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What causes cervical Cancer?
Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a very common virus in both men and women that can lead to the development of genital warts, abnormal cervical cells or cervical cancer.
This virus can cause normal cells on your cervix (Know more about Cervix Infection) to turn abnormal. Over many years, abnormal cells can turn into cancer if they are not found and treated by your doctor. It can take 10 to 15 years (or more) for cells to change from normal to abnormal, and then into cancer. Abnormal cells are sometimes called 'pre cancer ' because they are not normal, but they are not yet cancer.
You cannot see or feel HPV or these cell changes on your cervix. Screening tests help us to look for these changes or for abnormal cells (Learn more about sexually transmitted diseases)
How is HPV spread?
HPV is transmitted during genital skin to-skin sexual contact. This includes vaginal or anal sex and possibly oral sex.A person can get HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sex. They will never know it because HPV usually has no signs and symptoms.
In most cases, HPV goes away within two years, without causing any health problems. It is thought that the immune system fights off HPV infection naturally
What screening tests exist for HPV- related diseases?
Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer can be detected with routine Cervical cancer screening (Pap test) and follow-up of abnormal results. The Pap test can find abnormal cells on the cervix so that they can be removed before cancer develops. Abnormal cells often become normal over time, but can sometimes turn into cancer. These cells can usually be treated, depending on their severity and on the woman's age, past medical history, and other test results.
An HPV DNA test, which can find certain HPV types on a woman's cervix, may also be used with a Pap test in certain cases (called co-testing). The HPV-DNA test is done to determine if you are infected with one of the high-risk types or if your doctor finds certain type of abnormal Pap test result.
Even women who were vaccinated when they were younger need regular cervical cancer screening because the vaccines do not protect against all cervical cancer strains.
Is there a treatment for HPV or related problems?
HPV vaccination could prevent most cancers and other diseases caused by HPV. There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the problems that HPV can cause:
Visible genital warts may remain the same, grow more in number, or go away on their own. The warts can be treated when they appear.
Abnormal cervical cells (found on a Pap test) often become normal over time, but they can sometimes turn into cancer. If they remain abnormal, these cells can usually be treated to prevent cervical cancer from developing. This may depend on the severity of the cell changes, the woman's age , past medical history, and other test results. It is critical to follow up with testing and treatment, as recommended by a doctor.
Post detection of ovarian cancer the doctors , depending on your cancer stage can recommend the treatment more- surgery, medical treatment, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Halo sir mera beta , age 13 years .bohat slow hai bohat shy hai .ankh Mila ke baat nahi Kar sakta or darke baat karta hai or confidence nahi hai or kisi jaldi mixup nahi hota .kyu usko kisi doctor ko dikhana chahida? Please help me mujhe samajh nahi aa raja kya karna chahie?
Our baby is 3 months and 1 week old, she is suffering with cold , please can any one suggest me how to cure it in a easy way.
3 years old son is coughing for last 2 days. Can feel the cough troubling in his throat. Since birth whenever he had caught cough.
Sir my 15 month old kid accidentally chewed trazine H tablet. We r in a remote place.he is active n symptomless for the past 14 hrs! What should I do next!
Hello dear doc. My13 year old daughter (not pubic now, her ultrasound is ok) faint twice at school while playing in hot day. We haven't seen any symptoms of fits but as she awake after half an hour our doctor suggested test of vitamin d, EEG,MRI. After test vitamin d level show 25 in report MRI normal, EEG abnormal so neurologist suggest medicine. But before started it ,we again did EEG from other famous diagnostic centre but dis time EEG report is normal. It's really surprising in 5 days. One report shows abnormal other shows normal. Now being a mother I am really confuse. Wat to do or. Not to do.
My daughter has no interest in having food. She is 6 years old. Comparing with others friends of her age or below her age are healthy but she is very thin and every often she fell sick. Please suggest and medicine for felling hungry.
Thumb or finger sucking is common in infants through the first year of their lives. A child usually turns to his thumb when he is tired, upset or bored.
A child younger than five years should not be pressured to stop thumb sucking. While majority of children give up such habits on their own before they enter school, about 15 percent of children continue thumb sucking past their fifth birthday. This is an age when teasing often starts, causing difficulties for children.
Apart from this, thumb sucking can also lead to dental problems. A child who is still sucking his thumb by age five, when permanent teeth start coming in, may develop an abnormal bite. In addition, prolonged thumb sucking can cause minor physical problems, such as chapped lips or cracked skin, calluses, or fingernail infections.
The effects of thumb sucking are usually reversible until the age of seven because children still have their deciduous (baby) teeth. If thumb sucking continues beyond that age, when the second teeth are erupting, permanent dental problems can occur.
There are various things you can do to help your child stop thumb sucking:
1. Reward your child and offer encouragement - For example, with a hug or praise to reinforce their decision to stop the habit.
2. Limit nagging - If children feel they are being nagged they will become defensive.
3. Mark their progress on a calendar - For example, place a star or a tick for each period (such as a day or week) that the child does not suck thumb or finger. Provide a special outing or a toy if the child gets through the period successfully.
4. Encourage bonding - For example, with a special toy.
5. Reminders - Give the child a mitten to wear as a reminder not to suck, or place unpleasant tasting nail paint (available from chemists) on the fingers or thumb. Placing a band aid over the thumb at bedtime is another reminder.
6. Offer distractions - While a child is watching tv, have toys available for children to play with. Sit with the child during this time and give a cuddle to help them not to suck. In the car, have toys available to keep children occupied.
7. Talk to your pediatrician and your child's dentist, who may recommend appropriate treatment that prevents thumb sucking.
Having good non decayed milk teeth with spacing between them is good for the child. There is a probability that if there are no spaces between milk teeth ( before 6 years of age) - the chances of having irregular teeth become more later on when the permanent teeth erupt. If there is crowding/ irregularity on the eruption of permanent teeth, it is better to show it to a Pedodontist ( Child Dental Specialist), by 7 to 8 yeras of age - who will help you and the child get the teeth into alignment without having to go through braces later on. This way there will be less chances of decay in child's milk and permanent teeth.