Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments

Lactic Acid Health Feed

Effective Skin Care / Bid Goodbye To Wrinkles And Fine Lines

Dr. Tarunveer Singh 87% (36 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Dermatology & Venerology And Leprosy (DDVL)
Dermatologist, Jalandhar
Effective Skin Care / Bid Goodbye To Wrinkles And Fine Lines
Calcium for your bones and facial exercises are two of the best ways to fight wrinkles and fine lines. True or false? Take this quiz to know now.
Start Quiz
100 people took this quiz

My hairs are falling continuously. I want get rid hair fall. What should I use to get rid of hair fall and grow new hairs.

Dr. Suruchi Puri 91% (769 ratings)
MBBS, MD (Skin & V.D. MAMC) - Dermatology
Dermatologist, Delhi
My hairs are falling continuously. I want get rid hair fall. What should I use to get rid of hair fall and grow new h...
Health Tips For Control Of Hair Fall Hair fall is experienced by most individuals in their lifetime. Most of the time hair fall goes unnoticed if the density of hair is good. Patients experience the hair fall though they are taking good diet and infact water intake is normal and even if they do not have any significant systemic disease. 1.Don't go for hair straightening and vigrous heat treatments if you are having hair fall. Its a myth that straightening would prevent hair fall. 2.Cover your hair when you are taking steam, sauana,or hot water bath 3.Treat your hair as a baby and pamper them. Do not use harsh shampoos and soap instead use a mild medicated shampoo and conditioner and infact wash your hair minimum twice in a week 4. Do not comb the hair when they are wet, let them dry a bit before you comb 5. You can oil the hair 1 hr. Before shampooing or washing, no neec to apply oil overnight. 6.Males And females have different pattern of hair loss and needs seperate consideration and treatment. 7. Wash your hair preferrably with luke warm water, avoid using hard water or underground water for washing them. 8.Hair Fall May expose some areas if your scalp, try to change combing pattern and do not tie your hair very tight. 9. Anti hair fall shampoos and serums may be applied after consultation with the dermatologist 10. With age hair starts thinning, this happens because the bodys capacity to absorb nutrients decrease. The hair needs 22 amino acids to grow. Due to lack of amino acids from the diet the hair appears thin. However you can prevent the hair fall due to aging. You need to have soya beans, lean meat, dairy products, fish, eggs and nuts. You can also have fish oil tablets or supplements which is rich in Omega 3 Fatty Acids. Red Grape Seed sand Sprouts also are good along with Pappaya and Carrots 11. Rule out thyroid disorders, Anaemia and other major systemic issues by consulting a good dermatologist 12. Avoid high fat and high sugar diet, like gym anabolic steroids .13. Do not do crash Hair fall or loss is a multifactorial problem where hereditary along with environmental factors and diet play an important role. Iron deficiency along with essential things like biotin, vitamin A along with other nutrients have a major role to play. Serums,tablets along with specified shampoos and conditioners can also help. Most of the time, this loss is progressive and may take 4-6 months to respond to treatment. Sooner the treatment is started better are the results.
Submit FeedbackFeedback

Boils - How To Deal With Them?

Dr. Saravanan.B.N 86% (10 ratings)
Diploma In Dermatology & Venerology And Leprosy (DDVL), MBBS
Dermatologist, Chennai
Boils - How To Deal With Them?

A boil or a skin abscess is a type of bacterial skin infection that leads to formation of a pus-filled red bump on the skin. It usually starts in an oil gland or a hair follicle on the face, the armpits, the neck or the shoulders. If a cluster of boils appears, it is called a carbuncle and this is a more severe infection than a boil. However, most boils are caused by minor infection and can be healed with simple treatment at home. Listed below are the various ways to deal with a boil:

  1. Boils are not entirely preventable but normal daily hygiene can reduce the frequency of the occurrence of boils.
  2. When you notice a boil formation, you should apply a hot compress on it. The heat helps to prevent the formation of too much pus by helping it drain faster. When the blood circulation to the area is improved by the heat, the antibodies help to draw out the germs.
  3. The boil usually drains on its own. You may try draining it yourself but only when it is soft. Poking a hard boil can be extremely painful; it may bleed and make the infection worse. It is usually best to let it drain by itself.
  4. When the boil starts draining, you can clean the infected area with an antibacterial soap daily till the boil is drained and flattened. You may clean it with some rubbing alcohol in order to prevent the germs in the pus from spreading to other areas of the body.
  5. The infected area can be kept covered with sterile gauze coated with antibiotic ointment.
  6. Penicillin-based antibiotics can be used to treat the boil but only if it is a severe infection. 
  7. 7. If the boil is excessively painful, you can use pain relievers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol.
  8. Avoid sitting in one particular position for too long because this increases the pain.
  9. It is important to wash your hands every time you touch the draining boil because the bacteria is extremely contagious and can spread to other areas of your skin as well as to other people.
  10. All the articles which have been used to treat the boils like the gauze, cloth, cotton and hot compress should either be discarded or disinfected to avoid spreading of the infection.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3 people found this helpful

How To Treat Dandruff With Home Made Solutions?

Dr. Nitin Jain 87% (248 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Venerology & Dermatology (DVD), DDV, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Pune
How To Treat Dandruff With Home Made Solutions?

Dandruff is characterized by a white, flaky substance on the scalp. Dandruff is not a serious condition and neither is it contagious. Basic hygiene and a few good rules could be effective in treating the irritable condition of dandruff.

Here are the five home Made solutions for dandruff:

  1. Garlic: A lot of people seem to avoid garlic on their hair because of the pungent smell associated to it. However, the medicinal properties of garlic are too many to be overlooked. The benefits of raw and crushed garlic are too many to be listed and have been tested since a long time. For best results, pound garlic cloves with water and wash your hair with the liquid. And for the smell, you could add honey and ginger to the mixture.
  2. Neem: Ancient herbs hold relevance till today. The medicinal and cooling properties of neem are a great remedy for treating dandruff. Nature is the best way to go and Neem has been a tested element for all skin ailments and same applies to the fungi that accumulate as the result of flakes. Boil neem leaves in water and use the broth to wash hair.
  3. Coconut oil: This oil is supposed to have anti-fungal properties and also keeps the scalp from getting itchy. For best results, mix coconut oil with lemon and rub it in the scalp gently. Leave for some time and then again wash the hair. This should be done at least three times in a week to get rid of dandruff.
  4. Vinegar: It is one of the other ingredients that are a proven anti-dandruff. Application of fungus helps to kill the fungi and bacteria associated to dandruff. Vinegar is rich in acidic content and thus reduces flaking a great deal. White vinegar and water should be mixed in equal proportions and applied to hair thoroughly. Leave it for some time and wash the hair thoroughly. Follow this for three times a week for best results.
  5. Yogurt: Perhaps the most common method used for treating dandruff since a long time. Yogurt continues to win our trust every time. This is simple as it could get. Apply yogurt to the scalp and leave it for some time. Then wash the yogurt after around an hour and use a mild shampoo to wash off the hair. Repeat the procedure for at least two days a week. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
7 people found this helpful

Grey Hair and Homeopathic Treatment For It!

Homeopath, Bangalore
Grey Hair and Homeopathic Treatment For It!

Hair is also called the crowning glory and if gray hair begins to show up in this glorious crown then it becomes a cause of concern for the person affected. Sadly, premature graying is the reality of the present times. Many men and women below the age of 35 years face the dreaded premature graying. Even children and teenagers are facing this problem. There are several reasons that cause premature graying, including stress and anxiety, lack of nutrition, genetic reasons, and overuse of hair styling products such as dye and conditioner.

Though there are shampoos, oils, and natural remedies that can be used to treat grey hair, they are not the permanent solution in all the cases. Where the graying is severe or in cases other remedies have not given results, homeopathic treatment comes across as an effective option. It has a good number of medicines to cure premature graying caused by various factors as homeopathy treats the root cause of the disease. What is more, homeopathic medicines do not carry side effects and give permanent relief from this dreadful condition. Here are some effective homeopathic medicines to treat premature graying.

  1. Phosphoric Acid – The topmost medicine for premature graying, it is very helpful in those cases where graying is the result of stress and anxiety or depression. This medicine also works in the case of hair thinning and hair fall. It works by restoring the actual pigment of the hair that has been destroyed by tension and worry. Phosphoric acid also helps in fighting grief and depression.
  2. Natrum Mur – Suited for people suffering from gray hair because of weakness or anemia, this medicine also improves the general health of the patient. It increases the immunity of the patient and thus, helps fight deficiency caused by poor nutrition. It is also effective in those patients who suffer from a headache, especially after venturing out in the sun.
  3. Lycopodium – A great cure for graying in patches, this medicine slows down the depigmentation process of hair follicles. It works well in patients whose hair problem is caused by gastric troubles such as constipation, gas in the stomach, or other gastrointestinal problems.
  4. Silicea – Lack of nutrition is one prime culprit for causing premature graying and this may happen not because of poor diet but because of poorly functioning intestines that are unable to absorb nutrients in the diet. Silicea is a wonderful medicine in such cases as it improves the absorption power of the intestines.
  5. Phosphorous – This homeopathic medicine gives great results in cases where the graying is accompanied by dandruff and itchy scalp. It not just cures the gray hair but also acts as a deterrent for further graying.

Premature graying, undoubtedly, is an undesirable condition as it not just eats into the personality of the individual but also makes them depressed. Depression further aggravates the problem and thus, it is necessary to nip this problem in the bud. The sooner one takes action, the better it is for them as the recovery would be easier and quicker. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2 people found this helpful

Kidney Stones - How To Manage Them?

Dr. Saurabh 85% (10 ratings)
Urologist, Delhi
Kidney Stones - How To Manage Them?

Staying hydrated and consuming plenty of fluid is the key to manage kidney stone. Fluid can help the stone pass through the urinary tract, as well as refrain the body from forming new stones. While drinking water itself is good, adding certain ingredients with water can improvise flushing of stones and managing the pain. It’s recommended that every person with kidney stone should drink at least 2 litres of water every day. .

Apart from consuming 12 glasses of water every day, here is a list of alternative methods to manage kidney stones:

  1. Lemon juice: Consuming 2-4 glasses of lemon juice can do wonders to reduce the symptoms of kidney stones. Lemon contains citrate, a chemical ingredient that prevents calcium formation inside the body. Citrate is also capable of breaking smaller calcium crystals and flushing them through the urinary tract. Apart from this, lemon contains vitamin C and is immensely beneficial for the body.
  2. Basil juice: Basil comprises of acetic acid that has the capability to break down kidney stones and reduce pain. Furthermore, basil juice can lower the uric acid level and reduce the chances of future kidney stone formation. Basil leaves can be consumed with water, tea or a smoothie. However, a person should refrain from consuming basil leaves, if he is suffering from low blood sugar, low pressure and increased bleeding.
  3. Apple cider vinegar: Apple cider vinegar is yet another agent that is immensely beneficial to get rid of kidney stones. Being alkaline in nature, it can increase the acidic level of the stomach and prevent stone formation. Apple cider vinegar has citric properties that can dissolve smaller stones of the kidney and flush them through the urinary tract. This should not be consumed if a person is suffering from diuretics, undertaking insulin and have digoxin.
  4. Celery juice: Celery juice can be consumed twice or thrice a day to get rid of kidney stones. It can also be used in salads or dishes for flavour and taste. It regulate urine flow, reduce pain and clear toxins from the body. People suffering from blood disorder problems should not consume celery.
  5. Pomegranate juice: Pomegranate juice can improve the overall function of the kidney. It can successfully lower the acidic level of the urine and reduce the chances of kidney stone formation in future. . People suffering from liver diseases and blood pressure should refrain from having this juice.
  6. Kidney beans: As its name indicates, the kidney bean broth can improve the overall health of the kidney and the urinary function. It can flush out kidney stones. Kidney beans soaked in water and 2-3 glasses consumed in a day can do wonders in removing the kidney stone. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

Please suggest me for High uric acid and muscle weakness. Please suggest what to do and I am also overweight.

Dr. Pramod Kumar Sharma 88% (2487 ratings)
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Please suggest me for High uric acid and muscle weakness. Please suggest what to do and I am also overweight.
Low purine diet is recommended to control high uric acid. Avoid nonveg, dairy products, spinache,tomato, excess pulses etc Control your weight by diet restrictions and regular exercise. Get you serum vitamin D test done. If no relief then consult a physician.
Submit FeedbackFeedback

Don't Let a Bent Penis Lead to Depression

Dr. Vinod Raina 94% (4665 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Don't Let a Bent Penis Lead to Depression

Men with a severely bent penis, a condition frequently known as Peyronie's disease, often experience some penis health challenges. Men and their doctors usually focus on the physical difficulties and complications of having a substantially bent penis, but there can be complications in other areas as well. Perhaps most prominently, men with Peyronie's disease may find themselves experiencing significant levels of depression. Left unchecked, depression can become a terrible burden.

How bent?

In Peyronie's disease, the penis is severely bent. But just how bent is that? After all, many millions of men have some degree of curvature to their penis when it is erect, and that's perfectly normal. There isn't really a cut-off point for when a bent penis becomes Peyronie's disease. Instead, a diagnosis of Peyronie's often depends on whether the degree of curvature is such that it impedes or prevents penetrative sex, or that it causes painful erections.

Most of the time, Peyronie's disease occurs when the penis endures trauma. It can be one big trauma (such as being hit in the groin by a fastball) or it can be numerous smaller traumas (such as over-aggressive handling during partner sex or masturbation). When such trauma occurs, the damaged tissue heals itself by laying down a layer of plaque. But the plaque is not as flexible and pliable as the damaged tissue and cannot stretch in the same way. Thus, when the penis becomes erect, the undamaged portions extend as they usually do; however, the damaged section stops expanding after a certain point, causing the penis to bend in that direction.


Clearly, the penis is of great importance to a man; for some men, a great deal of their feelings about themselves and their masculinity relate to the penis. A very bent penis can make a man feel his penis is deformed or make him worry about what his partner(s) may think of it. And in some cases, the bending physically prevents the man from engaging in penetrative sex. All this can lead a man into feelings of depression. One survey of 98 men with Peyronie's disease found that 48% of them were clinically depressed.

Many people, especially men, have a very difficult time acknowledging depression and therefore have difficulty getting treatment for it. The very best thing a man with depression can do is to seek help from a professional, such as a psychotherapist or a social worker. A professional can help a man work through the issues causing depression and recommend strategies for dealing with it.

In addition, the following tips can help fight depression:

- Focus on the positive. Identify things that are going well and keep them in focus.

- Socialize. In general, people feel better when they do not isolate themselves.

- Talk about it. Find a trusted, non-judgmental friend or lover and talk about Peyronie's and why it is bringing about feelings of depression.

- Laugh. Studies prove that laughter really can help alleviate symptoms of depression.

- Watch the diet. Certain food and drink choices can influence depression. Alcohol, for example, can easily worsen depression. On the other hand, foods with omega-3 fatty acids, like salmon and mackerel, and those rich in B vitamins, like leafy green vegetables, can help lighten a person's mood.

Depression isn't the only complication of a bent penis, of course. Regular use of a first class penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin) may help to address some of the other issues. For example, penis skin needs to be as supple and elastic as possible; a crème with vitamin C, which helps promote elasticity in penis skin, can be a boost in this area. In addition, plaque build-up can sometimes lead to a diminished sensation in the penis. A crème with L-carnitine, a neuroprotective ingredient, is better positioned to help restore some of that lost sensitivity.

Penis Bumps? Look Into Purpura As a Cause

Dr. Vinod Raina 94% (4665 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Penis Bumps? Look Into Purpura As a Cause

Although penis skin is generally smooth, penis bumps are not uncommon. Sometimes they can be pale and hard to see, which is often the case with benign Fordyce spots. Other times they may be large and obvious, as is often the case with hives or warts. And although they are harmless, sometimes they can be a signal that something is not right, which is why searching for and examining penis bumps is part of a good penis care strategy. One potential cause to add to the list is purpura, a fairly common condition.

About purpura

Purpura is a name given to a wide variety of skin discolorations that comes about from small blood vessels breaking. The blood leaking from the vessels forms spots, often raised. There are basically three different kinds of purpura:

- Petechiae are very small bumps, no more than 3 mm across, usually red, brown or purple in color.

- Ecchymoses are larger than petechiae, measuring at least 1 cm and resembling bruises.

- Palpable purpura refers to situations where blood vessels become inflamed in addition to breaking.

Purpuras usually appear in clusters - rarely is there just one purpura in a given area at a given time.

Is it dangerous?

A guy may wonder whether he should be concerned about penis bumps (or bumps elsewhere on the body) caused by purpura. That depends on the cause of the purpura, and for that he definitely needs to see a doctor.

Often purpura results from an autoimmune disorder in which the body starts attacking its own platelets, which causes the bleeding. This is usually not serious, although it can be if the bleeding occurs in an area such as the brain.

Purpura can also come about as a side effect of certain medications, transfusions, infections, lack of vitamin C or as a result of conditions like HIV, hepatitis C, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Epstein-Barr syndrome, and rubella, among others.

Some of these causes can be very serious, while others are relatively benign. But that is why it is important to visit a doctor and get a proper diagnosis. That diagnosis will also let the doctor know how to treat the purpura.


  • In some cases, no treatment is required, or the treatment may be minimal, such as switching medications. In other cases, more prolonged or involved treatment is necessary. Corticosteroids are often used to treat purpura, with treatment typically lasting from two to six weeks.
  • If the purpura is resulting in more severe bleeding, doctors often treat with an intravenous application of immunoglobin. There are also drugs used to help boost platelet production, if it is determined that low platelet production is a chronic or continuing problem.
  • Sometimes, especially when a person has a condition known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, the purpura can come and go throughout their life (although once diagnosed, it can be managed to minimize the number of occurrences). In some cases, this can require lifestyle changes, such as avoiding some contact sports.
  • When penis bumps occur due to pupura, it is possible that it may impact a man's sex life. The bumps themselves may be off-putting to a partner, who may worry if they are contagious or indicate an underlying problem. But sometimes the penis bumps may worsen when a man engages in vigorous sex (either with a partner or alone), as the physical activity may cause more purpura. So again, seeking a doctor's advice is recommended.
  • Penis bumps, whether from purpura or not, often may cause a bit of soreness when the penis is active. Using a high quality penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin) can provide some relief. Definitely find a crème with a combination of Shea butter (a high-end emollient) and vitamin E (a natural hydrator), as the combination of moisturizers can prove vey soothing. The crème should also include alpha lipoic acid, whose antioxidant properties battle the excess free radicals that can weaken penis skin cells.
2 people found this helpful

Slip Disc Often Misdiagnosed And Mistreated

MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Howrah
Slip Disc Often Misdiagnosed And Mistreated

What is a slipped disc?
Injury or weakness can cause the inner jelly like portion of the disc to protrude through the outer ring. This is known as a slipped or herniated disc. This causes pain and discomfort. If the slipped disc compresses one of your spinal nerves, you may also experience tingling, numbness and pain along the affected nerve. As the lumbar spine (lower back) carries most of the body weight, it tends to “slip” more than higher levels.

What is the anatomy of disc herniation / herniated disc/ slip disc /sciatica?

Human spine is made of up 33 bones (vertebrae) that are cushioned by discs. These vertebrae are divided by region: neck (cervical spine), mid-back (thoracic spine), and low back (lumbar spine). At the lower end of your spine, you also have the sacrum and the coccyx, which is commonly called your tailbone. Discs are present between these bones. The disks protect the bones by absorbing the shocks from daily activities like walking, lifting, and twisting. Each disc has two parts—a soft, gelatinous inner portion (nucleus pulpous) and a tough outer ring (annulus fibrosus). Together, the vertebrae and discs form a tunnel through which the spinal cords and nerve pass.

What are the causes of slip disc?

The etiology/cause of slip disc is multifactorial; there is no evidence to prove/disprove the quantitative effect of one or other. The risk factors for slip disc can be:

• life style: stress and emotional tension, poor posture -standing for long periods of time or sitting incorrectly—can cause slip disc, heavy physical work, lifting or forceful movement, bending, or awkward positions can really hurt your back.
• obesity: being overweight puts pressure and stress on the back, especially the low back. Carrying excess weight aggravates other health conditions such as osteoporosis (weak bones), osteoarthritis (joint pain), rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease), degenerative disc disease (described above in the aging section), spinal stenosis, and spondylolisthesis.

What are the symptoms of herniated disc or slip disc?
Symptoms of a slipped disc include: sciatica – pain in buttock radiating to leg
• pain and numbness, most commonly on one side of the body
• pain that extends to your arms and/or legs
• pain that worsens at night
• pain that worsens after standing or sitting
• pain when walking short distances
• unexplained muscle weakness
• tingling, aching, or burning sensations in the affected area
• sciatica— a sharp shooting pain that can extend from the buttock into the leg and sometimes into the foot.
• muscle spasm, locked back, stiffness in back, morning stiffness.
• although rare, herniated discs can cause you to lose bowel or bladder control known as cauda equine syndrome and one should seek medical advice as prognosis deteriorates with time. One can know whether this is happening to him or not if he has urgency /frequency of urination or loss of control of urination or sudden peri anal anesthesia.

When do I need to have a spine doctor opinion?
Patients with progressive symptoms in leg / back need a specialist opinion to diagnose and treat the problem.

symptoms which need specialist attention (red flags) are:

1. Persistent leg pain
2. Numbness in leg
3. Weakness in leg
4. Difficulty in walking
5. Unable to control urine / motion

symptoms like bowel and bladder urinary incontinence shall seek urgent / emergency opinion /management by the spine specialist.

Which tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis?

Imaging studies / investigations help to arrive a diagnosis of slip disc / herniated disc and include:
• x-rays
• mri scans
• disco grams, which are rarely utilized.

What are the treatment options for slip disc?
There are different options to treat slip disc depending on the severity and duration of symptoms. They may comprise of one or many:

1. Drugs & medications
2. Spinal injections
3. Spine surgery

drugs, medications, to relieve slip disc: medication alone is not the ultimate solution to your back pain, however during emergency or during severe pain these medicines may help you curb the suffering. paracetamol:
your doctor may call this an analgesic, they don’t help reduce inflammation, though. nsaids (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs):
these will help reduce swelling (or inflammation) while relieving your pain; that’s how nsaids differ from paracetamol.

muscle relaxants: which will help stop the muscular spasms.

as surprising as it may seem, anti-depressants can be effective drugs for treating pain because they block pain messages on their way to the brain. They can also help increase your body’s production of endorphins, a natural pain killer.

in the most extreme cases, and only under careful supervision, you doctor may also prescribe an opioid.

medication warning:
as with all medications, you must follow your doctor’s advice precisely.

Spinal injections: 
(a) injection techniques
• root block injection
• epidural injection
• caudal block injection
• facet block injection

The options of surgery are
• decompression
• spinal fusion

the spine surgery advised for slip disc can be performed in many different ways. The success rates of surgery in slip disc/ herniated disc / sciatica is 98 % and with invention of modern technology and minimal invasive surgery techniques it nears 100 %. Spine surgery can be performed in different manners:-

• conventional open surgery
• minimal invasive spine surgery – key hole spine surgery
• endoscopic spine surgery
• microscopic spine surgery
• micro endoscopic spine surgery

Decompression includes
• facetectomy: a procedure that removes a part of the facet (a bony structure in the spinal canal) to increase the space.

• foraminotomy: a procedure that removes the bony compression over foramina (the area where the nerve roots exit the spine) to increase the size of the nerve pathway.

• laminoplasty: a procedure makes more room for the spinal canal.

• laminotomy: a procedure that removes only a small portion of the lamina (a part of the vertebra) to relieve pressure on the nerve roots.

• micro-discectomy: a procedure that removes a disc through a very small incision using a microscope.

• laminectomy: a procedure for treating spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal cord.

spinal fusion: surgery intends to stabilize an unstable segment responsible for pain, this may involve putting some screws in your spine to increase stability.

various options of doing spinal fusion are plf /plif/tlif/ alif/xlif.