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Treatment of Lactation problems
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Patient Review Highlights
Congenial Birth Defects In Children - Know How They Can Be Managed! Congenital birth defects include:
- Hypospadias: The opening of the urethra is located on the underside of the penis instead of the tip.
- Anorectal Malformations: The anus (which is the opening in your bottom through which stool passes through) and the rectum (which is the part of bowel immediately above the anus) have not developed properly. This occurs when the child is in the womb.
Hypospadias is a developmental anomaly characterized by a urethral meatus that opens onto the ventral surface of the penis, proximal to the end of the glans. The meatus may be located anywhere along the shaft of the penis from the glans to the perineum.
Hypospadias is classified based on the position of urethral opening i.e. glanular, coronal, penile, penoscrotal and scrotal. Here the urine is deviated downwards towards the legs as the penis is bent downwards. Because of downward curvature of penis, sexual activity becomes difficult. From 6 months onwards hypospadias can be corrected by operation i.e. urethroplasty, where the opening of urethra is brought to the tip of the penis and the penis is straightened.
Anorectal Malformation : Here either there is no anal opening or it opens in a wrong place i.e. in urinary passage or birth canal in girls. It may be high anomaly or low anomaly. The immediate treatment is to make a stoma on the surface of abdomen and then do definitive pull through operation i.e. anorectoplasty when the baby is around 8 to 12 months old.
Hi, I have No pain no swelling it's constant. I showed to the surgeon he told it's hydrocele. It will go with in 1 year.
My one testicle in bigger than another. So it cause of masturbation or something else and how to recover body bcoz I masturbate 1 year continuously.
Hello I am 23 year old but I have problem my penis is so small and my hydrocele is fat one side goli.
Inguino-scrotal and Inguino-labial swellings are common in children during infancy. A common cause of an Inguino-scrotal swelling in children is the presence of a patent processus vaginalis. It presents in the form of an inguinal hernia or hydrocele. Male infants are often affected 3 to 6 times more than the female ones. Processus vaginalis is the outpouching of peritoneum that extends through the inguinal canal. It is first seen during the 3rd month of intrauterine life. It follows the gubernaculum and testes through the inguinal canal and reaches the scrotum by the 7th month of gestation.
Differential diagnosis of inguino-scrotal swelling in children:
- Inguinal hernia and hydrocele
- Torsion testes, epididymorchitis
- Undescended testes
- Enlarged inguinal lymph node
- Abscess or lipoma
Normally after the testicular descent, the portion of processus vaginalis surrounding the testis becomes tunica vaginalis. The processus vaginalis gets obliterated, eliminating the communication between peritoneal cavity and scrotum. A patent processus vaginalis is seen up to 20% in adulthood.
Hernia and Hydrocele: The testicles or ovaries form in the abdomen near the kidneys, between 3 to 4 months of fetal development. Further, they gradually move down into the lower part of the abdomen as the fetus continues to develop. On descending downwards, small part of the peritoneum (a layer of tissue lining the abdomen from inside) that attaches to the testicle is drawn with it into the scrotum. This forms a pouch or sac. A similar process occurs in females as the round ligament of the uterus descends into the groin at the labia. The sac formed is processus vaginalis. Any connection between the abdominal cavity and the scrotum or groin is eliminated. When closure of the processus vaginalis is delayed or incomplete, it may stretch and eventually become a hernia. Stretching of processus vaginalis creates the inguinal sac that allows organs an extension from abdomen and entry into the sac. If fluid, rather than organs, builds up and remains in the sac, the child has a hydrocele. Approximately 80 percent to 90 percent of inguinal hernias appear in boys. They are more common on the right side, but in about 10 percent of cases, they occur on both sides (bilaterally).
Epididymorchitis: Epididymitis is the pain and swelling of the tube that attaches to each testicle called as the epididymis. Orchitis is pain and swelling of the testicle. Since epididymis and testis lie next to each other, differentiation of the inflamed part is difficult. Hence, the term epididymo-orchitis is often used. Infection with bacteria often causes these problems. Other causes are infections from surgery or from a catheter that drains urine. The mumps virus also can cause orchitis. Analgesics or anti-inflammatory medicines can reduce the pain. Antibiotics are used if the problem is caused by bacteria.
Torsion testis: It is a painful condition that occurs in the boys. It is a twisting of the testicles and the spermatic cord (the structure extending from the groin to the testes that contains nerves, ducts, and blood vessels). A decreased blood flow to the testes is caused by torsion of the testes. This torsion essentially strangles them of oxygen and nutrients. While it generally occurs in adolescent boys, it may also occur during fetal development or shortly after a baby is born. Urgent surgical procedure is undertaken if testicular torsion is confirmed in a child. The chance of survival for the testicle is best if surgery is completed within six hours of symptom onset.
Constipation is a symptom, not a disease. Constipation is a digestive disorder system where an individual faces difficulty to expel. An incomplete bowel movement is a sign of constipation. This condition causes the stiffening of stool near the rectum, obstructing the smooth passage of stool. In most of the cases, this occurs because of the improper diet. If one is suffering from constipation the faeces become hard, dry and emptying the bowels become painful. Sometimes it causes bleeding in the rectum. Constipation may also cause the abdominal pain. Constipation is very common in kids. Constipation is a temporary problem, but, chronic constipation may lead to serious problems. The common causes of constipation in kids are improper toilet training and diet less in fibre content. One can avoid this by eating healthy food rich in fibre, drinking more and more fluids.
Mention below are the symptoms of constipation:
- Regular stomach ache and less than three bowel movements a week.
- Bowel moment is slow and hard to pass.
- Emptying the bowel becomes painful.
- Blood on surface of hard stool.
- Abdominal pain
- Toilet training: Improper toilet training is one of the major causes of constipation. One must follow a proper routine for passing out stool.
- Diet: If you are not providing a child a food rich in fibre than the child may suffer from constipation. Consuming a dairy product also leads to the same problem. Sodas and drinks containing caffeine cause dehydration and worsen constipation.
- Change in routine: Change in routine such as long travelling, too hot or cold weather and stress can affect bowel functioning.
- Hirschprungs’ disease: There is absence of ganglion cells in intestine leading to failure of movement of bowel leading to constipation.
- Rectal polyp, Colonic polyp, Anal fissure: Causes bleeding per rectum. Blood streaks on stool occur in Constipation and Anal fissure. Bleeding in drops after passing stool occurs in Polyps.
One can get the better results if an individual combines all the approaches given below:
- Toilet training: Child should be encouraged to go to toilet at a particular time daily. Provide the child with comfortable footstool so that could comfortably release a stool.
- Diet: The Proper diet chart should be maintained for children. A balanced diet rich in fibre should be served. Increase the daily water intake of your children. Avoid fast food and dairy product.
- Medicines: If your child is taking some medicines review it. It may be causing constipation. In case the medicine is causing constipation then go for doctor opinion.
- Regular exercise: Regular exercise is one of the best ways to avoid constipation. Ask your child to do regular exercise and play outdoor games. Regular exercise increases metabolism and make our immune system strong.
- Regular check-up: A regular visit to the doctor helps to diagnose the health problem. A Regular check-up is necessary for maintenance of healthy body and it avoids the risk of serious disease caused by constipation.
Phimosis, Paraphimosis are the two major issues which occur in males In Phimosis, the foreskin is not easily pulled back from the tip position of the penis. Normally, this problem takes place in younger children and this is not a serious condition. With spontaneous erections and natural manipulations, more than 90% of foreskin becomes retractable by age 3 to 4 years. Few require Preputioplasty and Circucision is reserved for Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans. Paraphimosis, is quite a painful condition which needs to be treated urgently. Paraphimosis is the condition in which the foreskin is pulled back or get stuck in the same position. Due to this the retracted foreskin, as well as the penis part, becomes swollen.
In this condition, the fluid will build up, and thus the foreskin cannot be returned to its original position. If anyone ignores it then it can lead to major issues. This can have an effect on blood flow to the tip of a penis. And, if not treated on time then the tip of the penis can get damaged.
The insect bite is a condition which can cause swelling of the phallus and prepuce. This can be easily treated by medicine. Differential diagnosis Penile edema, which is related to insect bites, allergic reactions, and trauma.
Causes of Phimosis and Paraphimosis:
- Scar tissue: Any kind of infections can create the scratch marks on the foreskin. This can also affect the penis. Thus because of tough tissues, it is somewhat difficult to pull it back. • Pull and stretch: It is important that one should not forcefully move the foreskin. Pulling it or stretching the tip of penis vigorously can cause inflammation.
- Medical conditions: If anyone is suffering from diabetes, then there are chances of having a infection known as balanitis. This is typically an infection which takes place at the tip of the penis.
Thus, in this case, it is necessary to discuss the problem with your doctor. Therefore, after going through your complete medical history, he can suggest you the best treatment which can manage the swelling of the penis.
Why Paraphimosis happens?
- Mishandled foreskin
Treatment and cure for Paraphimosis:
The manual reduction is the first treatment which is suggested by your doctor. In this procedure, analgesic is given as a pain killer through the mouth. Other than this local anesthetic block is applied to your penis. Or applying anesthetic jelly in a local area is quite helpful during manual reduction. Injections of hyaluronidase are also effective to decrease the swelling. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
UTI stands for urinary tract infections. In children a urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common condition caused by bacteria. Bacteria that enter the urethra are flushed out through urination. But, when bacteria aren’t excluded out of the urethra, they may grow in the urinary tract and cause infections. The Survey state that up to 8% of girls and 2% of boys will get a UTI at an early age. Sometimes the symptoms of UTI are hard to detect in kids so it is better to get your child treated, as it turn into serious kidney diseases. With a right treatment your child will feel better within few days.
Symptoms of a UTI include:
- Burning and pain during micturation.
- Urgent need to go, but having a few drops of urine.
- Fever and vomiting commonly occur during UTI.
- Foul smell and cloudy urine.
- Bladder outlet obstruction like posterior urethral valve in males
- Vesico ureteric reflux (VUR)
- Uretero pelvic junction obstruction (UPJ Obstruction)
- Constipation: Being constipated makes difficult to empty your bladder, which means trapped bacteria which increases risk of UTI. So in order to reduce the UTI risk, avoid constipation
- Dehydration: Drinking water not only quenches your thirst, but it also avoids the risk of getting UTI. We should drink enough water so that we can flush out bacteria that can cause UTI. Drinking water also avoids the constipation problem.
- Holding urine: Holding urine for 6 hours make UTI more common as bacteria in the bladder has lots of time to grow and cause infection. So ask your child to pass urine after few hours.
- Avoid tight fitting clothes, especially for girl children.
- Drink more and more liquids and eat fibre rich food.
- Change the diaper of young child frequently.
- Ask your child to go for urine immediately rather than holding.
- Don’t give bubble bath to the child as it is a major source of bacteria.
- USG (KUB)
- Urine routine examination and culture sensitivity
- MCU (Micturating Cysto Urethrogram)
- Urodynamic study
- DTPA Scan
- DMSA Scan
The most common antibiotics used for treatment are:Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, Ofloxacin, Cefixime etc Sometimes hospitalization is necessary in younger than 6 months old, if:
- The Child has a high fever and not improving.
- The child is vomiting and having dehydration.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!