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Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding.
What is ECMO?
Like dialysis for unfunctional kidney, Ecmo for unfunctional lung.
Ecmo stands for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. It is a method of giving oxygen for the body when icu pateint lungs and/or heart are not able to supply oxygen on their own.
Why ICU pateint put on ECMO?
Doctors place ICU patients on ECMO when patients are not able to supply oxygen to the body.
When a patient’s lungs fail, he/she first is intubated (breathing tube) and hooked up to a ventilator (breathing machine).
However, sometimes lungs are so damaged that providing oxygen through intubation is not enough.
This is when doctors turn to v-v ecmo.
A heart can fail for many reasons including heart attack, pulmonary embolism, bad valve disease, or worsening heart failure. When a heart fails, doctors try to fix the underlying problem. They may also start medications (called ionotropes) to help improve the pump function of the heart. If medications are not enough, doctors will turn to v-a ecmo.
How long can someone stay on ecmo?
That is a complicated question. Due to the risks of ecmo discussed above, doctors try to keep patients on ecmo for as short a time as possible. Often patient will be on ecmo for several days up to 1-2 weeks. Every day, several blood and imaging tests are done to determine if a patient is ready to come off ecmo. As the technology of ecmo improves, hopefully side effects will decrease and patients can remain on ecmo for longer periods of time.
What is the difference between ecmo and a ventilator (breathing machine)?
Both ecmo and a ventilator aim to provide oxygen to the body when the patient’s own lungs and breathing are failing. The ventilator assists the patient’s own lungs by pushing oxygen with pressure into the lungs. Ecmo instead provides oxygen directly via a catheter placed in a patient’s vein or artery. We almost always try oxygenating a patient with a ventilator first. However, when a patient’s lungs are too sick for this, we turn to ecmo to assist in providing oxygen to the body. V-v ecmo provides oxygen through a vein. This blood then has to travel to the heart and be pumped around the rest of the body through arteries. Therefore, with v-v ecmo or with a ventilator, a patient must have a well-functioning heart to get the oxygen pumped throughout the body. V-a ecmo has the additional advantage of pumping blood directly to arteries. This “by-passes” the heart and is therefore the method of ecmo we use when a patient’s heart is failing.
I am 43 years old and I have taken scan and in my report there is a small fibre on the both wall of the uterus, can you please tell me whether it is danger or not.
Of all cancer types that affect the female population, breast cancer is the most common one. Statistics show that above 1 in 8 women in the USA are likely to develop breast cancer (invasive type, which is often severe). Changing lifestyles including prolonged use of birth control, smoking, alcohol abuse, lack of physical activity, dietary changes, etc., have led to an increased incidence. As these are here to stay, the only way is to prevent.
The likelihood of developing breast cancer is determined by risk factors. Some of these risk factors cannot be changed. For instance, age, ethnicity, and history of familial breast cancer. However, there are others, which can be acted upon or modified to reduce the chances of developing breast cancer.
Some of the preventable risk factors are as follows:
- Nicotine abuse: Quitting smoking has multiple benefits for a woman, and one major benefit is the reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Other benefits include reduced incidence of diabetes, heart disease, and other cancers.
- Hormone replacement therapy: To the extent possible, avoid prolonged use of birth control pills or hormones for other treatment purposes. In addition to using non-hormonal methods, if not avoidable, constantly monitoring hormone levels is very important. Birth control pills should especially be avoided by women over 35 years of age who smoke. The risk associated with developing cancer reduces as soon as the hormone supplement is stopped.
- Weight Management: One of the major risk factors is obesity, and in people with other non-alterable risk factors, it is best to work on weight management from an early age. Talk to your doctor about your ideal BMI and ensure this is maintained.
- Physical Activity: Regular physical activity, at least 30 minutes per day, in addition to strength training will help in keeping the body agile and managing weight. It also reduces the risk of breast cancer.
- Breastfeeding: Studies have shown that breastfeeding has protective effect against breast cancer; longer a baby is breast fed, greater is the protective benefit.
- Screening: Even if not completely preventable, early detection of breast cancer is very important. This will help in less severe treatment and better prognosis. Recommended ages for mammography are as follows:
- In the age of 40 to 44, an annual mammogram is advised along with a discussion with the doctor on the risks.
- An annual mammogram for all women in the age of 45 – 54 is important as most women enter menopause by this time. This needs to be continued annually, as self-breast exams alone cannot detect cancer, thus it is a good practice and anything abnormal will not go undetected.
- These will help reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, help in early detection, and improve prognosis.
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Please mujhe btaye ki disc problem se kis trh ki diet ya exercise ya medicine se relief mil skta hai.because mere husband ko disc ki problem hai. Mere husband ne disc ka operation tk bhi krva liya. But uske baad bhi unko bhot zyada back me pain hota hai. Kbhi kbhi to 24 hours tak bhi rehta hai. Please iss problem ka koi best solution btaye. Please I needed your help. Kis trh ki diet , exercise and medicine or kuch ese tips btaye Jinse iss problem se chutkara mil sake. Thank you.
I am having slip disc. I want to know to cure it with exercises and what are the precautions to took for this?
I am 22 year running. I am suffering from slip disc problem since last 1 & half year. My pain is increasing day by day. Its start with lower back and now its come in my left leg. I am done many things for it but still I am suffering for with this. What can I do I cant understood.
When blood clot blocks one or more arteries in your lungs the condition is known as pulmonary embolism. It can cause a decrease in the oxygen levels in your blood, damage to your lungs due to sudden restrictions in the flow of blood along with adverse effects on other parts of your body. Life threatening blockage can cause death if left untreated and you should immediately contact your health care provider to get proper diagnosis. Pulmonary embolism requires various lab tests and generally requires short time to resolve.
Symptoms: The symptoms of pulmonary embolism mainly depend upon many factors pertaining to your previous medical history. Pulmonary embolism varies with the size of your lungs, the size of the clots formed in your blood, and any other underlying history of the heart or lungs. That said, pulmonary embolism has symptoms which are not similar to any two persons and will vary accordingly.
The common symptoms however may include the following and you are advised to opt for a health checkup if these are persistent in your body:
- Cough along with bloody sputum is a common symptom.
- Shortness of breath, which will become worse as the days passes by. They will appear suddenly and cause huge discomfort in breathing.
- Chest pain which may give you the feeling of a heart attack. The pain will intensify when you sit to eat or cough. Deep breath will cause problems too and will not go away easily with exertion.
- Some other symptoms include fever, excess sweat, irregular heartbeat and dizziness.
Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed by the following methods:
- Electrocardiography (also known popularly as ECG) to measure your heart's electrical activity and functioning.
- CT plumonary angiography is gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism.
- Chest x ray, which is a common and non invasive test to check your heart and lungs as well as the problems with any bones surrounding them.
- ECHO can detect secondary changes in heart due to pulmonary embolism.
Treatment of pulmonary embolism can be done with medicines if it is detected at an early stage or also if the clot is small. However, if the size of your clot is problematic and blocks the blood flow to your lungs or heart then surgery may be necessary. Open surgery and clot removal surgery are common in the treatment of pulmonary embolism and will require good regular follow up check ups. Regular leg exercises will also reduce the chances of any underlying disease and you should hence consult your doctor.