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Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body (partial) or the entire body (generalized), and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.
Seizure episodes are a result of excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells. Different parts of the brain can be the site of such discharges. Seizures can vary from the briefest lapses of attention or muscle jerks to severe and prolonged convulsions. Seizures can also vary in frequency, from less than 1 per year to several per day.
One seizure does not signify epilepsy (up to 10% of people worldwide have one seizure during their lifetime). Epilepsy is defined as having 2 or more unprovoked seizures.
Fear, misunderstanding, discrimination and social stigma have surrounded epilepsy for centuries. This stigma continues in many countries today and can impact on the quality of life for people with the disorder and their families.
Signs and symptoms
Characteristics of seizures vary and depend on where in the brain the disturbance first starts, and how far it spreads. Temporary symptoms occur, such as loss of awareness or consciousness, and disturbances of movement, sensation (including vision, hearing and taste), mood, or other cognitive functions.
People with seizures tend to have more physical problems (such as fractures and bruising from injuries related to seizures), as well as higher rates of psychological conditions, including anxiety and depression. Similarly, the risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to 3 times higher than the general population, with the highest rates found in low- and middle-income countries and rural versus urban areas.
A great proportion of the causes of death related to epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries are potentially preventable, such as falls, drowning, burns and prolonged seizures.
Epilepsy is not contagious. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and has no identifiable cause.
Epilepsy with a known cause is called secondary epilepsy, or symptomatic epilepsy. The causes of secondary (or symptomatic) epilepsy could be:
- brain damage from prenatal or perinatal injuries (e.g. a loss of oxygen or trauma during birth, low birth weight),
- congenital abnormalities or genetic conditions with associated brain malformations,
- a severe head injury,
- a stroke that restricts the amount of oxygen to the brain,
- an infection of the brain such as meningitis, encephalitis, neurocysticercosis,
- certain genetic syndromes,
- a brain tumor.
Epilepsy can be treated easily and affordable medication. Recent studies in both low- and middle-income countries have shown that up to 70% of children and adults with epilepsy can be successfully treated (i.e. their seizures completely controlled) with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Furthermore, after 2 to 5 years of successful treatment and being seizure-free, drugs can be withdrawn in about 70% of children and 60% of adults without subsequent relapse.
Idiopathic epilepsy is not preventable. However, preventive measures can be applied to the known causes of secondary epilepsy.
- Preventing head injury is the most effective way to prevent post-traumatic epilepsy.
- Adequate perinatal care can reduce new cases of epilepsy caused by birth injury.
- The use of drugs and other methods to lower the body temperature of a feverish child can reduce the chance of febrile seizures.
- Central nervous system infections are common causes of epilepsy in tropical areas, where many low- and middle-income countries are concentrated.
- Elimination of parasites in these environments and education on how to avoid infections can be effective ways to reduce epilepsy worldwide, for example those cases due to neurocysticercosis.
Hello i/m a 30 years old male. I have dry cough from last 10 days. I have taken amoxicillin and some syrups but it didn't work.
I am 27 years old men. And I have question about my sexual life. So my question is how can I improve my sex time please suggest thanks.
I am female age 69 years. No b. P. No sugar. Since last two months I am having urinary urge incontinence. Frequency is once in 3 to 4 hours which is ok. But when urge comes, I have to rush to rest room immediately otherwise there will be leakage. All tests done. Urine routine showed rbc 8-10, wbc 8-10. Took norflox 1-0-1, citralka syrup two tsp in the morning and two tsp in the night. But problem continues. Urine culture observed" no growth, sterile" ultrasound scan impression" cystitis" c t scan no abnormalities found. Please advise and suggest some medication to get rid of the problem of urge incontinence.
I am suffering from cold and fever since three days and I feel so weak so what can I do for better mant my health? I am also suffer from Pimples on lags so please give me solution of it?
I have do masturbate daily. because of I addicted to masturbation. If over masturbation any problem occurred ofter marriage. My stamina reduced or increased please sir answer the question. Thank you. :) :)
Dear sir/mam How to do anal sex first time as I am virgin by anal. How to prepare myself for anal sex and precautions for doing it for first time? Is it good to do ansl sex or have any harmful effect of it?
I am 23 years old male and have gastric problems. I am drinking 3-4 litres of water and I workout everyday. I eat only home cooked food (no fried foods, soda etc). Can milk be a reason for this? I drink milk twice a day. Is there any permanent solution?
Drinking Alcohol can lead to heart disease . I am drinking alcohol continuously from last 15 years . From last two months I having pain in my left side of body including my heart, shoulder, neck , head . Exactly it does not pain but some nosiating feelings with heavy sweating . I have done my ECG and BP checked but reports were normal . please do advice ? Thanks.
My wife pulse rate goes 115-120. She is diabetic patient. She is taking telma 40, gluformin 500, volibo 0.3 mg, insulin 30/70 mixstard 20 units in the morning. Night has been stopped by the endocrinologist. But her bp remains 130/95 or sometimes it goes 99/100 but pulse rate is very high. Is metxl tablet and upto how many mg 25 mg or plain will be suitable in her case to control the heartbeat.
I masturbate a lot and my marriage is in next 6 month. Can anyone help me in increase stamina in body?
My friend facing a problem of eye sight even if he consult eye specialist and have a little headache problem, how to overcome this.
Hello sir, this is about my mom's concern. My mom's age is 45. Her weight is sixty kilo grams. Even though she's a non vegetarian, she s feeling low bp, low sugar, low blood quantity. When we suggest a doctor, she will be fine after getting medicines but after 30-45 days, she's getting the same problem. Medical examination shows everything is fine. But they said it was d problem with her food diet. So can you please suggest diet which can help to increase her bp, sugar, blood values.
I'm a diabetic patient, I have very high blood sugar level, I'm regular with all the medicines but still sugar level is not decreasing. What to do?
Belly fat may not be a severe medical problem in most individuals. However, it looks aesthetically displeasing and can affect long term health if not controlled at the right time. However, one must keep in mind that dieting and exercising go hand in hand. One cannot rely only on one of them to reduce belly fat.
Mentioned below are a few ways to remove belly fat:
- Avoid sugar: Sugar and other sweetened products must be avoided. Excessive intake of sugar floods the liver with fructose which is then turned to fat. This leads to insulin resistance and metabolic problems. Eliminate sugary drinks and try unsweetened beverages like tea or coffee. However, caffeine, too, must be taken in moderate amounts.
- Eat protein: Protein is considered to be the most important macronutrient when it comes to losing weight. Most of the calories in protein are digested. It is the single most effective change in terms of calorie intake since it reduces your craving by 60% and boosts your metabolism.
- Limit your intake of carbohydrates: Cutting carbohydrates from your diet reduces your appetite and therefore belly fat. Consuming only 50 grams of carbohydrates per day assists in losing weight fast.
- Other dietary changes: Eat foods that are rich in fiber and do not skip meals. If you starve yourself for long periods of time, the body conserves fat by breaking down muscle tissue. This is called catabolic state. Eating in small amounts every two hours is also helpful for those looking to trim their belly fat. This helps to avoid overeating and keeps your metabolism up the entire day by processing food throughout the day.
- Track your calorie intake: It is very important to keep track of the amount of calories you consume so as to make the necessary changes in your dietary plans. You can keep track of it in a food journal or on diet-related websites.
- Exercise: Regular exercising is of utmost importance while trying to lose belly fat. Aerobic exercises, crunches (side, reverse or twist crunches), cycling, lunge twist, rolling plank exercises, captain's chair, the stomach vacuum etc. help in reducing belly fat. Other exercises such as running, jogging, cycling, walking and swimming also help in reducing weight.