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Endometrial Ablation Procedure
Treatment of Treatment of Breast Cancer
Management of Abortion
Hormonal Replacement Therapy Treatment
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
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Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
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Gynaecological endoscopy is a surgical practice that aids in diagnosing the most common female disorders, such as minute vaginal haemorrhages, infertility problems and endometrial polyps (noncancerous growths on the inner uterine wall). It uses a small and slender optical device to diagnose such problems.
Gynaecological endoscopy is of two types
- Hysteroscopy: A small optical instrument is inserted at the neck of the uterus; it is used to examine the inside of the uterine cavity, and in some cases, is used to remove endometrial polyps.
- Laparoscopy: It is done through a small incision on the belly to examine the Fallopian tubes, the ovaries and the uterus; it is minimally invasive.
Gynaecological endoscopy has the following advantages
- Recovery time is minimised
- Lesser risks of infections, or other side-effects
You do not need to do a lot to prepare for endoscopy. Here are the few things you have to go through before this surgery is conducted:
- The preparation depends on the kind of surgery to be done. You might require imaging tests. Also, the doctor may recommend an enema or even fasting.
- You need to inform your doctor about any medication you are taking, including supplements or non-prescription drugs. Stop taking your medications before the procedure.
- The surgery is mostly done under general anaesthesia.
- A catheter (a small tube) is inserted to collect urine and carbon dioxide is used to fill your abdomen once you are asleep. The gas keeps your organs safe by keeping the abdominal wall away from them. This reduces the dangers of injury.
- A small incision in your navel will allow the surgeon to insert the endoscope. The endoscope relays images on a screen, giving a clear image of your organs to your doctor. Consult a gynaecologist online.
B. cereus is able to persist in food processing environments due to its ability to survive at extreme temperatures as well as its ability to form biofilms and spores.
B. cereus has been recovered from a wide range of foods, including rice, dairy products, spices, bean sprouts and other vegetables.
Fried rice is an important cause of emetic–type food poisoning associated with B. cereus.
The organism is frequently present in uncooked rice, and heat–resistant spores may survive cooking.
Cooked rice subsequently at room temperature can allow vegetative forms to multiply, and the heat-stable toxin that is produced can survive brief heating such as stir frying
Two distinct types of toxin-mediated food poisoning are caused by B. cereus, characterized by either diarrhea or vomiting, depending on which toxin is involved. The diarrheal toxin is produced by vegetative cells in the small intestine after ingestion of either bacilli or spores. The emetic toxin is ingested directly from contaminated food. Both toxins cause disease within 24 hours of ingestion.
The emetic syndrome is caused by direct ingestion of the toxin.
The number of viable spores and vegetative bacteria that produce diarrheal toxin is reduced by heating, although spores associated with emetic toxin are capable of surviving heat processing.
Cereulide is heat stable and resistant to gastric conditions.
The ingested toxin itself may therefore cause disease despite sufficient heating to kill B. cereus.
The emetic syndrome is characterized by abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Diarrhea also occurs in about one–third of individuals. Symptom onset is usually within 1 to 5 hours of ingestion, but it can also occur within half an hour and up to six hours after ingestion of contaminated food.
Symptoms usually resolve in 6 to 24 hours.
Rice–based dishes in particular have been implicated in emetic toxin mediated disease, usually as a result of cooling fried rice dishes overnight at room temperature followed by reheating the next day.
The infective dose of cereulide required to cause symptoms is 8 to 10 micrograms per kilogram of body weight.