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When blood clot blocks one or more arteries in your lungs the condition is known as pulmonary embolism. It can cause a decrease in the oxygen levels in your blood, damage to your lungs due to sudden restrictions in the flow of blood along with adverse effects on other parts of your body. Life threatening blockage can cause death if left untreated and you should immediately contact your health care provider to get proper diagnosis. Pulmonary embolism requires various lab tests and generally requires short time to resolve.
Symptoms: The symptoms of pulmonary embolism mainly depend upon many factors pertaining to your previous medical history. Pulmonary embolism varies with the size of your lungs, the size of the clots formed in your blood, and any other underlying history of the heart or lungs. That said, pulmonary embolism has symptoms which are not similar to any two persons and will vary accordingly.
The common symptoms however may include the following and you are advised to opt for a health checkup if these are persistent in your body:
- Cough along with bloody sputum is a common symptom.
- Shortness of breath, which will become worse as the days passes by. They will appear suddenly and cause huge discomfort in breathing.
- Chest pain which may give you the feeling of a heart attack. The pain will intensify when you sit to eat or cough. Deep breath will cause problems too and will not go away easily with exertion.
- Some other symptoms include fever, excess sweat, irregular heartbeat and dizziness.
- Electrocardiography (also known popularly as ECG) to measure your heart's electrical activity and functioning.
- CT plumonary angiography is gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism.
- Chest x ray, which is a common and non invasive test to check your heart and lungs as well as the problems with any bones surrounding them.
- ECHO can detect secondary changes in heart due to pulmonary embolism.
Treatment of pulmonary embolism can be done with medicines if it is detected at an early stage or also if the clot is small. However, if the size of your clot is problematic and blocks the blood flow to your lungs or heart then surgery may be necessary. Open surgery and clot removal surgery are common in the treatment of pulmonary embolism and will require good regular follow up check ups. Regular leg exercises will also reduce the chances of any underlying disease and you should hence consult your doctor.
If you are experiencing difficulty in breathing or rapid breathing, shortness of breath and low blood pressure, you might have been affected with acute respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS. This is a fatal lung condition in which the supply of oxygen to the lungs and into the blood gets prevented. The symptoms of this syndrome develop within two days of the illness. Here are 10 important facts about ARDS you should know about:
Because of the low level of oxygen in the blood, the organs of the body may not function properly. The kidneys and brain require constant oxygen-rich blood supply and there are chances of organ failure due to ARDS.
Commonly, people who get ARDS are already in hospital for some other health problem. People who are not hospitalised may get ARDS because of conditions such as pneumonia.
In ARDS, the tiny blood vessels of the lungs leak more fluid than usual into the air sacs of the lungs. This happens because of infections, injuries or some other condition. The lungs cannot get filled up with air and sufficient oxygen is prevented from getting pumped into the bloodstream.
People who are prone to ARDS have some condition that may injure their lungs directly or indirectly.
The initial symptoms of ARDS include a feeling of not getting sufficient air in the lungs, low oxygen levels in the blood and rapid breathing. The diagnosis of ARDS depends on your medical history and the results from several tests and physical examinations.
The treatment of ARDS is undertaken by oxygen therapy, medicines and fluids. A patient with ARDS is likely to develop some other health condition while in the hospital, such as lung scarring, blood clots, infections and pneumothorax.
Many people recover from ARDS completely while others keep on facing certain health problems, such as shortness of breath, muscle weakness, depression and fatigue. Problems related to memory and clear thinking are also indicated.
By improving your quality of life, you can recover from ARDS. You need the support and encouragement of your family and friends. You must avoid smoking and keep away from any kind of lung irritant.
- The treatment for ARDS has showed progress in the recent years. Hence, more people are recovering from this condition. New treatment procedures are being researched on.
COPD, which is short for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, is a severe form of lung disease that is characterized by increased breathlessness and obstruction of airflow from the lungs. People who are suffering from COPD are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer, heart diseases and many other conditions. It includes progressive lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, few forms of bronchiectasis and refractory (non-reversible) asthma. The former two are the most common conditions contributing to COPD.
Chronic bronchitis induces inflammation in the airway that carries air to the lungs and fills it with mucus. This either completely blocks the airway or narrows it, causing difficulty in breathing. However in emphysema, the air sacs inside the lungs which inflate and deflate as you breathe in and out, lose their elasticity due to which less air comes in and goes out leaving you breathless.
The best way to treat COPD is to quit smoking. Your doctor may also prescribe you medications or ask you to enroll in a lung rehab program.
- Smoking: Smoking is one of the most common causes of COPD. This is because smoking is known to destroy the stretchy fibers in people's lungs and irritate the airways. Even passive smoking is unhealthy. About 90% of the people having COPD are current or former smokers.
- Genetics: Some individuals suffer from COPD even after refraining from smoking. Genes might be at the helm of COPD in such a case. AATD i.e. Alpha -1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, is a protein in the lungs, the lack of which is one of the most common genetic factor causing emphysema.
- Environmental Factors: Breathing in harmful pollutants present in your environment is also one of the causes of COPD. Fumes, dust or certain chemicals are a few examples of harmful lung irritants. Organic cooking fuel may also cause COPD. Exposing yourself to the aforementioned environmental factors for a prolonged period of time increases your risk of developing COPD substantially.
- Shortness of breath especially after exercising
- Tightness in your chest
- Unintended weight loss
- Lack of energy
- Frequent respiratory infections
- Cough accompanied by mucus
- Physical Exam where your doctor monitors the functioning of your lungs.
- Questioning about your past health (Smoking or other harmful lung irritants).
- Spirometry and other breathing tests.
- Chest x-rays and other tests to eliminate other problems which could be causing your symptoms.
I am suffering from allergy and runny nose since 2 year. I am taking fexona 180 mg I want to know that which medicine is used in nebulizer for allergy.
Common cold and cough is a health problem which is very common and irritating. You can try these home remedies which are easy to use, inexpensive and easily available. The best thing about these remedies is they don't have any side effects.
Drink lot of fluids
Drink plenty of fluid. It helps clear up your congestion. Makes your throat moist and avoid dehydration. You can try water, tea, coffee, sports dring. Hot chicken soup is one of the ideals.
The blood vessels can become irritated because of an acute upper respiratory infection, such as a cold or a sinus infection. The main benefit of breathing in moist, warm steam is that may help ease feelings of irritation and swollen blood vessels in the nasal passages.Hold your head over a pot of boiling water and breathe slowly through your nose.
Home remedies for common cold and cough
Salt water rinse of nasal passage
It can help a lot to clear your nasal congestion. Mix 1 teaspoon of iodide-free salt and 1/3 teaspoon baking soda with 8 ounces of lukewarm distilled/boiled water. Always use distilled, sterile, or previous boiled water when you make this solution. Otherwise, you might get an infection.Filled a netipot or a bulb syringe with this solution. Lean over a basin then gently squirt the salt water into your nose. Let the solution drain. Then do the same procedure on other nostrils.
Apply hot packs on your sinuses
Apply warm cloths over your sinus can help clear your nasal passage congestion and ease the irritation.
The health benefits of ginger root have been discussed for centuries. Now we have scientific proof of its curative properties.The ginger tea itself tastes good and also helps in treating common cold and cough. Ginger in hot tea helps to dry up running nose. Curing a common cold and cough is one of the various health benefits of ginger.It is very easy to make the tea. Just boil the water with some slices of ginger, then use this water to make the tea.
Milk and turmeric
This is maybe the oldest known indian recipe to fight common cold and cough. Turmeric has a strong antioxidant which helps in treating many health problems. Drinking hot milk mixed with turmeric before sleeping will help you recover from common cold and cough.
Cinnamon lemon, and honey mixture
This is a very effective mixture for fighting against the common cold and cough. Take a teaspoon of honey and mixed it with some drops of lemon and a pinch of cinnamon dust. Taking this mixture twice a day will help you fight against the common cold and cough.
Brandy and honey
Brandy warms your chest by increasing your body temperature. Mixing honey with bandy will help you fight against the common cold and cough.
Tulsi, ginger, and black pepper tea
Add tulsi, ginger and black pepper while preparing your tea and this spiced tea is great for your health. These three ingredients play an important role in fighting a common cold and cough.
Flaxseed for cough tratment
Boil 2 tbsp of flaxseeds with 1 cup of water till it thickens. Let it be cold then add some honey and lemon in this mixture. It is a great recipe for the common cold and cough.
You can use these remedies but if your conditions are not improved then immediately seek medical help.
Implications of cough before and after surgery: it's prevention and treatment are key to judicious management
Patients with cough frequently present to clinicians working in both primary and secondary care. Acute cough, which often follows an upper respiratory tract infection, may be initially disruptive but is usually self limiting and rarely needs significant medical intervention. Chronic cough often points towards some underlying lung pathology but many a times it presents as the sole manifestation of some throat pathology as well. Even with a clear diagnosis, cough can be difficult to control and, for the patient, can be associated with impaired quality of life. Any surgery may have some implications on the course of cough for any cause, whatsoever. On the other hand, surgery, per say, may create some situations which lead to distressing cough.
Acute cough before surgery:
May occur as an exacerbation of chronic underlying lung disease eg. Asthma, copd or lung fibrosis or an acute viral illness, commonly. The chronic disease should be evaluated in terms of lung function to predict post-operative risk for prolonged ventilation. Any acute viral illness causing distressing cough may entail delaying the surgery for 6 weeks, depending on the assessment of concerned anaesthesiologist. This is due to the fact that an acute viral infection may make the person more susceptible to the ill effects of anaesthetic agents. Another issue regarding the effect of violent cough in some specific form of surgery like cataract extraction is the adverse operative outcome due to raised pressure in eyes with every bout. So, the cough needs to get controlled by applying vigorous measures, depending on the cause and extent of cough, in such special cases.
Post- operative cough:
There could be several causes occurring not very rarely in many post-operative cases. The causes may be:
I) effect of anaesthetic gases
Ii) laryngeal swelling due to placement of plastic tube in airways during any prolonged surgery
Iii) segmental lung collapse due to lack of chest wall movement
Iv) infection in lower airways due to any compromised immune status or pre-existing illness
V) partial damage of a nerve named phrenic nerve in any upper abdominal surgery, causing partial immobility to the diaphragm
Most of the conditions deserve separate attention, but common post-operative measures taken to mitigate cough, are:
a) post-operative deep breathing exercises
b) incentive spirometry
c) chest physiotherapy
d) steam inhalation, mostly for tracheal problems regarding intubation
e) inhaled bronchodilators as and when necessary
f) suitable antibiotics, as needed
Good effect of cough, post-operatively
Mainly after thoracic and upper abdominal surgeries, cough-reflex is very important. The natural defence mechanism to clear the airways, is utterly needed in these cases to prevent post-operative pneumonia. The only precaution to be taught is, the patient has to immobilise the operative site with a clinching pillow, while coughing, to prevent wound dehiscence and other complications.
To summarise, cough as a reflex to clear the airways, is welcome proposition to prevent stasis of secretions and subsequent infection. But, distressing and uncontrolled cough is a real worrisome phenomenon, needing meticulous prevention and control before and after surgery, to avoid untoward complications.