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I am diabetic 25 years old. Hba1c 7.9.i m on glucophage once daily. How long I will be on glucophage and it is necessary after several years I will be on insulin?
I am 27 yrs, just a month ago I have started working as a professor, I smoke daily around 2-3 cigarettes, there are rumors around that it affects my penis or for that matter my sexual response. Please help I want to learn more or is it even true or not?
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The bowel is a very important part of your body within the digestive system as it plays a vital role in the absorption of nutrients and minerals within your body as well as excreting toxic matter. The bowel contains the small bowel or small intestine as well as the large bowel or the large intestine. However, parts of the bowel may be infected or damaged in such a manner that they may need to be removed in order to save further worsening. Thus, the removal of sections of the bowels is known as bowel resection surgery.
How is bowel resection surgery performed?
In this procedure, sections of either the large intestine or the small intestine are removed which have either become diseased, infected or have malignant growths within them. The doctors and surgeons first identify the sections that need to be removed and then perform the surgery wherein a section of the tissue is excised and then two ends of the bowel are stitched together to form a new section of continuous small intestine or large intestine.
Types of bowel resection
There are two types of bowel resection, namely small bowel resection performed on the small intestine and large bowel resection performed on the large intestine. The indications for both of them are mentioned below:
Small Bowel resection: Some of the cases wherein small bowel resection may be required are as follows:
- Cancerous or benign polyps or growth
- Precancerous growths and polyps
- Damage to the small intestine due to injuries
- Congenital defects in the small intestine
- Blockages in the intestine
- Growth of ulcers, bleeding, and infection within the small intestine
- Infections within the intestines
- Other disorders of the small intestine
Large bowel resection: Large bowel resection is also carried out due to many of the same reasons as mentioned above. However, some of the specific reasons for large bowel resection are mentioned below:
- Colon cancer
- Diverticulitis, disorder that specifically affects the large intestine
- Bowel inflammation or ulcerative colitis
- Abnormal twisting of the bowel also known as volvulus
- Intestines which slide into another section of the intestine; also known as intussusception
Risks of the bowel resection
Like any other surgery, bowel resection also carries its own risks just as any other form of surgery. Some of the common risks of bowel resection are –
- Adverse reaction to anesthesia
- Heart attacks or strokes during the operation
- Excessive bleeding among others
Specific risks for large and small bowel resections are mentioned as follows:
- Small bowel resection: Certain common risks include accumulation of pus in the abdomen, internal bleeding within the intestine after surgery, diarrhea, infection of the incision area and the stitched area breaking open among others
- Large bowel resection: In this case, tissues protruding through the cut causing an incisional hernia is the most common element of risk. Nearby organs may be damaged as well; scar tissue, problems with the passage of material within the colon among others are some of the other complications.
However, these issues occur rarely and resections are performed very successfully and quite regularly by surgeons.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.
Diabetes or diabetes mellitus is a collection of disorders that affect the way blood sugar is used by your body. A healthy blood sugar level is very important as it provides energy for the necessary bodily functions. Diabetes results in increased glucose levels in the blood. Diabetes is classified into two types:
Type 1 Diabetes: In this type, the immune system of the body destroys cells that produce insulin, thus resulting in lesser insulin production.
Type 2 Diabetes: In Type 2 diabetes, the body is not able to use the insulin as a result of increased resistance to insulin and definite deficiency in insulin, thus resulting in high blood glucose levels.
The symptoms of diabetes are:
You may feel thirsty frequently.
Excessive and frequent bouts of hunger.
Presence of ketones (byproduct of muscle and fat breakdown) in the urine.
Sores take a longer time to heal.
You become vulnerable to various infections because of the weakening of the immune system.
The causes for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are different. In case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system of the body kills cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. This results in shortage of insulin in the body, resulting in high blood sugar levels.
In Type 2 Diabetes, the cells in the body turn resistant to insulin. The exact cause of this is not known, but genetic factors, being overweight, inactivite and other environmental factors can trigger this disorder.
The treatment options for diabetes are:
Exercise: Exercise is an effective remedy to lower your blood sugar levels as it helps in transporting sugar into the cells for energy. You can include cardiovascular activities such as running and swimming in your workout regimen.
Insulin Therapy: Insulin therapy involves injecting insulin into the body to reduce blood sugar levels. It can be injected by using an insulin pen or an insulin pump.
Oral Medications: Oral medications may be prescribed to stimulate the pancreas to boost insulin production. Certain medications can also inhibit excess glucose release from the liver.
Pancreas Transplant: In some cases, pancreas transplant is advised to replace the faulty pancreas with a good one that produces insulin in sufficient quantity. Although, it's a rare possibility and does not correct already caused damage to eyes, kidney or nerves.
- Diet: Diet is another important aspect of the treatment plan that plays an important role in controlling diabetes. Avoid foods that contain simple sugars as they tend to raise your blood sugar levels. Rather, include complex carbohydrates in your diet such as beans, vegetables and whole grains. Special emphasis should be put on green vegetables. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.