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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I am 43yr old and i have irregular periods from last 6months some time my periods are 13- 14 days long or some time i miss my periods what should i do?
I am 23 year old female. I got my last period on Feb 14. Still I didn't get my periods. We had unprotected sex planning for baby. So I checked with my gynecologist to confirm pregnancy. But scan report and blood test both were negative. Doctor asked me to take regestrone for 3 days and see if I get period. If not wait for another week and take blood test once again. Can I do the same. Is it still possible to be pregnant after taking regestrone for 3 days. Please reply.
Lactation without pregnancy
Lactation in the absence of pregnancy is a rare medical condition that usually affects women but occurs in men and infants too. While this condition, caused due to several factors, is not something to worry about, it could indicate pituitary tumors and hormonal imbalances among others. This article has more information in this regard.
Lactation, defined as the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, is completely normal for a woman who is pregnant or just had a baby. This is because the oxytocin hormone that is produced after the birth of the baby, stimulates uterine contractions and provides an impetus for the lactation process to start.
What is galactorrhea?
In certain cases, you can have lactation or discharge from the breasts without being pregnant or breastfeed. This condition is known as galactorrhea. Associated with a milky white discharge from the breasts without nursing or pregnancy, galactorrhea is a sign of some underlying problem like a disorder of the pituitary gland or side effects of medications. It affects not only women but also men and infants in rare instances. Here are some of the common causes of lactation without pregnancy.
- Occurrence of galactorrhea: Certain medications like tranquilizers, drugs for high pressure, and antidepressants can result in lactation without pregnancy. Common medications associated with galactorrhea include agents to block dopamine and histamine receptors and dopamine-depleting agents. Birth control pills can also induce lactation. This is because the estrogen in these pills suppresses the hypothalamic secretion of the prolactin inhibitory factor and stimulates lactotrophs. In such cases, consult a doctor immediately.
- Pituitary tumors: The most common cause of galactorrhea is a tumor in the pituitary gland. Benign tumors like prolactinoma result in the production of prolactin. Too much prolactin in the blood causes the stimulation of milk by the mammary glands along with other symptoms like tenderness in the breasts, headache, decreased sexual activity, infertility and irregular menstruation. These non-cancerous tumors can affect men as well and result in decreased sexual drive, impotence and enlargement of the breast tissues.
- Hypothyroidism: It is a rare cause of galactorrhea but, primary hypothyroidism can lead to an increase in the production of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone. This leads to the release of excess prolactin and lactation. Hyperprolactinemia (excess of prolactin) can also cause a drop in the metabolic clearance of prolactin and a decrease in the secretion of dopamine.
- Chronic renal failure: In certain rare cases, people with chronic kidney disease have high levels of prolactin due to the inability of the kidneys to clear the prolactin. This can also lead to discharge from the nipples.
Certain neurogenic causes can also result in lactation without breastfeeding or pregnancy. Extensive and prolonged breast stimulation during sex or during breast examination can lead to galactorrhea. Other causes include injuries and damage to the chest, spinal cord injuries, and tumors. Certain herbs like fennel, fenugreek, and blessed thistle can also induce lactation.
Sometimes, when the cause of galactorrhea cannot be discerned, it is termed as idiopathic galactorrhea. While it is more common in women, even men can be affected with galactorrhea. Testosterone deficiency, also known as male hypogonadism, is one of the main reasons for this. Other than lactation, testosterone deficiency can also lead to erectile dysfunction and loss of sexual desire. In newborns, galactorrhea is caused by the circulation of high estrogen from the mother to the baby in the placenta. This causes an enlargement of breasts along with a milky discharge, which is often termed as witch's milk.
Diagnosis of galactorrhea
- A physical examination to check the nipple discharge and signs of thickened breast tissues or lumps are done.
- Mri, mammography, and blood tests can help in diagnosing the problem.
- A pregnancy test needs to be done for all post-pubertal women.
- It is important to note that galactorrhea is associated with milky white discharge. If the discharge from the breasts is bloody, then it is not associated with galactorrhea.
Treatment of galactorrhea
- For an underactive thyroid or tumors of the pituitary glands, appropriate medication and treatment need to be provided, based on the underlying cause.
- Pituitary tumors need to be treated with medicines like bromocriptine.
- In case medications fail to work, surgery and radiation therapy are used for treating the tumor.
- In case of idiopathic galactorrhea where the cause is unknown, prolactin-reducing medications like cabergoline can be prescribed to reduce the discharge.
- Once the cause of lactation is found and appropriate treatment is provided, it should stop completely. In case of mild idiopathic galactorrhea, well-fitted padded bras can keep the discharge from staining the clothes. Prevent unwanted lactation by frequent breast examinations and avoiding tight clothing that causes friction with the nipples.
Disclaimer: This article is for informative purposes only and should not be used as a replacement for professional medical advice.
Which is best time to avoid the pregnancy. I mean from which day to which day is danger zone from time of period.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscular problems which leads to loss of muscle mass and therefore loss of muscle strength. This is a progressive condition and gradually worsens with time. in some cases, the patients may experience complete muscle breakdown, ultimately affecting patient mobility to a large extent. The condition is usually inherited and caused by genetic mutations. It can affect children and adults alike. There are different types of the condition but the most common ones are:
In addition to the patient, there is a lot of stress on the caregiver and so coping with MD is hard not just on the patient, but also on the caregivers. Listed below are some medical and nonmedical measures to deal with this condition.
- Medications: These could include corticosteroids which can delay the progression of MD. The doctor might also prescribe heart medications if the heart muscles are affected.
- Therapy: Physical and occupational therapy play a major role in the management of MD. Therapies could include a range of motion exercises to improve the flexibility of the particular joint and improve mobility. With time, some joints could become rigid and the range of movement may also become limited.
- Strength training: Another major problem with MD is the gradual loss of strength in the muscles. Training the muscles to retain and if possible improve strength is another objective of treatment. To this end, the doctor might prescribe exercises depending on overall health of the patient.
- Breathing aids: If the lungs are affected, then the person would need breathing aids to improve oxygen supply to the lungs and also other body parts. Sleep apnea is a common condition seen in people with MD, which makes breathing at night difficult.
- Braces: If the muscles are becoming rigid, then braces can be used to keep them in place. This helps in slowing the progression of muscle rigidity and also provides support for weakened muscles.
- Vaccination: Vaccination for pneumonia and flu should be up to date, as the chances of infection are higher
- Diet: Healthy diet is recommended, as eating too much junk and fried foods can lead to obesity, etc.
Especially if a child is affected, it is very important to not to keep them away from their regularly affects. Empathizing with them and working with them is very important. Encourage what they are able to do on their own, and gradually assist them to do more. Keep the school informed of issues so that they can provide necessary attention care and attention whenever required. For adults, being part of social forums and/or groups helps, as there would be others who are going through the same problem as you, so you can get tips and suggestions for coping.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!