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COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a lung disease wherein, it gets difficult for a person to breathe due to thickening and inflammation of airways. World COPD day is being celebrated on 16th November, in order to, raise wareness about COPD. It is a group of progressive lung diseases, the most common ones of which are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Emphysema destroys your lungs’ air sacs while bronchitis leads to the inflammation and narrowing of your bronchial tubes.
Symptoms of COPD
The early symptoms of COPD include occasional shortness of breath, especially after physical exercise, mild and recurrent cough and having the urge to clear your throat many times. You may start avoiding physical activities eventually. Other symptoms, which follow include wheezing, chest tightness, chronic cough with mucus, an urge to clear mucus from the lungs, frequent flu, colds and fatigue.
Factors behind it
Smoking accounts for being the major cause of COPD in developed countries. Commonly, people over the age of 40 with a history of smoking are affected with COPD. The more you smoke, more are your chances of getting the condition increase. Exposure to chemicals and harmful fumes may also cause COPD. Long-term exposure to polluted air and inhaling dust are other causes. The deficiency of a protein called alpha-1-antitrypsin is also said to cause COPD.
COPD is diagnosed on the basis of several tests and examinations. They include spirometry, which is a noninvasive test for assessing lung function, imaging tests such as a chest X-ray or CT scan which provides an image of the lung for observation. An arterial blood gas test is also carried out for measuring blood oxygen levels.
The treatment options for COPD include the following:
- Medication: Bronchodilators are used for relaxing the muscles of your lungs’ airways which simplify breathing. They are taken via inhalers. Glucocorticosteroids may be added to reduce inflammation.
- Oxygen therapy: When your blood oxygen levels are low, oxygen is given via masks and nasal prongs which help you to breathe better.
- Surgery: Surgery is carried out in the case of severe COPD or when other treatment methods fail. Bullectomy is a common surgical procedure used, in which the large air sacs or “bullae” are removed from the lungs. The lung volume reduction surgery is also carried out in which damaged lung tissues are removed. Lung transplant is required in extreme cases.
- Lifestyle changes: You need to make some lifestyle changes to alleviate the symptoms of COPD which include the following:
- Quit smoking in case you are a regular smoker.
- Avoid any form of second-hand smoke and chemical fumes.
- Consume all the essential nutrients required by your body.
- Consult a doctor about your exercise patterns.
In case you experience any symptom of COPD, you should consult a doctor immediately for quick diagnosis and proper treatment.
Sir my brother is schizophrenic since 1998. Engineer by profession. In 2008 he moved to australia for studies and work. Before that in india he was not doing anything but to disturb other family members. He uses to get violent. Mom. N dad used to cry. We tried various doctors for treatment n succeeded a little bit. After moving to australia he took. Medicine for 1 and half years then he stopped it saying that he is alright. Recently I lost my father. ME n my mom. Are staying here in india. Whenever my brother comes home I get very scared. I'm a working woman, unmarried. Recently I feel a little disturbed so as to how to handle all the pressures. MOm's health, brother's erratic behaviour etc. I'm 35 years old. Let me know what I should do when my brother comes to INdia and how to cheer myself up.
I am female in my face has full of pimples how to remove the pimples and how to improve skin tone of the my skin please help me.
6 common skin problems you suffer from in the hot weather and tips to deal with them
Summer season is a hard time for not just the body but even your skin. As the temperature soars, the heat becomes unbearable, for both--body and skin. While you've trained your body to fight the heat, and keep cool; the same is needed for your delicate skin too.
The answer lies in keeping yourself well-hydrated, protecting your skin from sun exposure and reducing conditions open to infection
Multiple factors combine to make your skin irritable during summers. Along with the heat that puts a lot of pressure, is sweating. However, sometimes dirt and dust clog the sweat ducts of the skin, trapping the perspiration. This can result in itchy rashes, blisters or minibumps. Clothes can make them irritable all the more due to friction.
Prevent this condition by keeping yourself squeaky clean, if you sweat. Bath twice a day, particularly so, when you end your day. Use an anti-bacterial soap or bath gel. Keep yourself dry as much as possible. Rubbing the affected skin with ice cubes can help soothe the irritation. If the condition persists, meet a dermatologist.
It is not just your body but also your skin that bears the brunt of dehydration. As we sweat, we continuously lose hydration from the skin. If not sufficiently replenished, this can leave the skin dry, irritated and more prone to sunburn. Your lips may start cracking and dry patches may appear all over it.
The most logical answer is to drink as much water as you can. Carry a water bottle with you all the time, do not go without sipping once every half an hour. Also add a lot of juices and summer fruits to your intake. Fruits like watermelon which are full of water content are particularly good for the body and skin during summers. You can also seek deep hydrating treatments like hydrating electroporation therapy, oxygen therapy or juvederm refine to pamper your skin.
The summer sun is so harsh that it can scorch your skin, causing red patches, rashes that give a burning sensation. This happens more in people who have sensitive skin. In simple language, it is the sun burning up your soft and sensitive skin.
Logically, the only way to protect your skin against this condition is minimise sun exposure. At the same time equally important is to wear a sunscreen religiously. Apply a sunblock cream liberally all over your face, neck and arms 20 minutes before stepping out. Make sure you re-apply the same every four to five hours to ensure continuous protection. It is also advisable for people who have sensitive skin to wear clothes covering as much skin as possible during the day time. Ending your day with an aloe vera gel face pack will cool down the sunburnt skin.
The sweat makes our skin a magnet to the daily dose of dust, grime and pollution floating in the air, particularly if we spend some time outdoors. This combination of heat and dirt is a perfect recipe for acne and pimples to grow. The dust clogs the skin's pores while the heat gives bacteria a perfect environment to thrive.
To minimise acne, regular care should be taken to keep the skin clean. You should carry your facewash with you and give your face a quick wash at least thrice in a day or whenever you think it is needed to clean-up. Use a good facial cleanser every evening so that your skin pores are free of dirt; use anti-bacterial face wash; and end your day with a cooling application of multani mitti or sandalwood face pack to contain inflammation. Often acne might need medical attention. So, if your breakouts do not subside, do visit a dermatologist. You may need hormonal correction.
The hot temperature gives many bacteria and viruses a perfect thriving environment. The bacteria are everywhere, and you cannot even see them. People who use public transport, keep moving in crowded places and are much more prone to come in contact with multiple bacterial infections. Even the bus seat or window you touch with your hand may be carrying bacteria. These hands then touch our face, often resulting in skin infections.
Try to keep your hands clean and washed most of the times. Carry a handwash and keep washing every couple of hours. If this is not possible use a hand sanitiser. And give up the habit of touching your face with your fingers all the time. Folliculitis is a common condition when the damaged hair follicles get infected by bacteria, resulting in inflammation. To prevent this, wear lose clothes, avoid using swimming pools which are not properly disinfected, and prevent cuts while shaving.
When exposed to the sun's uv radiation, the skin's melanin reacts by forming a protective shield. The melanin results in dark pigmentation, either uniformly all over or in patches on the skin. The result is what we call skin darkening, tanning or hyper-pigmentation.
Using a sunscreen of at least 30 spf and reapplying is important, so is wearing sunglasses to prevent dark circles. To undo the effects of tanning, seek procedures like laser skin rejuvenation, chemical peels or microdermabrasion. Your dermatologist will suggest the right procedure for your needs.
I am losing hair quickly when I changed my location from bhimavaram to hyderabad .Please tell me what are the natural ways to reduce it.
Almonds, sunflower seeds and flax seeds - foods which contain fatty acids prove to be very healthy for the skin. They also reduce inflammation which causes fine lines, sagging and blotchiness.