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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Treatment of Childhood Infections
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Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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Breast reduction, or reduction mammoplasty, is for a woman experiencing health problems and/or extreme self-consciousness associated with very large, heavy breasts. The main complains are backache, neck pain and skin rashes or itching along with difficulty in carrying large breasts. The goal is to give the woman a more attractive contour with smaller, better-shaped breasts in proportion with the rest of her body. She will then benefit from freedom of health problems associated with large breasts and an improved self-image.
Medical problems associated with very large breasts include back and neck pain caused by the excessive weight, skin irritation, skeletal deformities and breathing problems. Bra straps may leave shoulder indentations. Large, heavy breasts also contribute to poor posture, and can interfere with normal daily activities such as exercise. Excessive breast size may also lead to a decreased sense of attractiveness and self-confidence.
Breast reduction is done under general anesthesia on an outpatient basis or in the hospital. The surgery removes fat, glandular tissue, and skin from the breasts, making them smaller, lighter, and firmer. It can also reduce the size of the areola, the darker skin surrounding the nipple.
Incisions are made around the pigmented nipple-areolar complex and extend vertically below the nipple and in the fold under the breast. The nipple-areolar complex is moved upward to the desired location. The incisions are covered with a light dressing.
Afterward, the breasts are placed in a surgical bra that will hold them symmetrically during initial healing. Initial discomfort subsides daily and can be controlled with oral medications. Scars will fade in 6-18 months. Surgery will likely reduce, but not eliminate the ability to breast-feed.
RECOVERY: WHAT TO EXPECT
When performed by a qualified plastic surgeon, breast reduction is a safe procedure. Nevertheless, as with any surgery, there is always a possibility of complications, including bleeding, infection, or reaction to the anesthesia. Some patients develop small sores around their nipples after surgery; these can be treated with antibiotic creams. You can reduce your risks by closely following your physician’s advice both before and after surgery.
Much of the swelling and bruising disappears in the first few weeks following the surgery. Breasts may appear slightly mismatched, or have unevenly positioned nipples. Their new shape will be apparent within 6 months to a year, and will depend on hormonal fluctuations, weight changes and pregnancy.
Although your surgeon will make your scars as inconspicuous as possible, some permanent scarring is inevitable. Smokers are more likely to experience poor healing and wider scars. The scars will be red and lumpy in the months following the surgery, but the redness will fade and in time the scars will be less obvious.
ABILITY TO BREASTFEED
Because the surgery removes many of the milk ducts leading to the nipples, breast-feeding may no longer be an option.
Some patients may experience a permanent loss of feeling in their nipples or breasts. Rarely, the nipple and areola may lose their blood supply and the tissue will die. (The nipple and areola can usually be rebuilt, however, using skin grafts from elsewhere on the body.)
THE END RESULT
Breast reduction produces the most dramatic results of all plastic surgeries. It ends the physical discomfort or large breasts and makes your body appear more evenly proportioned, and clothes fit better. Your new image will take some getting used to, as much as you desired the change. Give yourself—and your family and friends—time to adjust to the new you and, like most women, you will enjoy the benefits.
My daughter 2 years old, she suffering from fever last 15 days, we have taken treatment from two doctors in Haridwar, 1 st doctor Dr. Dixit from Dev Bhumi Hospital couldn't diagnose any problem. On 12th Sept suggest it's Pneumoniae.(from 09th Sept to 12th Sept,) We changed doctor on 12th Sept Dr. Anjul Shrimali in metro chhaya hospital till date. First he diagnosis Pneumoniae. If we stop medicine fever remain come up to 101'F, so checkup for typhoid, pls find typhoid report, his medicine is still continue. But stop the medicine, fever remain come back up to 101'F. This doctor also suggest for second opinion.
Few small lymph nodes are seen in the axillary region and along the pectorails muscle on the right side during the ultrasound of my five year old son. During the fnac, smears show mature lymphocytes with transformed lymphocytes with lymphohistiocytosis cell clusters with few histiocytes showing hemophagocytosis in humorrhagic background. Kindly tell from which disease my son infected and what is diagnosis.
My one month baby's eyes are watery and white durt is available. Is it symptom of cold. If so then what to do?
My daughter has 45 day old. Sometimes milk coming from her nose. Is it any problem. What is the reason. Please give me the answer.
I am 40 years old. I have a 14 year old son. I am sure he masturbates daily. Does masturbation will reduce his height growth as he is just 4 foot now. Please help is masturbation good or bad for him at this height growing age?
Am 28 years female, I have 6 month old baby I need how to care my self. Now am looking not good and I have leg pain then foot crack sO pls give some suggestion to me.
My son (2.5 + Y) seems to get frightened looking at the windows specially during evening or night. We stay in the 3rd floor of a residential complex, which is surrounded by quite a few trees outside. He sometimes gets so scared that he moves from our bedroom to my parents bedroom. This has become quite frequent specially past 2-weeks & even presence of me & my wife could not convince him. Any tips how to get rid of his fear? We have bright lights in the room & no scary item inside as well.
Sir, a male child who is only 4 months who is suffering hypoglycemia, and his sugar level is keeps low always even he drinks milk in every 2 hours in a day. Doctor of Bangladesh suggest him to give Octreotide Injection (20 unit) two times in a day. But there is no big improve as we expect. Sir, my heartiest request to you that, please give us suggestion which will be suitable for this child.
Hello doctor, I have a child of four years old, he has 9points of hemoglobin how can I improve blood in his body, children they cay not eat green leaves etc, can I give him cerelac again. Please give me the answer quickly.
My son is 2 yr old.He used to eat all kinda food till he was 1 1/2 but from then he is not at all eating properly i tried all kinda tonics prescribed by various best pediatricians his health was normal when we checked he is taking only breakfast and dinner that too in small quantity he loves junk and fast foods.What kind of medication will help him ?
Iron is an essential nutrient and mineral that is required by adults and children alike. Iron helps move oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and helps muscles store and use oxygen. It is especially important for children because it aids development and prevents anaemia. Untreated iron deficiency in children can cause physical and mental delays. It can lead to less healthy red blood cells in the child's blood stream which will cause a delay in the growth of physical and mental faculties.
Risk factors for iron deficiency in children
Infants and children at highest risk of iron deficiency include:
- Babies who are born prematurely or have a low birth weight
- Babies who drink cow's milk before age 1
- Breast-fed babies who aren't given complementary foods containing iron after age 6 months
- Babies who drink formula that isn't fortified with iron
- Children ages 1 to 5 who drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of cow's milk, goat's milk or soy milk a day
- Children who have certain health conditions, such as chronic infections or restricted diets
- Children ages 1 to 5 who have been exposed to lead
- Adolescent girls also are at higher risk of iron deficiency because their bodies lose iron during menstruation.
Symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia
The signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia in children may include:
- Pale skin
- Fatigue or weakness
- Slow cognitive and social development
- Inflammation of the tongue
- Difficulty maintaining body temperature
- Increased likelihood of infections
- Unusual cravings for non-nutritive substances, such as ice, dirt or pure starch
Prevent iron deficiency in children
Take steps to prevent iron deficiency in your child by paying attention to his or her diet. For example:
- Breast-feed or use iron-fortified formula. Breast-feeding until your child is age 1 is recommended. If you don't breast-feed, use iron-fortified infant formula.
- Encourage a balanced diet. When you begin serving your baby solids, typically between ages 4 months and 6 months, feed him or her foods with added iron, such as iron-fortified baby cereal. For older children, good sources of iron include red meat, chicken, fish, beans and dark green leafy vegetables. Between ages 1 and 5, don't allow your child to drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of milk a day.
- Enhance absorption. Vitamin C helps promote the absorption of dietary iron. You can help your child absorb iron by offering foods rich in vitamin C, such as melon, strawberries, kiwi, broccoli, tomatoes and potatoes.
- Consider iron supplements. If your baby was born prematurely or with a low birth weight or you're breast-feeding a baby older than 4 months and he or she isn't eating two or more servings a day of iron-rich foods, talk to a child's doctor about oral iron supplements.
Make sure that you watch out for the tell tale signs of iron deficiency and take the necessary precautions to avoid the same. If you wish to discuss about any specific child related problem, you can consult a specilized pediatrician and ask a free question.