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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I did sex with my wife on her 8th day of period bt unfortunately the condom leaked is there any chance of getting pregnancy. We do not want child now.
Boerhaave first described the spontaneous rupture of the esophagus in 1724. It typically occurs after forceful emesis. Boerhaave syndrome is a transmural perforation of the esophagus to be distinguished from mallory-weiss syndrome, a nontransmural esophageal tear also associated with vomiting. Because it often is associated with emesis, boerhaave syndrome usually is not truly spontaneous. However, the term is useful for distinguishing it from iatrogenic perforation, which accounts for 85-90% of cases of esophageal rupture.
Diagnosis of boerhaave syndrome can be difficult because often no classic symptoms are present and delays in presentation for medical care are common. Approximately one third of all cases of boerhaave syndrome are clinically atypical. Prompt recognition of this potentially lethal condition is vital to ensure appropriate treatment. Mediastinitis, sepsis, and shock frequently are seen late in the course of illness, which further confuses the diagnostic picture.
See can't-miss gastrointestinal diagnoses, a critical images slideshow, to help diagnose the potentially life-threatening conditions that present with gastrointestinal symptoms.
A reported mortality estimate is approximately 35%, making it the most lethal perforation of the gi tract. The best outcomes are associated with early diagnosis and definitive surgical management within 12 hours of rupture. If intervention is delayed longer than 24 hours, the mortality rate (even with surgical intervention) rises to higher than 50% and to nearly 90% after 48 hours. Left untreated, the mortality rate is close to 100%.
Esophageal rupture in boerhaave syndrome is postulated to be the result of a sudden rise in intraluminal esophageal pressure produced during vomiting, as a result of neuromuscular incoordination causing failure of the cricopharyngeus muscle to relax. The syndrome commonly is associated with overindulgence in food and/or alcohol. The most common anatomical location of the tear in boerhaave syndrome is at the left posterolateral wall of the lower third of the esophagus, 2-3 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction, along the longitudinal wall of the esophagus. The second most common site of rupture is in the subdiaphragmatic or upper thoracic area. [1, 2]
Although likely underreported, the incidence of boerhaave syndrome is relatively rare. A 1980 review by kish cited 300 cases in the literature worldwide.  a 1986 summary by bladergroen et al described 127 cases.  of these, 114 were diagnosed antemortem; the others were diagnosed at autopsy. Overall, boerhaave syndrome accounts for 15% of all cases of traumatic rupture or perforation of the esophagus.
Cases have been reported in all races and on virtually every continent, affecting males more commonly than females, with ratios ranging from 2: 1 to 5: 1.
Boerhaave syndrome is seen most frequently among patients aged 50-70 years. Reports suggest that 80% of all patients are middle-aged men. However, this condiction has also been described in neonates and in persons older than 90 years. Although no clear explanation exists for this, the least susceptible age group appears to be children aged 1-17 years.
Prognosis is directly contingent on early recognition and appropriate intervention. Early diagnosis of boerhaave syndrome allows prompt surgical repair. Diagnosis and surgery within 24 hours carry a 75% survival rate. This drops to approximately 50% after a 24-hour delay and approximately 10% after 48 hours.
The mortality rate is high. Esophageal perforation is the most lethal perforation of the gi tract. Survival is contingent largely upon early recognition and appropriate surgical intervention.
Overall, the mortality rate is approximately 30%. Mortality is usually due to subsequent infection, including mediastinitis, pneumonitis, pericarditis, or empyema.
Patients who undergo surgical repair within 24 hours of injury have a 70-75% chance of survival. This falls to 35-50% if surgery is delayed longer than 24 hours and to approximately 10% if delayed longer than 48 hours.
Cases of patients surviving without surgery exist but are rare enough to warrant case reports in the medical literature.
Esophageal rupture may lead to the development of septicemia, pneumomediastinum, mediastinitis, massive pleural effusion, empyema, pneumomediastinum, or subcutaneous emphysema.
If the esophageal rupture extends directly into the pleura, hydropneumothorax is expected. In adults, this occurs more commonly on the left side of the pleura. In neonates, esophageal rupture usually occurs on the right side.
After esophageal rupture, free air enters the mediastinum and also may spread to the adjacent structures, resulting in mediastinal abscess or superimposed secondary infection.
Other complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and hydrothorax.
My age is 30 ,we are going for IVF/ICSI ,I had a test on TB and got to know about inactive TB, how will it affect the IVF/ICSI treatment.
I am having hypothyroidism but since 1 year it's understands range. I suffer from irregular periods. But from last 3 months it's cycle was normal. Again this month it didn't come. My gynae had done ultrasound and found everything ok. Only she suggested me to exercise daily. But why this problem still persists?
My Wife is pregnant and she had her last period on 13th of March. Today it is 11th of May and we are not expecting baby as it is too early. Should I opt for mifepristone and misoprostol considering the time period? And what are its side effects?
You may lose 50 to 100 strands of hair each day. Yet the thinning of your scalp hair is almost unnoticeable owing to the simultaneous new hair growth filling up the bald spots. But hair loss occurs if this cycle of shedding and growth gets distorted. Stress and an unhealthy lifestyle take a toll on your hair as well.
- The following is a list of the types of hair loss that are caused due to high levels of stress:
- The body secretes hormones such as non-adrenaline or Norepinephrine and cortisol in response to stress. These hormones force a large number of hair follicles into a static phase, hindering new hair growth. As a consequence, simple activities such as combing or rinsing the hair might cause hair fall in large strands which do not get replaced by new hair again. This abnormality is known as ‘Telogen effluvium’.
- Trichotillomania is a condition characterized by one pulling out his/her own strands of hair forcefully; most often triggered by negative thoughts or other psychological disorders such as depression or excessive frustration, boredom, stress or tension.
- Alopecia areata is a condition caused by severe stress wherein the immune system of the body attacks the hair follicles, resulting in hair loss.
- Other lifestyle-related factors can also have an adverse impact on the hair growth. Let us see how:
- Excessive hair styling or hair treatments with hot oil actually swell up the hair follicles. Chemical therapies, dyes, flat irons, blow dryers or bad brushes as well as a range of hair dressing techniques such as hair extension, application of coloring agents, gels and hair sprays further affect the individual strands of hair.
- A junk food diet rich in salt, sugar and saturated fats but less in essential nutrient content can tremendously affect your hair.
- Smoking inhibits blood flow to the hair follicles and interrupts the process of hair growth and hair fall.
- Environmental factors such as pollution from:
- Car exhaust fumes disrupt the keratin (protein formation) in the hair structure, making it fragile.
- Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens that weaken one’s hair follicles.
- Dust particles trigger allergies giving way to inflammation or scalp infections.
- Over exposure to the sun causes brittle, dry and lifeless hair, mainly characterized by split ends. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ayurveda.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Allergic rhinitis is defined as allergic symptoms in the nasal passage. Allergic rhinitis can be seasonal (occurring during specific seasons) or perennial (occurring year round). The allergens that most commonly cause seasonal allergic rhinitis include pollens from trees, grasses and weeds, as well as spores from fungi and moulds. The allergens that most commonly cause perennial allergic rhinitis are house dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander and fungi or moulds. Perennial allergic rhinitis tends to be more difficult to treat.
How does allergic rhinitis occur ?
This condition occurs when allergens (allergy- causing substances) come into contact with the nose, and usually also the ears, sinuses, and the throat. When allergens come in contact with the lining of the nose and sinuses, they trigger the cells to release the chemical histamine, which causes the allergy symptoms described below.
What are the symptoms ?
- Nasal congestion
- Watery " runny nose"
- Itchy eyes,nose,or throat
- Puffy eyes or 'allergic shiners'
- Post nasal drip
These symptoms may occur during a certain season or year long. They can occur at any age.
What is the treatment for allergic rhinitis ?
A number of medications, including antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, and decongestants are available to control symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy could provide long lasting benefit. You can "train" your immune system not to react exaggerated to an allergen anymore. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!