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When skin is infected by a fungus, the resultant infection is called tinea corporis (ringworm). It is most common in athletes and children. The infection may appear on the scalp, beards, groin, in between the toes and other places.
Tinea corporis can be caused by:
1. Skin contact
2. It is contagious, so if you use towels, bed linens and clothes of an infected person, you will get infected too.
3. Touching a pet infected by tinea corporis.
Signs and Symptoms
1. The rash starts as a scant area of red, bumpy pimples and spots. Then the rash forms a ring, with raised, red borders and a clear middle. The border might look scaly.
2. The rash may show up on face, legs, arms or other body areas which are exposed.
3. The area feels itchy. It might also be flaky and dry. You might even experience hair loss in the infected area.
The skin in the area will be gently scraped off and the sample will be collected. Then, the sample will be viewed under a microscope. That will help discerning, which type of fungus is causing the infection.
The following treatment regime must be followed:
1. The skin must be kept dry and clean.
2. Fungal creams are best. Creams that contain miconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole or oxiconazole are excellent for fungal infections.
3. Only apply the cream on clean skin. You can use it twice in a day. Bandaging the infected area is not recommended.
4. To prevent the infection from spreading, wash your towels in warm water and use clean towels every time you bathe. Also, clean the bathroom and wear freshly washed clothes.
5. If pets are infected, treat them as well.
The infection usually goes away under 4 weeks. The infection may branch out to the nails, groin, scalp and feet. Self-care is effective, but if symptoms persist, then do consult a specialist. Ringworms have certain complications, such as scratching the skin too much causes skin infections and other skin disorders, which may need further treatment.
As we work around the clock and rush to meet targets and achieve goals, we may be forgetting an important aspect of life. The health, hygiene and well-being of ourselves are completely lost when we are busy taking care of other things. This is the reason why we fall prey to health issues and disorders.
The health issues may vary from deeply embedded internal viruses to superficial bacterial infections. One such superficial infection is Trichomycosis Axillaris. This is an infection that affects the hair shafts in regions that are highly prone to sweating, such as the underarm areas. The hair in the underarms may at times appear like they have matter stuck to them, in such cases; the bacterial infection may seem to be present.
The infection that affects the shafts of hair is known to be completely painless. The infection, in fact, appears only when the hair in moist areas grow long and get coated by dirt like particles that may appear yellow, red or white. The infection causes smelly areas and may be a hindrance in regular life because of the smell that it may cause in regular situations.
Treatment of the infection:
There are a number of ways in which the infection of Trichomycosis Axillaris can be treated or kept at bay. Most importantly, when you start to experience a change in the appearance of hair in moist regions, you should check with a dermatologist to know about the actual root or cause of the problem. When it is established that the infection is indeed Trichomycosis Axillaris, the doctor may suggest the following precautions and medications:
- You may be asked to take medicines for the bacterial infection in the form of antibiotics that are topically applied to the infected area.
- The use of medicated soaps that help in keeping the skin free of bacteria may also be recommended by the dermatologists.
- You may also be asked to apply powders that keep the area dry to avoid the formation of sweat or moisture which makes for an easy breeding ground for bacteria.
- One of the most effective methods may be to shave the hair off so that the bacteria may be removed, but it should also be accompanied by a medical treatment so that the infection does not recur.
- The use of deodorants that help in keeping moisture out may also help in keeping a check on the infection.
Choosing the specialist:
Though the Trichomycosis Axillaris infection may not be very threatening in nature, it is important to keep the body healthy in all manners, which is why you should seek for a doctor that specialises in skin care and may be able to help in eliminating the infection altogether.
Boils are a bacterial infection that inflames the hair follicles. They are usually painful and filled with pus. Boils appear as red lumps and quickly fill with pus as days go by. They eventually rupture and drain. A cluster of boils at the same place or in patches is known as a carbuncle. In case a single boil makes an appearance in any part of the body, it should not rupture as it can quickly spread the infection in other parts of the body as well.
Boils mainly occur in areas such as armpits, thighs, face, neck and buttocks. Their appearance mainly occurs in places covered with hair and tends to sweat a lot. Some of the common symptoms include red bump the size of a pea, reddish appearance of the skin near the bump, increase in size of the structure and eventually rupturing.
When to consult a doctor?
A doctor must be visited when there is more than one boil in a particular area. Some other areas of concern include:
If the size of a boil is more than 5 centimetres.
If the boil causes fever.
If the boil doesn’t heal in more than a couple of weeks.
If the boils increase in size and become extremely painful.
If the boil appears on the face.
Risk Factors of Boils:
Boils are caused by a bacterium known as Staphylococcus aureus. They get entry to the skin where it is broken. Some of the common risk factors of this infection include diabetes, long-term infection, weakened immune system and other skin infection such as eczema, and acne.
A doctor is likely to diagnose boils just by having a look at it. In the case of any confusion, he might send the sample to a pathology lab for the purpose of testing. It is most likely to happen when the boil isn’t responding to any treatment. In case the boil becomes resistant to standard treatment, a doctor might take a different course of action.
Boils can be treated at home itself with a warm compressor. It not only relieves pain but helps in natural damage. If the boil doesn’t go away, a dermatologist must be consulted. On consultation, the dermatologist can make an incision in the infected area in order to drain the pus. For deep infections, the pus is drained with the help of sterile gauze. In case the boil is severe in nature, a doctor prescribes antibiotics to heal the infected area. For prevention, it should be ensured that the hand is washed frequently and especially so before a meal. The wound should be covered at all times and personal belongings should not be shared.
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A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a woman's uterus. The uterus, also known as the womb, is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. The uterine lining is the source of menstrual blood.
You may need a hysterectomy for many reasons. The surgery can be used to treat a number of conditions including certain types of cancer and infections.
A woman may have a hysterectomy for different reasons, including:
- Uterine fibroids that cause pain, bleeding, or other problems
- Uterine prolapse, which is a sliding of the uterus from its normal position into the vaginal canal
- Cancer of the uterus, cervix, or ovaries
- Abnormal uterine bleeding
- Chronic pelvic pain
- Adenomyosis, or a thickening of the uterus
- Hysterectomy for noncancerous reasons is usually considered only after all other treatment approaches have been tried without success.
Types of Hysterectomy:
Depending on the reason for the hysterectomy, a surgeon may choose to remove all or only part of the uterus. Patients and health care providers sometimes use these terms inexactly, so it is important to clarify if the cervix and/or ovaries are removed:
In partial or supracervical hysterectomy, the upper portion of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
Complete or total hysterectomy involves the removal of both the uterus and the cervix. This is the most common type of hysterectomy performed.
Hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
Radical hysterectomy is an extensive surgical procedure in which the uterus, cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, upper vagina, some surrounding tissue, and lymph nodes are removed.
Hysterectomy Surgical Procedures
Traditionally, hysterectomies have been performed using a technique known as total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). However, in recent years, two less-invasive procedures have been developed: Vaginal hysterectomy and Laparoscopic hysterectomy:
- Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH): In a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), the surgeon makes an incision approximately five inches long in the abdominal wall, cutting through skin and connective tissue to reach the uterus. This type of surgery is especially useful if there are large fibroids or if cancer is suspected. Disadvantages include more pain and a longer recovery time than other procedures, and a larger scar.
- Vaginal Hysterectomy: A vaginal hysterectomy is done through a small incision at the top of the vagina. Through the incision, the uterus (and cervix, if necessary) is separated from its connecting tissue and blood supply and removed through the vagina. This procedure is often used for conditions such as uterine prolapse. Vaginal hysterectomy heals faster than abdominal hysterectomy, results in less pain, and generally does not cause external scarring.
- Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: During a laparoscopic hysterectomy, your doctor uses a tiny instrument called a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera at the front. The instrument is inserted through incisions in the abdomen. Three or four small incisions are made instead of one large incision. Its advantage is less bleeding, less pain, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. Its technically advanced and demands a lot of skill on the part of the surgeon.
A hysterectomy is a major decision that you should take after careful consultation with your doctor. You should understand the reason for the operation, the benefits and risks and the alternatives to a hysterectomy.
Achalasia is a very rare disease. Normally, your esophagus squeezes food down by making the muscular valve in between the stomach and esophagus relax. Achalasia occurs when this muscular valve is unable to relax and thus the esophagus is unable to squeeze the food down. The most common reason why this happens is because the nerves in your esophagus are damaged. The nerves most commonly get damaged because of abnormalities in the way your immune system responds. Till now, there is no cure to achalasia; however surgery or minimally invasive therapy can make the symptoms of achalasia more manageable. Here are all the causes and symptoms of achalasia:
If the food is regurgitating in the night, then the lungs may have been inhaling some food. This is very serious and you should see the doctor immediately if this occurs.
3. Chest pain
You may suddenly experience chest pain from a completely unknown cause.
4. Weight loss
You may also suffer from sudden weight loss if you have achalasia. This is due to the reduced amount of food you will be consuming.
Heartburn is when you have a very intense burning pain in your chest just behind your breastbone which is most commonly caused by regurgitation in your esophagus.
The exact cause of achalasia is not yet known. However, there are some theories on what causes achalasia. Here they are.
The most common cause of achalasia is genes.
2. Autoimmune disease
An autoimmune disease is when your immune system attacks your body's own cells. Achalasia is a type of autoimmune disease.
There have also been a lot of claims that infections are the cause of achalasia.
The condition which occurs on exposure to foreign substances and causes the skin to become red, itchy and inflamed is known as contact dermatitis. It is commonly known as a rash. Although most of the reactions to contact dermatitis are not serious, they can be very irritating till the itching subsides. The causes of contact dermatitis are usually case specific; they vary according to the different types of this disease.
The types of contact dermatitis are:
- Allergic contact dermatitis: This condition occurs when an allergic reaction is developed after exposure to foreign substances. The reaction occurs with a release of inflammatory chemicals that causes the skin to become irritated and itchy. If a person has eczema, he or she can suffer from this kind of rash. Causes of allergic contact dermatitis include:
- Latex gloves
- Poison Oak
- Jewellery (gold or nickel)
- Perfumes and chemicals in skincare and cosmetic products
- Irritant contact dermatitis: Contact between the skin and a toxic material causes Irritant contact dermatitis. They can be sub divided into two categories, namely chemical irritants and physical irritants. Some of the toxic substances that cause this condition include battery acid, drain cleaners, detergents, kerosene, pepper spray and bleach. The physical causes of Irritant contact dermatitis include low humidity from air conditioning, a variety of plants and so on so forth. The condition tends to become more painful, rather than itchy.
- Photo-contact dermatitis: This is a very uncommon type of contact dermatitis which is caused due to the exposure of some active ingredients in sunscreen to sunlight. When sunlight is not present, the sensitive chemicals in the substances are not harmful.
- Dry or oozing blisters
- Dry, flaky and scaly skin
- Redness of the skin
- Extreme itching
- Burning of the skin with or without sores
- Leathery or dark appearance of the skin
- Swelling, particularly on the face, in your eyes or groin regions
Symptoms of Irritant Contact dermatitis can be slightly different. They include:
- Cracking due to extreme dryness
- Stiff or tightened skin
- Open sores that form crusts
What you eat has a direct effect on your skin; eat healthy and your skin looks healthy, eat unhealthy food and your skin looks dull. Eating right can even fight signs of aging thus, negating the need for procedures like Botox. Not only does it cost less, but healthy food boosts your overall health as well.
Here are 6 such foods that can help you fight signs of aging and give you a flawless complexion.
Turmeric: Turmeric is well known for its yellow colour and anti-inflammatory properties. Many home remedies suggest the use of turmeric for a number of health ailments including skin conditions. Turmeric can fight signs of aging by reducing inflammation and oxidation. This, in turn, helps the skin heal faster. This spice can be added to your food or mixed with warm milk to benefit from it.
Tomatoes: Tomatoes are rich sources of vitamin C and lycopene. Vitamin C helps stimulate the production of collagen and hence keeps the skin firm while lycopene protects the skin against harmful UV radiation. As a general rule of thumb, the deeper red the tomato is, the better it is.
Honey: Honey can be eaten or applied topically on the skin to benefit from it. Honey helps keep the body hydrated by absorbing moisture and preventing the skin from drying out. It also has antibacterial properties that prevent acne and other breakouts. Ideally, honey should be used and consumed in its raw, unprocessed form.
Nuts: Nuts are a great snack that keeps your skin looking young and fresh. Almonds are excellent sources of vitamin E that help fight acne, psoriasis and eczema among other skin ailments. Walnuts are rich in Omega-3 fatty acids that keep the skin soft and supple. Brazil nuts are also rich sources of vitamin E. However, keep in mind the high calorific value of these nuts and do not overindulge in them.
Avocados: Avocados are filled with essential fatty acids that moisturize and nourish skin. They are also rich in Vitamin B, C and E. While vitamin C boosts collagen production, vitamin E maintains the elasticity of skin and prevents sagging.
Amla: Amla contains ample amount of vitamin C and antioxidants, which help in purifying the blood and fights toxins which help you get a beautiful skin.
Jamun: The Indian fruit is rish in Iron content which helps in blood purification, eventually keeping your skin clean and beautiful. It is also helpful in preventing acne, blemishes, wrinkles and pimples.