain, and limited range of movement in your shoulder camera. Gif. It may happen after an injury or overuse or from a disease such as diabetes or a stroke. The tissues around the joint stiffen, scar tissue forms, and shoulder movements become difficult and painful. The condition usually comes on slowly, then goes away slowly over the course of a year or more.
What causes frozen shoulder?
Frozen shoulder can develop when you stop using the joint normally because of pain, injury, or a chronic health condition, such as diabetes or a stroke. Any shoulder problem can lead to frozen shoulder if you do not work to keep full range of motion.
Frozen shoulder occurs:
After surgery or injury.
Most often in people 40 to 70 years old.
More often in women (especially in postmenopausal women) than in men.
Most often in people with chronic diseases.
How is frozen shoulder diagnosed?
Your doctor may suspect frozen shoulder if a physical exam reveals limited shoulder movement. An x-ray may be done to see whether symptoms are from another condition such as arthritis or a broken bone.
How is it treated?
Treatment for frozen shoulder usually starts with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) and application of heat to the affected area, followed by gentle stretching. Ice and medicines (including corticosteroid injections) may also be used to reduce pain and swelling. And physical therapy can help increase your range of motion. A frozen shoulder can take a year or more to get better.
If treatment is not helping, surgery is sometimes done to loosen some of the tight tissues around the shoulder. Two surgeries are often done. In one surgery, called manipulation under anesthesia, you are put to sleep and then your arm is moved into positions that stretch the tight tissue. The other surgery uses an arthroscope to cut through tight tissues and scar tissue. These surgeries can both be done at the same time.
Can frozen shoulder be prevented?
Gentle, progressive range-of-motion exercises, stretching, and using your shoulder more may help prevent frozen shoulder after surgery or an injury. Experts don't know what causes some cases of frozen shoulder, and it may not be possible to prevent these. But be patient and follow your doctor's advice. Frozen shoulder nearly always gets better over time.