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Diagnostic X- Ray
Bone Densitometry Procedure
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Main 22 ki women hun or main memography karwana chahti hun. Memography karwane ka right time konsa hai? Period se pehle ya period ke baad ya phir period ke time?
Sir I am suffering from disc problem symptoms are: Hands and chest become pain and fire can I have solution.
Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body part. With continued growth, pieces of this tissue travel through the blood to different body parts and continue to grow in the new area. This is known as metastases. Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and affects about 1 in 8 women in the USA. Read on to know more details of breast cancer – breast anatomy, causes, symptoms, risk factors, detection, prevention, and of course treatment.
Anatomy: The main function of the breast is lactation through its milk-producing tissue that are connected to the nipple by narrow ducts. In addition, there is surrounding connective tissue, fibrous material, fat, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic channels which complete the structure. This is essential to know as most breast cancers develop as small calcifications (hardened particles) in the ducts or as small lumps in the breast tissue which then continues to grow into cancer. The spread can happen through lymphatic or blood flow to other organs.
Warning signs/symptoms: The following are some symptoms that need to be watched out for if you have a predisposition to breast cancer.
- A lump in either of the breasts or armpits
- Change in size, shape, or contour of either breast
- Redness of your breast or nipple
- Discharge of clear or bloody fluid
- Thickening of breast tissue or skin that lasts through a period
- Altered look or feel of the skin on the breast or the nipple (dimpled, inflamed, scaly, or puckered)
- One area on the breast that looks very different from the other areas
- Hardened area under the breast skin
Either one or a combination of these should be an indication to get a detailed checkup done. Early diagnosis results in controlling the disease with minimal treatment and reduced complications.
Causes and risk factors: The exact cause for breast cancer is yet to be pinned down. However, risk factors are clearly identified, and women with risk factors need to watch out for warning signs.
- Family history: Of all the risk factors, the family history is the most important. Breast cancer runs in families, and if there is a first-degree relative with the breast cancer, the chances of developing it are almost double. Two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the carriers of the disease, and this testing can be done in women to identify if they are at risk.
- Family history of other cancers: Even if there is no breast cancer, if there are other cancers that run in the family, watch out.
- Age: Women over 50 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Race: Caucasian and Jewish women are at higher risk of breast cancer than African-American women.
- Hormones: Greater exposure to the female hormone estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Women who use birth control pills for contraception and hormone replacement after menopause are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones need to watch out. These include those who attain menarche before 12 years of age, get pregnant after 30, attain menopause after 55, and have menstrual cycles shorter than 26 days or longer than 29 days.
- Obesity and alcohol abuse are also likely to increase a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer.
Stages: Starting from stage 0, higher stages indicate advanced disease.
- Stage 0: The growth which has begun in the milk-producing tissue or the ducts has remained there (in situ) and not spread to any other area, including the rest of the breast.
- Stage I: The tissue slowly becomes invasive and has begun to affect the surrounding healthy tissue. It could have spread to the fatty breast tissue and some breast tissue may be found in the nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage II: The cancer at this stage grows considerably or spreads to other parts. There are chances that cancer may grow and also spread.
- Stage III: It may have spread to the bones or other organs but small amounts are present in up to 9 to 10 of the lymph nodes in the armpits and collar bones which makes it is difficult to fight.
- Stage IV: The cancer is widespread to far-flung areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and even the brain.
Screening: This is one of the most effective ways to identify the disease in its early stages. This will help in controlling cancer from spreading with minimal treatment.
- Self-examination: A thorough self-examination to look for changes in terms of shape, size, colour, contour, and firmness should be learned by all women. Watch for any discharge, sores, rashes, or swelling in the breasts, surrounding skin, and nipple. Examine them while standing and when lying down.
- In most women, annual screening mammograms are advised after the age of 40. However, in women who have a strong family history or genetic makeup, it is advisable to have screening mammograms starting at age 20 every 3 years and then annually from the age of 40.
- Women in high-risk categories should have screening mammograms every year and typically start at an earlier age.
- Ultrasound screening can also be given in addition to mammograms.
- Breast MRI is another way to screen for breast cancer if the risk is greater.
Breast Cancer Prevention: Now that there is so much awareness about causes and risk factors, there are definitely ways to prevent or delay the onset of the disease.
- Exercise and a healthy diet with reduced amount of alcohol are definitely effective in minimising the chances of developing cancer.
- Tamoxifen is used in women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
- Evista (raloxifene) which is used to treat osteoporosis after menopause. It is also widely used in preventing breast cancer.
- In high-risk women, breasts are surgically removed to prevent the development of cancer (preventive mastectomy).
Treatment: As with all cancers, treatment would depend on the stage at which it is identified and include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. As noted earlier, if you are at risk, look out for warning signs as early diagnosis is the key to maximum recovery.
If you are concerned about liver cancer, you should know that most people do not experience signs and symptoms of the cancer in the early stages. Liver cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cells of the liver. There are various types of cancer which can develop in the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer which begins in the hepatocyte, which is the main liver cell.
Usually there are no specific primary stage symptoms of liver cancer. Some symptoms which may develop include the following:
Unusual weight loss is observed
Loss of appetite and developing food aversion
Pain in the upper abdomen
General weakness with intense fatigue
Swelling in the abdomen
The skin may become yellow
White and chalky stools are likely
In most cases, the causes of liver cancer cannot be clearly determined. In some cases, the cause is known, such as chronic infection with the hepatitis virus, which may lead to liver cancer. Liver cancer occurs when the liver cells undergo changes or mutations in their DNA structure. DNA mutations lead to changes in instructions of chemical processes taking place in the body. The cells may grow out of control and develop into a cancerous tumour.
There are several factors which enhance the risk of liver cancer. They are as follows:
A progressive and irreversible condition known as cirrhosis leads to scar tissue formation in the liver, increasing the risk of liver cancer.
Certain inherited liver diseases such as Wilson’s disease and hemochromatosis also increase the chances of liver cancer.
People with diabetes are also at a greater risk of having liver cancer.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the accumulation of fat in the liver, also increases the chances of getting this condition.
Excessive alcohol consumption is another factor which causes irreversible damage to the liver and the chances of getting liver cancer get boosted.
Exposure to aflatoxins, which are poisons produced by molds growing on poorly stored crops, make you more likely to get liver cancer.
Several tests and procedures are carried out for the diagnosis of liver cancer. These include blood tests for diagnosing liver function problems, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan and MRI scan.
Women love the fact that breastfeeding can safeguard them from general illnesses such as cold and fever. However, there is a bigger pie to cheer about. Apparently, it has been found that breastfeeding can lower the risk of breast cancer as well. Not to forget, breastfeeding is extremely crucial for a baby. It can help him/her to increase immunity and stay away from major diseases.
Facts from major studies:
- A study published in the Lancet, 2002 showed that women who breastfeed for 12 months at a stretch can reduce the chances of breast cancer by a good 4.3 percent compared to the ones who did not breastfeed. The study was performed on over 1,50,000 women and brought enough substance to the theory.
- A study conducted on 60,000 women and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine reported that a woman who has a family history of breast cancer can mitigate the risk of breast cancer, if she breastfed before her menopause.
- A study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reported that women from African ancestry often develop an acute form of cancer known as the estrogen receptor-negative and triple-negative. Breastfeeding can significantly hedge the risk of developing this form of breast cancer.
- A collaborative study published in Annals of Oncology, a famous journal, reported that the chances of developing hormone-receptor negative breast cancer can be negated by 20 percent if a woman breastfed before her menopause.
How does breastfeeding reduce the risk of cancer?
Some researches suggest that women who breastfeed get fewer menstrual cycle compared to the ones who do not. This means low exposure to estrogen for breastfeeding women. It is a common knowledge that estrogen can fuel breast cancer. There is a second theory that suggests that breastfeeding makes the cells of the breasts more resistive to mutation. Therefore, the breast can block cancer.
There is the other factor of lifestyle changes. Women tend to do away with drinking, smoking, eating junk food, and leading an undisciplined life. Once these are given up and replaced with healthy lifestyle practices, the chances of breast cancer automatically come down.
How long should one breastfeed to refrain from breast cancer?
There is no concrete answer to this question. Most studies show that longer the duration of breastfeeding, lower the chances of breast cancer. But, in general, a year of breast feeding is a safe number and can reduce the chance of breast cancer by almost 20 percent, as revealed by many studies. If, however, a woman fails to breastfeed, there is no need to stress. A healthy lifestyle can go a long way in surviving breast cancer.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Sir I am FROM CHENNAI having back pain when mri scanned impression as follows Early lumbar spondylosis. Mild disc bulge with focal posterocentral and bilateral postrtolateraldisc at l3_ 4 disc level causing thecal sac ibdentation and bilatrral mild beural foranimal narrowings (L>R) MILD ligamentum flavum hypertrophy at L3_4 & L4_5 disc level causing mild posterior thecal sac indention Disc desiccation in L4_5 & L5_ S1 DISC LEVEL AS LOSS OF HYPERINTENSE SIGNAL ON T2W1 PLEASE HELP I REPLY ME POSITIVELY
I am 40 years old I was suffering from disc dislocation and recovered from it in 2007, but now I am suffering from Neck pain at vertebral column and my left Knee is also paining.
Please mujhe btaye ki disc problem se kis trh ki diet ya exercise ya medicine se relief mil skta hai.because mere husband ko disc ki problem hai. Mere husband ne disc ka operation tk bhi krva liya. But uske baad bhi unko bhot zyada back me pain hota hai. Kbhi kbhi to 24 hours tak bhi rehta hai. Please iss problem ka koi best solution btaye. Please I needed your help. Kis trh ki diet , exercise and medicine or kuch ese tips btaye Jinse iss problem se chutkara mil sake. Thank you.
I’m Dr. Malvika Sabharwal, from Jeewan mala hospital and Apollo Spectra hospital, New Rohtak Road in Karol Bagh. In fact I’ve been a laparoscopic surgeon since the year 92, I introduced it in the North of india. 2000, we had got recognition at this hospital for managing most of the gyne problem laparoscopically.
Today I will tell you about fibroid uterus. It’s a very very common problem, seen almost in 25% of cases and at all ages, at any age and It causes various problems. In case agar ye bleeding cause kar ra hai, to bleeding k sath to mareez fatafat aatay hain k han g hamay bleeding ho rai hai, un ka diagnosis b ho jata hai. Kabi kabi wo infertility cause karta hai, infertility ka matlab k pregnancy nai ho rai hai. In such cases, agar pregnancy nai ho rai hai to b mareez aa jaat hain sooner or later. Par kai fibroids aise hain jo k hotay hain even after having couple of children. 2,3 bachay ho gae phr b wo fibroids hai. Ab basically fibroids hotay ki hai, ye normal uterus hai, 2 tubes hain 2 ovaries hain, ye muscle wall jo hai agar is me se ek bhi fibre barh jata hai, ye fibroid cause karta hai aur fibroids jo hain wo is tarha k tumors hain uterus k andar. Agar ye uterus me fibroid andar ki taraf jhukav de ga, agar 2cm ka b hai, wo bleeding cause karay ga aur us k liye aap fatafat doctor k paas pohnchen gey aur us ka samadhan ho jae ga. Agar fibroid boht barha hai, wo upper ki taraf jae ga aur us ka pata b nai chalay ga aapko. Kabi kabi kuch pata b nai chalta, kabi kabi us se aata hai patient k g hamy urine nai ho paa ra, hum peshaab nai kar pa rae aur ye hamay boht tang kar ra hai, tou tab diagnose hota hai. Any which ways, hamaray paas 2 hi options hain, ya tou uterus ka nikaalna ya fibroid ka nikalna. Agar hamay uterus ka kaam lena hai, patient young hai, aagay bachay paeda karne hain tou definiteky fibroid ko nikalna hi better hai par agar family complete hai, agar us ko bachay aur nahi chahye aur us ki umer b towards the maybe 40 years or above hai or even otherwise agar boht zaada takleef ho rai hai, many options are there par durbeen se hum fibroid b nikalte hain aur uterus b nikalte hain. Agar fibroid nikala jae tou sirf fibroid ko nikaal kar k hum bolte hain ab aap pregnancy shuru kar sakte hain. Once fibroids are removed laparoscopically ya ek aur tareeka hota hai hysteroscopically, uterus ko andar se ja kar k hum dekhte hain, muaaena karte hain aur jahan fibroid hota hai us ko nikaal letay hain. It’s a non-touch technique hysteroscopy wala. Laparoscopic jo karte hain, us me 2, 3 holes bante hain pait k andar aur us kop hr morselate kar k tareekay se nikaala jata hai. Ye morselation b boht zaada ajkal controversy me b aaya , is k baaray me tarah tarah k hare k forum me discussions hue k karna chahye ya nai karna chahye aur ye jo fibroid ko nikalne ka tareeka morselation ka hai, aaj kal in-bag b hai matlb aap bag k andar fibroid ko daalo aur us ko nikalo. Is se wo cheez jo hai wo phailti nai hai aur boht araam se wo aap k nikal aati hai. Ye ek din ka stay rehta hai hospital me fibroid nikalne k liye. Laparoscopic fibroid removal me patient is there in the hospital just for one day. Us k baad you’re back to normal and aap ko koi rok thaam nai hai, serhiyon pe jaana utarna, aap ko koi jhukna, travel karna. Log Hindustan k bahr se b aatay hain is ko remove karwanay k liye. So, this is one thing which is available in our hospital and we’ve been doing it since 92. 2000, we have already got to recognized training center for fibroid removal. Now there are situations jahan pe fibroids nahi nikal paatay, tou us me b koi aisi baat nai hai, it’s not k it’s the end, like k agar tubes k boht paas ho, agar boht zaada paas hai tou kabi kabi situationally aap nai nikaal paatay but that is something jo k aap ko us k liye koi aisi wo baat nai hai as long as the tubes are patent, matlb aap tube ko test karte ho aur pregnancy amooman hojati hai. Fibroid removal k baad sab ka question hota hai hum kab shuru Karen pregnancy? 3 maheenay is the ultimate time jo l hum log detay hain k us k baad hum kehte hain aap zarur us ko shuru karlo and jo ye fibroid ki problems hain this is something which is so common. I feel that we should look into it, regular checkup is the only answer at every age. Har ek umer ki larki ko apna every year checkup kara lena boht zarurui hai.