If an HIV infection, treatment is primarily aimed at preventing evolve as long as possible and do not give way to the disease AIDS . In this case, the treatment is against HIV itself. If the emergence of AIDS and its accompanying diseases occur as a lung inflammation or bowel, treatment should include them. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle so that the immune system does not see further harmed. Many infected with HIV also have counseling and self-help centers with other affected. Drug Treatments Currently it has good information about certain steps in the single expansion of HIV infection. Thus, it has been possible to develop drugs that inhibit certain evolutions of cell infestation. HIV treatment is also called highly active antiretroviral therapy and its abbreviation is HAART. Specifically, this treatment includes the following medications: The entry inhibitors , which inhibit the entry of 'HIV virus' in human cells. VHI prevent adhesion of immune cells and / or dissolution of the viral envelope with the cell membrane (fusion). The excipient enfuvirtide eg prevents fusion. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor blocks a special top virus that can translate the genetic information of the virus (DNA) reverse transcriptase. This group of drugs includes, for example, substances such as lamivudine , the tenofovir or nevirapine . Another top virus, integrase, incorporating HIV DNA genetic information translated into immune cells. In this case, inhibitors of this enzyme, apply called integrase inhibitors . The drug raltegravir contains these integrase inhibitors. The protease inhibitors destroy other HIV enzyme, the HIV protease. If a cell is infected with HIV, forms a component of protein which could be born new HIV viruses. Protease HIV plays an important role in the composition of this protein. Inhibitors of this enzyme are involved in virus appear less capable of action in affected cells. Examples of protease inhibitors are drugs fosamprenavir , indinavir , nelfinavir, and ritonavir . Although 'AIDS' remains an incurable disease, it may be well with a combination therapy . This combination consists of at least three different drugs; usually several inhibitors of reverse transcriptase which are combined with a protease inhibitor.
Pep is required for all persons invo5 in providing medical and surgical services
No environmental transmission reported but pep is pep is required when they are exposed to -
potentially infectious body fluid e. G. Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, synovial, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid. Any bodu fluid contaminated with" visible blood" considered" at risk"
exposure to body fluid considered" not at risk" e. G. Tears, sweat, urine, faeces, saliva, sputum and vomitus
Management of exp6 site
- do not panic
- wash wound and surrounding with soap and water
- rinse well
- do not scrub
- for not use antiseptic or skin washes
- splash of blood
- irrigate eyes with water or saine
- if using contact lens leave them in place while irrigating. Remove the contact lens and clean them after eyes is cleaned
- mouth: spit fluid immediately and rinse mouth thoroughly water/saline repeatedly
Pep is required within 72 hours of exposure
conslt nearest art center for selection of pep regime e. G.
1. Basic regime of 2 drug zidovudine 300 mg bd
2 drug regime is recommended if third drug is required then use nelfinavir
arv prophylaxix - short term arv drugs is used to reduce hiv transmission from mother to infant
- all hivexposed infants should receive cotrimoxazole at 4-6 weeks of age
- mother- nov 200 mg at onset of labour
- baby- nvp syrup 2 mg / lg of body weight within 72 hours of delivery
Gynecomastia is a condition where the tissues of the breasts swell in a boy or men. This is caused by the imbalance of testosterone and oestrogen. It might affect one or both the breasts depending on the level of hormonal imbalance. Although not considered as a serious condition, Gynecomastia can be a difficult condition to cope up with. There are multiple treatment options and surgery is one of them. In many cases, this condition goes as abruptly as it appeared. For cases that are complicated and difficult to get rid of, doctors suggest a medical procedure get rid of the condition.
Symptoms of Gynecomastia:
Some common symptoms of Gynecomastia include tenderness of breasts, swollen breast gland, pain in the breasts, discharge from the nipple etc.
Causes of Gynecomastia:
There could be many causes of this disease. If the condition is witnessed in babies, it could well come from the mother due to an overdose of oestrogen. Gynecomastia also appears during puberty resulting in the breast to swell up. The condition can again crop up after the age of 50 due to hormonal changes.
Certain medications can be a reason of Gynecomastia. Some of the common medications include certain antibiotics, anti-anxiety related medications, chemotherapy shots, HIV patients receiving HAART, cardiovascular medications such as Lanoxin, anabolic steroids etc.
Certain drugs such as heroin, alcohol, methadone, marijuana, Amphetamines etc.
Risk Factors Of Gynecomastia-
Certain risk factors of gynecomastia include older age, use of certain steroids, adolescence and other medical conditions such as Klinefelter's syndrome, tumour related to hormonal fluctuation and disease related to thyroid.
A doctor typically checks the history of drugs along with the health condition of the patient. He might also take a look at the health of the extended family. A careful tissue evaluation of the genitals, breast and abdomen are done. This is followed by a physical exam followed by prescribing certain tests such as mammograms, complete blood work, CT scan, biopsy of the tissue, MRI scan etc.
Most people suffering from Gynecomastia see a significant regression with periodic treatment. If however the condition arises from an underlying cause such as cirrhosis and malnutrition, a doctor suggests 2 option- medications and surgery:
Medications: Certain medications that are known to be helpful for breast related cancers are known to be effective in this condition. Some common examples of these drugs include evista, arimidex and soltamox.
Surgery: Only after exploring all medical options a doctor suggests surgery. There are 2 procedures namely mastectomy and liposuction. The latter removes the fat cells of the breast and the former removes the breast gland tissue.