If an HIV infection, treatment is primarily aimed at preventing evolve as long as possible and do not give way to the disease AIDS . In this case, the treatment is against HIV itself. If the emergence of AIDS and its accompanying diseases occur as a lung inflammation or bowel, treatment should include them. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle so that the immune system does not see further harmed. Many infected with HIV also have counseling and self-help centers with other affected. Drug Treatments Currently it has good information about certain steps in the single expansion of HIV infection. Thus, it has been possible to develop drugs that inhibit certain evolutions of cell infestation. HIV treatment is also called highly active antiretroviral therapy and its abbreviation is HAART. Specifically, this treatment includes the following medications: The entry inhibitors , which inhibit the entry of 'HIV virus' in human cells. VHI prevent adhesion of immune cells and / or dissolution of the viral envelope with the cell membrane (fusion). The excipient enfuvirtide eg prevents fusion. The reverse transcriptase inhibitor blocks a special top virus that can translate the genetic information of the virus (DNA) reverse transcriptase. This group of drugs includes, for example, substances such as lamivudine , the tenofovir or nevirapine . Another top virus, integrase, incorporating HIV DNA genetic information translated into immune cells. In this case, inhibitors of this enzyme, apply called integrase inhibitors . The drug raltegravir contains these integrase inhibitors. The protease inhibitors destroy other HIV enzyme, the HIV protease. If a cell is infected with HIV, forms a component of protein which could be born new HIV viruses. Protease HIV plays an important role in the composition of this protein. Inhibitors of this enzyme are involved in virus appear less capable of action in affected cells. Examples of protease inhibitors are drugs fosamprenavir , indinavir , nelfinavir, and ritonavir . Although 'AIDS' remains an incurable disease, it may be well with a combination therapy . This combination consists of at least three different drugs; usually several inhibitors of reverse transcriptase which are combined with a protease inhibitor.
Pep is required for all persons invo5 in providing medical and surgical services
No environmental transmission reported but pep is pep is required when they are exposed to -
potentially infectious body fluid e. G. Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, synovial, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid. Any bodu fluid contaminated with" visible blood" considered" at risk"
exposure to body fluid considered" not at risk" e. G. Tears, sweat, urine, faeces, saliva, sputum and vomitus
Management of exp6 site
- do not panic
- wash wound and surrounding with soap and water
- rinse well
- do not scrub
- for not use antiseptic or skin washes
- splash of blood
- irrigate eyes with water or saine
- if using contact lens leave them in place while irrigating. Remove the contact lens and clean them after eyes is cleaned
- mouth: spit fluid immediately and rinse mouth thoroughly water/saline repeatedly
Pep is required within 72 hours of exposure
conslt nearest art center for selection of pep regime e. G.
1. Basic regime of 2 drug zidovudine 300 mg bd
2 drug regime is recommended if third drug is required then use nelfinavir
arv prophylaxix - short term arv drugs is used to reduce hiv transmission from mother to infant
- all hivexposed infants should receive cotrimoxazole at 4-6 weeks of age
- mother- nov 200 mg at onset of labour
- baby- nvp syrup 2 mg / lg of body weight within 72 hours of delivery
Hiv treatment is done by antiviral drugs, there are a number of antiviral drugs available in the market, usually HIV is treated with a combination of drugs, usually two to three drugs are used in treating HIV in the initial stage, we can change the combination of drugs according to the requirement of the patient. Drugs can be adjusted or increased if there is the resistance of HIV in the patient.
There are a number of compounds (about 22 in number) which have been formally approved (by us food and drug administration) for the treatment of HIV infections (aids). According to their point of intervention with the HIV replicative cycle, these compounds can be classified into 5 categories: (1) nrtis (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors): azidothymidine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine; (2) ntrtis (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors): tenofovir, administered as its oral prodrug form tdf (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate); (3) nnrtis (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors): nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz; (4) pis (hiv protease inhibitors): saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir; and (5) fis (fusion inhibitors): enfuvirtide. Starting from the drugs which are currently available for the treatment of aids, numerous combinations could be envisaged. Drug combinations are, in principle, aimed at obtaining synergism between the compounds (reasonably expected if they act by different mechanisms), while reducing the likelihood of drug resistance development. Such anti-hiv drug combination regimes were initiated about 10 years ago and have been generally referred to as haart (for highly active antiretroviral therapy). While haart originally consisted of a pill burden of twenty (or more) pills per day, this has been gradually diminished over the past few years, and, since July 2006, an all-in-one pill (teevir from myelin and virotrenz from ranbaxy sun pharma) has become available, which contains three anti-hiv drugs (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, emtricitabine200mg and efavirenz 600 mg) to be taken as a single pill only once daily. Given the information that has been acquired for the therapeutic use (efficacy, safety) of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate over the past five years, it would now seem mandatory to further consider the prophylactic use of tdf [and its combination with emtricitabine (truvada) and/or atripla], as a single daily pill to prevent HIV infection. New combinations of drugs are also available which include tenofovir 300 mg lamivudine 150 mg which is very new drugs.