Minimally Invasive Urology Surgery
Reconstructive Urology Surgery
Reconstructive Surgery Procedures
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Transurethral Resection Of The Prostate (Turp) Pro
Transurethral Incision Of The Prostate (Tuip) Proc
Urology Minimally Invasive Surgery
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Kidney Transplant Treatment
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
Blood In Urine (Hematuria) Treatment
Open Prostatectomy Surgery
Hydrocele Treatment (Surgical)
Treatment of H.I.V
Benign Prostrate Hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition which results in the enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostrate grand is situated near the Urethra (a tube which helps flush out the urine from the bladder). Generally, the chance of developing BPH increases after one crosses the age of 50. But it is yet unknown as to why some men experience more severe symptoms than others.
Causes of BPH
This condition generally occurs because of old age and affects almost all men above the age of 75. It occurs because of the various hormonal changes and changes in cell growth that the body goes through, as one becomes old. Sometimes BPH can set in due to genetics. If BPH sets in due to genetically reasons, it usually is quite severe and affects men before they reach 60.
Symptoms of BPH
Quite a few men who develop BPH, experience no symptoms at all. But when symptoms of BPH, known as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUT) start, they can be either mild or very severe. The severity of the symptoms is not related to the extent of the enlargement. Many a times men with only a mild enlargement complain about severe symptoms, while men with a highly enlarged prostate gland have not complained about any discomfort faced.
Symptoms of BPH tend to worsen due to cold weather and also because of physical and emotional overexertion. There are certain medicines, which should be avoided if you suffer from BPH, as they have a tendency to worsen your symptoms, for example diphenhydramine, pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline spray and other antidepressants.
The symptoms of BPH are related to bladder emptying and issues with bladder storage.
Symptoms related to the urine drainage from the bladder are:
- Strain while urinating
- Weak urine flow
- Some dribbling after urination
- Sudden urge to urinate
- Pain while urinating
Symptoms related to storage of urine in the bladder are:
- Waking during the night to urinate
- Urinating frequently during the day and at night
- Sudden urge to urinate, which may be hard to control
It however, has to be kept in mind that these symptoms may not primarily occur due to prostate enlargement, but are the result of other conditions like urinary tract infections, prostatitis, prostate cancer, neurological disorders and even diabetes. Thus, it is essential that you visit a doctor and get the cause for these symptoms diagnosed properly.
Here are a few things you should know about Testicular Cancer (TC):
- Age: The commonest affected age group is 20-45 years with germ cell tumours. Half of all cases occur in men less than 35 years. Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) are more common at ages 20-35, while seminoma is more common at age 35-45 years. Rarely, infants and boys below 10 years develop yolk sac tumours and 50% men above 60 years with TC have lymphoma.
- Race: White Caucasian people living in Europe and the US have the highest risk. Whites are three times more likely to develop TC than blacks in the US. With the exception of the New Zealand Maoris, TC is rare in non-Caucasian races.
- Previous TC: Confers a 12-fold increased risk of metachronous TC. Bilateral TC occurs in 1-2% of cases.
- Cryptorchidism: 5-10% of TC patients have a history of cryptorchidism. Ultrastructural changes are present in these testes by age 3 years, although earlier orchidopexy does not completely eliminate the risk of developing TC. According to a large Swedish study, cryptorchidism is associated with a two-fold increased risk of TC in men who underwent orchiopexy less than 13 year, but risk is increased 5-fold in men who underwent orchiopexy aged above13 years. A meta-analysis showed risk of contralateral TC almost doubles while ipsilateral TC risk is increased 6-fold in men with unilateral cryptorchidism.
- Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (testicular intraepithelial neoplasia, TIN): Synonymous with carcinoma in situ, although the disease arises from malignant change in spermatogonia; 50% of cases develop invasive germ cell TC within 5 years. The population incidence is 0.8%. Risk factors include cryptorchidism, extragonadal germ cell tumour, atrophic contralateral testis, 45XO karyotype, Klinefelter's syndrome, previous or contralateral TC (5%), and infertility.
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Patients develop seminoma 35% more frequently than expected. Genetic factors: appear to play a role, given that first-degree relatives are at higher risk by 4-9-fold, but a defined familial inheritance pattern is not apparent.
- Maternal oestrogen exposure: At higher than usual levels during pregnancy appears to increase risk of cryptorchidism, urethral anomalies, and TC in male offspring.
Trauma and viral-induced atrophy have not been convincingly implicated as risk factors for TC.
5 Reasons You Will See Blood in Urine
The condition in which blood appears in the urine is known as hematuria. The loss of blood in this condition could be gross or microscopic depending on the cause of the condition. There are several causes why blood may appear in the urine. Whatever the cause may be, hematuria is mostly indicative of a serious medical condition.
Here are 5 reasons that cause blood to appear in the urine.
Infections like urethritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis or infection in any other body organ along the urinary tract is one of the most common causes of hematuria. Such bacterial infection in the urethra can also infect the kidneys and the urinary bladder. It results in the urge to urinate frequently and also causes blood to appear in the urine.
2. Kidney stones and bladder stones
Another reason that can cause blood to appear in the urine is the presence of stones in the kidney or bladder. These stones are crystallized minerals that are formed in the kidney or the bladder but fail to pass through the urinary tract. They cause blockage and pain and result in hematuria.
3. An enlarged prostate
An enlarged prostate is a common cause of appearance of blood in the urine in men who are in their middle ages or older. Enlargement of the prostate gland causes the urethra to be compressed. This prevents the urethra from getting fully emptied while urination.
4. Polycystic Kidney Disease
PKD is a kidney disorder in which cysts filled with fluid form in the kidneys and impair the kidneys, causing them to fail entirely at times. It is an inherited disease and causes blood to appear in the urine.
In children who are between 6-10 years of age, kidney disorder after streptococcal glomerulonephritis can be a possible cause of hematuria.
A cancerous kidney, bladder or prostate gland can also cause blood to appear in the urine. It is another major cause of hematuria but usually occurs in older patients.