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Dr. Adhikari

Pediatrician, Mumbai

500 at clinic
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Dr. Adhikari Pediatrician, Mumbai
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Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; a......more
Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; as a health provider being ethical is not just a remembered value, but a strongly observed one.
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Dr. Adhikari is a trusted Pediatrician in Malad West, Mumbai. You can visit him/her at Dr. Adhikari's Dental Care in Malad West, Mumbai. You can book an instant appointment online with Dr. Adhikari on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Pediatricians in India. You will find Pediatricians with more than 38 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Pediatricians online in Mumbai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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No. 3, Swarmala Chs, Mhada, Malwani, Malad WestMumbai Get Directions
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Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

What is ADHD?

ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).

The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.

What are the different types of ADHD?

Three major types of ADHD include the following:

  • ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.

  • ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.

  • ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.

What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.

Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.

Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.

What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:

  • Inattention:

    • Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)

    • Difficulty listening to others

    • Difficulty attending to details

    • Easily distracted

    • Forgetfulness

    • Poor organizational skills for age

    • Poor study skills for age

  • Impulsivity:

    • Often interrupts others

    • Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games

    • Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon

    • Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting

  • Hyperactivity:

    • Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion

    • Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected

    • Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively

    • Talks excessively

    • Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities

    • Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often

    • Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion

The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.

How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?

ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.

Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:

  • Your child's age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of your child's symptoms

  • Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.

Treatment may include:

  • Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
    Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:

    • Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)

    • Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)

    • A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)

    • Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms. 

    • Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)

    Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • Insomnia

    • Decreased appetite

    • Stomach aches

    • Headaches

    • Jitteriness

    • Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)

    Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.

    Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.

  • Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:

    • Point systems

    • Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)

    Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.

    Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.

Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.

1 person found this helpful

6 months baby girl swallowed 0.9cm diameter gold coin. What would happen and what should be further steps.

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health (DCH)
Pediatrician, Gondiya
6 months baby girl swallowed 0.9cm diameter gold coin. What would happen and what should be further steps.
Donn worry. Breast feed regularly. If started on oral feed give mashed banana. See her loo every day. She will pass coin. Xray may be done to see the location of coin.
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My son says that his right side nipple is paining while sleeping. What may be the reason? He has no fever, no swelling any where in body. Nothing. Is there any serious issue?

DNB (Pediatrics), MBBS
Pediatrician, Mohali
Hi, thanks for contacting me on lybrate. At his age, nipple pain is generally a mild problem that does not need specific treatment. If it persists, a pediatric evaluation for any trauma, inflammation etc, may be done. However, in most cases, this will disappear after some time. Warm fomentation and reassurance will generally help in a majority of cases. Warm regards.
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My son aged 3 & half years old often complains of pain in legs not necessarily both any calcium supplement would help. Otherwise he is active.

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Tumkur
Many children complain pain in the legs especially in the night. It's called growing pain. You can apply some analgesic balms and can give some analgesic like paracetamol if the pain is more.
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My daughter is unable to express herself with words instead she communicates with gestures. Her date of birth is 06-08-2015 and she weighs about 10 kilos. Is it normal for a two year old to utter only a few words or is it something to worry? Please help.

MD
Pediatrician, Mumbai
My daughter is unable to express herself with words instead she communicates with gestures. Her date of birth is 06-0...
According to you she has developed non verbal language. So she probably understands things. Get her hearing assessment done and if required speech therapy can be started. By 2 years age child should develop 2 word sentences. You should see if her early language milestones were also delayed. When she started saying mama, papa. Some more questions need to be asked for other causes of language delay like autism. Get her assessed thoroughly.
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My two month old kid stool, urine and feeding all are normal. He mostly dry cough at night. Doctor prescribed me maxtra and ambrodil lx. I gave him saline drips also. Please advice.

MBBS, Diploma in Public Health ( Preventive and Social Medicine)
General Physician, Navi Mumbai
My two month old kid stool, urine and feeding all are normal. He mostly dry cough at night. Doctor prescribed me maxt...
Dear Fozia, Please continue the same as advised by your doctor. It's just viral things which would be solved after particular period,till then please continue medicines to avoid complications.Anything serious please feel free to consult. All the best.
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Hello sir, I have 3 months old son can I give any solid Food. Please suggest me.

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
Hello sir, I have  3 months old son can I give  any solid  Food. Please suggest me.
Only breastfeeding should be given till 6 months, after that semisolid diet should be started. Regards
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My baby got very weak after gone through a treatment of pneumonia n asphysia n today he is of 14 days. His mom also dont have enough milk. What to do n in how many days he will b fully active.

BHMS
Homeopath, Delhi
My baby got very weak after gone through a treatment of pneumonia n asphysia n today he is of 14 days. His mom also d...
Your child's doctor ,peadiatrician might have suggested you some powder milk avilable in market. There's no harm in giving powder milk to babies. Even its just 14 days of delivery gradually milk secretions of your wife may increase or your wife's doctor may prescribe her. In food items moong dal, coconut, methi, jeera, til, milk etc might help in increases secretions. Mother should have light and easy digestible food. Wait for sometime if still your wife's milk secretions are not increasing, consult me further for homeopathic prescription.
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My baby girl is 48 days old & on her left side breast nipple there is some kind of (funsi). I consult a doctor in max saket & as per her its normal & it will be clear by own by some time. So I need second opinion on this.

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Bangalore
My baby  girl is 48 days old & on her left side breast nipple there is some kind of (funsi). I consult a doctor in ma...
Breast enlargement is common and it's because of mothers hormones present in milk. Don't press it. Leave it alone.
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Hello sir/mam. My baby is 15 months old and doesn't want to drink plain milk. Can I use Hershey's syrup in her milk. Does it have any side affects. Thank you My second question is am 5 months pregnant and doesn't observe any movement in my tummy. Some Orthodox people use to say that if it starts moving after 5 to 6 months it may be a baby boy. Is that so? Please let me know. thanks.

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), F.I.A.M.S. (Pediatrics)
Pediatrician, Muzaffarnagar
Hello sir/mam.
My baby is 15 months old and doesn't want to drink plain milk. Can I use Hershey's syrup in her milk. ...
Don't force for plain milk. Give him its products like curd kheer etc. Change of taste may be helpful. Adding anything isn't much useful. To know or assess gender of foetus is crime and inviting jail punishment. Take care of baby to come.
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Exam Fear - Exam Phobia - Tips

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology
Psychologist, Palakkad
Exam Fear - Exam Phobia - Tips
Exam fear or exam phobia or exam anxiety is a performance anxiety. Examinations are almost always stressful. Students rarely know exactly what to expect on the test, and those who suffer from exam fear or exam anxiety can see their grades suffer as a result of this stress. A little anxiety can actually help your performance, but some students become so overwhelmed that they" seize up" and forget what they have studied. Exam anxiety can strike before, during and after a test. Battling this type of performance anxiety can be difficult, but good study habits and learning how to relax can help.

Step 1
Develop good study habits. Proper study habits and preparation are the keys to cutting out exam fear

Step 2
Keep your mind and body healthy by getting enough sleep, eating well and exercising.

Step 3
Meet with your instructor to aid in focusing your study sessions.

Step 4
Practice positive self-talk as you prepare for the test. Create a mantra to help you calm your test anxiety. Repeat a phrase, such as" I just need to do my best" or" I will be prepared for this test"

Step 5
Relax the night before your test. A last-minute review can help you remember facts, but fretting over last-minute studying is likely to cause you more anxiety.

Step 6
Beat the morning rush by waking up early. Give yourself time to eat a nutritious breakfast that won't weigh you down or feel greasy in your stomach.

Step 7
Manage your anxiety with relaxation exercises as you wait for the test to start.

Step 8
Scan the test to find questions that are easy. Answer those test questions to give yourself a confidence boost.

Step 9
Understand that you are not alone and ask for help as necessary. Exam fear is normal.

Step 10
Reward yourself after the test is over. The reward gives you the break you deserve after all of your studying. Treating yourself also helps you stop thinking about the test and analyzing every little mistake you may have made.

Please consult a psychologist for counseling and valuable tips.

My daughter is 5 years old but simply refuses to eat anything she is weighing only 14 kgs I have to literally beat her everyday but she just doesn't barge in, Kindly help please. Not sure if she has worms.

MBBS, MD
Pediatrician, Gurgaon
this has happened due to.... 1.sucking day &night on bottle or breast.both should be reduced gradually at 9months when child start picking things and put it in mouth. 2.self feeding of soup and thick homemade food at the time when other family take food. thanks.nice quir y.
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My 11 months old daughter licks dirt from floor, paint from walls, or eats soap while bathing. She does this occasionally, not regularly. Please help.

MD
Pediatrician, Mumbai
My 11 months old daughter licks dirt from floor, paint from walls, or eats soap while bathing.
She does this occasion...
These are symptoms of mineral deficiency. Get her evaluated by pediatrician to look for other signs of iron and calcium deficiency. Lab test for iron and calcium level in blood may be required. Deworming is also needed. You give her nutritious diet rich in calcium and iron. Give her plenty of milk products and green vegetables. If she is mainly on milk based diet, introduce family food in her diet. If you are already using iron and calcium supplements keep a gap of 2 hours between them as calcium interferes with iron absorption.
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My 3 months old baby boy have rashes in his neck and redness also. I am cleaning his neck with wipes and use Himalaya power but it's not work. Pls tell me what I do?

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MBBS
Pediatrician, Ponda
My 3 months old baby boy have rashes in his neck and redness also. I am cleaning his neck with wipes and use Himalaya...
Don't apply powder and don't use wipes. Clean it with water, keep the area clean and dry. Avoid milk to soil the area. Calamine lotion will help in relieving itch.
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BHMS, MD - Homeopathy
Homeopath, Chennai
What is the ketogenic diet?

The ketogenic diet is a special high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that helps to control seizures in some people with epilepsy. It is prescribed by a physician and carefully monitored by a dietitian. It is stricter than the modified Atkins diet, requiring careful measurements of calories, fluids, and proteins.
The name ketogenic means that it produces ketones in the body (keto = ketone, genic = producing). Ketones are formed when the body uses fat for its source of energy.
Usually the body uses carbohydrates (such as sugar, bread, pasta) for its fuel, but because the ketogenic diet is very low in carbohydrates, fats become the primary fuel instead.
Ketones are not dangerous. They can be detected in the urine, blood, and breath. Ketones are one of the more likely mechanisms of action of the diet; with higher ketone levels often leading to improved seizure control. However, there are many other theories for why the diet will work.
3 people found this helpful

Growth Failure- Is Your Child Short?

MBBS, MD - Paediatrics, FRACP - Pediatrc Endocrinology, SCE, Endocrinology
Endocrinologist, Fatehpur
Growth Failure- Is Your Child Short?

Growth is the most important aspect of childhood, one that distinguishes children from adults. Growth is affected by a number of diseases and growth failure is often the first sign of a serious disease. Unfortunately children with growth failure present very late when no help is possible. 

Why to worry?

Growth is the best marker of health and growth failure may be caused by a seious disease. Moreover children with short stature have lower self esteem. 

When to worry? 

Plot the height of your child in the growth chart and if it is below the lower limit visit a doctor. Alternatively if your child's height is less than the formula (Height = Age in years x 6 + 77 cm) it may be a cause of concern. Growth stops at the age of 14 years in girls and 16 years in boys. Hence the child should be reviewed latest by 10 years for girls and 12 years for boys. 

What causes growth failure? 

Growth failure can be due to a number of causes including poor nutrition, lack of physical activities and low genetic potential with parents being short. Short stature can also be caused by a number of diseases like thyroid problems, growth hormone deifiency and celiac disease (wheat allergy). 

How can I improve my child's growth?

Please encourage your child to play for atleast 1 hour a day. It is important to restrict screen time including television, computer, tablets and mobiles to less than an hour. Increased protein and calcium intake with more milk, pulses and vegetables also helps in improving growth. Growth hormone is produced during sleep. Sleeping for at least eight hours a day is therefore essential for a child to achieve good growth. 

What can be done if my child is very short? 

Please consut a doctor to identify the cause of short stature. Most conditions are readily treatable. Children with growth hormone deficiency respond dramatically to growth hormone. Growth hormone is also being used now in children with turner syndrome, familial short staure, small size at birth and kidney disease. 

Time is important- act now if your child is short.

3 people found this helpful

Hi my wife is blessed by a beautiful daughter in 14 July 2016 and now she ear Piercing (kaan chedana) I just wanna to ask is she need tetanus injection.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician,
Hi my wife is blessed by a beautiful daughter in 14 July 2016 and now she ear Piercing (kaan chedana) I just wanna to...
Ear piercing stud with a gun is done by a doctor and TT is not needed as the bay is will get DPT and other vaccines by 45 days of age. Better to do after the first DPDT injection.
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My son is vomiting. Before 5-6 days he was passing stools. Dr. said its for cold. He is not taking food. What should I give him to eat.

MBBS, DNB (Pediatrics), Fellowship in Pediatric Critical Care (IAP)
Pediatrician, Barmer
My son is vomiting. Before 5-6 days he was passing stools. Dr. said its for cold. He is not taking food. What should ...
Give him any home made food he like, but do not force him. Children have anorexia due to several causes. Most common among them is anemia. Check his Hb level and tell me.
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