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Dr. . Budhadeb Dasgupta

Cardiologist, Kolkata

Dr. . Budhadeb Dasgupta Cardiologist, Kolkata
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My experience is coupled with genuine concern for my patients. All of my staff is dedicated to your comfort and prompt attention as well....more
My experience is coupled with genuine concern for my patients. All of my staff is dedicated to your comfort and prompt attention as well.
More about Dr. . Budhadeb Dasgupta
Dr. . Budhadeb Dasgupta is one of the best Cardiologists in Rash Behari Avenue, Kolkata. You can consult Dr. . Budhadeb Dasgupta at Medinova Diagnostic Center in Rash Behari Avenue, Kolkata. Book an appointment online with Dr. . Budhadeb Dasgupta and consult privately on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has top trusted Cardiologists from across India. You will find Cardiologists with more than 42 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Cardiologists online in Kolkata and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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#1, Sarat Chatterjee Avenue, Rash Behari Avenue, Lake Gardens. Landmark: Opposite Ravindra Sarobar Stadium, KolkataKolkata Get Directions
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I am a 15 year old boy and whenever I take rest after playing I usually get lots of pain in my chest and lower abdomen. And I also get coughing which continues till about 45 minutes. I have consulted round about 5-6 doctors for treatment but till now I haven't got any relief. Help!

MBBS
General Physician,
I am a 15 year old boy and whenever I take rest after playing I usually get lots of pain in my chest and lower abdome...
Do warm saline gargle regularly. Twice or thrice daily have homemade freshly prepared lemon juices which is rich in vitamic therby increasing your body autoimmune system which prevents infection including viral infecdtion. Take plenty of water by mouth go for regular morning walk followed by free hand exercise. It will be alright.
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I am 63 years old male, a diabetic and bp patient since 15 years, a veggie, drink daily around 240 ml of liquor, walk at least 7 km, but I don't get erection, if I take sildlefinile citrate I get erection, but my wife of 59 years will not oblige, what can I give her to be active, please advise.

MBBS
General Physician, Ahmedabad
What is your diabetes status? you r drinking too much alcohol only 30 to 60 ml /day is ok. Both alcohol and long time diabetes cause difficulty in erection. Being bp patient you need special precaution while using viagra type drugs. Your wife may b having dryness vagina/post menopause problem. Requiring treatment.
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Heart - 4 Common Habits That Can Damage it!

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Heart - 4 Common Habits That Can Damage it!

Certain habits can cause damage to your heart even if you maintain a healthy diet and exercise regularly. According to researchers, working people having who have a desk job are more prone to suffer from heart conditions due to stress in their work life, lack of proper rest, limited movement, etc. Most of the times you tend to ignore your bad habits as the side effects do not occur immediately but can cause serious damage to your heart. Following are the common bad habits that you should avoid for a healthier heart-

1. Sitting all day
Something as seemingly trivial as it is, sitting all day can have an adverse effect on your heart. According to studies, if your job involves sitting on a desk for more than five hours then you have double the risk of suffering a heart failure compared to a person who has an active lifestyle. Make sure you take at least a five minute walk in an hour to reduce chances of hardening the arteries. A sedentary lifestyle has serious side effects on your overall health too.

2. Stress too much
Stress causes the body to release adrenaline which influences the way your body functions. In that case there might be an increase in heart rate or your blood pressure level. Over time, stress can cause damage to the blood vessels in your heart and increase your risk of sudden stroke or heart attack.

3. Overdoing it on salt
Excessive sodium can spike your blood pressure thereby making your more vulnerable to heart conditions. Processed foods like potato chips, canned vegetables, frozen meals and meats contain a fair amount of sodium which can have an adverse effect on your heart. It is important to take the nutritional value of these foods in account before purchasing it so that you get the ones with lowest amount of sodium.

4. Not getting enough sleep
The heart rate dips when you sleep and goes up and down as a response to your dreams in various stages of your sleep. It is important for your heart to rest as it actively works in your waking hours. Sleep deprivation has similar effects on your heart like stress and can wreck your cardiovascular health. It is of utmost importance to sleep for at 7 hours to keep your heart healthy.

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I live in delhi . I am working professional .I am a 32 y old male and have a chest pain for last 3 months. What should I do/

M.B.B.S., Diploma in Family Medicine, Fellowship in Diabetes (Liverpool), Advanced Clinical Course in Cardiology (USA), Certified Diabetologist from USA, CCEBDM, MD - Consultant Physician
General Physician, Hooghly
Dear , chest pain may be due to various reasons like heart and lungs problems, digestion problems. You first do an ecg and get your blood pressure, pulse checked. Mention if your pain increases while hard work, climbing stairs, swallowing food. Describe if the pain is throbbing in nature or just a tightness feeling. Mention if the pain radiates to any part of your body. Wish u all the best. Dr. S. Modak
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Low bp. Is my problem whenever I get my bp test it is low 106 or 100 or 95 so what should I do?

M.B.B.S, Post Graduate Diploma In Maternal & Child Health
Gynaecologist, Bokaro
Low BP at your age is most likely because of weakness. You will need some lifestyle changes meaning exercise and proper diet. Give me the complete picture so that I can give you the appropriate advice.
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Good evening I am suffering from blood pressure kindly suggest some thing Thanks and regards Batliwala.

DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery)
Homeopath, Ludhiana
Good evening
I am suffering from blood pressure kindly suggest some thing Thanks and regards
Batliwala.
Hypertension Diet Drugs do not remove the cause, nor do they cure the condition. All drugs against hypertension without exception, are toxic and have distressing side-effects. The fast way to cure hypertension is to eliminate the poisons from the system, which cause it. Persons with high blood pressure should always follow a well-balanced routine of proper diet, exercise and rest. Meat and eggs cause blood pressure to rise more than any other food. The pressure is lowered and blood clotting diminished by taking a diet with a higher fruit content, lower protein and non-flesh diet. A natural diet consisting of fresh fruits and vegetables, instead of a traditional diet, is helpful in getting rid of the poisons from the body. A hypertension patient should start the process of healing by living on an all¬ fruit diet for at least a week, and take fruits at five-hourly intervals, thrice a day. He should take juicy fruits such as oranges, apples, pears, mangoes, guavas, pineapples and grapes. Milk may be taken after a week of a diet of fruits only. The milk should be fresh and boiled only once. The patient can be permitted cereals in the diet after two weeks. Vegetables are also good for a patient of hypertension. They should preferably be taken raw. If they are cooked, it could be ensured that their natural goodness is not destroyed in the process of cooking. Vegetables like cucumber, carrot, tomato, onion, radish, cabbage and spinach are best taken in their raw form. They may be cut into small pieces and sprinkled with a little salt and the juice of a lemon added to them so as to make them more palatable. The intake of salt should be restricted; in any case it should not be taken more than four grams or half a teaspoon per day. Baking powder containing sodium carbonate should also be avoided. Garlic is regarded as one of the most effective remedies to lower blood pressure. The pressure and tension are reduced because it has the power to ease the spasm of the small arteries. Garlic also slows the pulse and modifies the heart rhythm besides relieving the symptoms of dizziness Numbness shortness of breath and the formation of gas within the digestive tract. The average dosage •should be two to three capsules a day to make a dent in the blood pressure. There I an important relation between dietary calcium and potassium and hypertension. It is found that people who take potassium rich diets have a low incidence of hypertension even it they do not control their salt-intake. They have also found that people with hypertension do not seem to get much calcium in the form of dairy products. The two essentia1 nutrients seem to' help the body throw off excess sodium and are involved in important functions which control the working of the vascular system. Potassium is found in abundance in fruits and vegetables and calcium in dairy products. The patient of hypertension should follow a plan of a well-balanced diet in which the constituents of food should be approximately in the following proportion: carbohydrate twenty per cent protein ten to fifteen percent fat five per cent and fruits and vegetables sixty to sixty-five per cent. In this plan one main meal should be based on raw foods while the second main meal may consist of cooked foods. Meals should be taken slowly and in a relaxed atmosphere. Food should be well masticated as the process of digestion begins in the mouth. The dinner should not normally be taken late. TREATMENT CHART FOR HYPERTENSION A - DIET I. Juice diet for 5 days. Use warm water enema daily during this period. II. All-fruit diet for further 5 days, with three meals a day at five-hourly intervals. III. Thereafter, adopt the following diet: - 1. Early Morning: A glass of lukewarm water mixed with the juice of half a lime. 2. Breakfast: Fruits and skimmed milk. 3. Mid-morning: Coconut water. 4. Lunch: Steamed vegetables, whole-wheat wheat tortilla or brown rice and a glass of buttermilk. 5. Mid-afternoon: A glass of carrot juice or orange juice. 6. Dinner: Salad of raw vegetables, green gram sprouts and vegetable soup. AVOID: Meats, sugar, white flour, tea, coffee, condiments, pickles fried foods, and products made from sugar and white flour. Important: Restrict the intake of salt and use liberally garlic and indian gooseberry. B - OTHER MEASURES 1. Exercise, especially brisk walking and yoga asanas like pavanmuktasana, uttanpadasana and shavasana. 2. Hot foot immersion in case of high blood pressure accompanied with headache.
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Last night my mother have sudden rapid heart beat, Is there any big health issue or not. Kindly reply with cause & prescription. Thank you.

MBBS
General Physician, Cuttack
Last night my mother have sudden rapid heart beat,
Is there any big health issue or not.
Kindly reply with cause & pr...
1.Get her BP checked and ECG done 2.consult physician 3. Sometimes it could be due to stress and anxiety
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What are the symptoms of diabetes melitus & High blood pressure? Please help me. Give suggestion.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
What are the symptoms of diabetes melitus & High blood pressure? Please help me. Give suggestion.
Diabetes mellitus most often produces very few recognisable symptoms, hence most people fail to identify that they have diabetes. But when fully grown it may produce following symptoms: excess urination, especially getting up at night to pass urine 2 or 3 times, which disturbs sleep, excess thirst, excess hunger, unexplained weight loss and tiredness. Blood sugar level in such situations shows hyperglycemia. High bp also very rarely causes any recognisable symptoms. Hence, mostly it is found out only on checking at clinic. Occasionally one may feel dizziness. Earlier there was feeling that high bp causes headache and nose bleeds. But this can happen in hypertensive crisis, since these conditions are familial, it better for a person to get blood sugar and bp check up done regularly, particularly after 30 to 40 years. Both these conditions can be prevented by regular exercise, weight maintenance, proper diet. In case of bp salt restriction is very essential. But if one has already developed both these conditions then appropriate drug treatment is a must, in addition to adapting a modified lifestyle.
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I am 23 years old, how I control my Bp, pressure and weight increasing. My bp 103 per min, pressure also high, weight 74kg, height 174cm.

PGDD, RD, Bachelor of Home Science
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
I am 23 years old, how I control my Bp, pressure and weight increasing. My bp 103 per min, pressure also high, weight...
Thanks for the query. There’s no overnight fix when it comes to healthy weight loss, but you can adjust your lifestyle to promote quick, natural weight loss for the benefit of your health and your appearance. Successful, long-term weight management needs to focus on more than the food you eat and the pounds you lose. It needs to focus on your overall health. Reshape your body and your lifestyle by adopting healthy habits and breaking unhealthy ones. Replace all processed foods in your diet with vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy, lean meats, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds and seafood. Focus on the variety of whole, unprocessed foods you can eat instead of dwelling on the junk food you eliminated from your diet. Eat smaller portions at every meal and avoid going back for seconds. Take a smaller scoop of rice,  half of a piece of chicken instead of a whole piece and one less egg in your morning omelet, for example. Make time for breakfast every morning. Eating breakfast helps prevent overeating and is a habit of people who successfully lose weight. Pack to-go meals instead of eating convenience foods when you’re not home. Store foods like chopped fruits and vegetables or cooked grains, legumes, eggs and meats in your refrigerator so you always have something to grab when you’re in a rush. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits from the grocery store if you forget to bring healthful food from home. When you can’t avoid dining at a restaurant, opt for a salad as a starter, and always ask for the dressing on the side. Clear soups, lean meats, seafood and grain-based dishes like roti, whole grain bread are other good choices. Avoid excess salt in foods. Exercise for 30 to 60 minutes at least three times per week to build muscle and burn more calories. Pilates, strength training, aerobics, swimming, dancing and yoga or a sport like football are ideal choices. If you’re new to exercising, start with brisk walking and jogging. Adopt physically demanding hobbies like bicycling, hiking, jogging, power walking to promote faster weight loss. If you don’t have time for new hobbies, increase your physical activity with things like walking the dog, playing with the kids or jogging instead of driving to a nearby store or taking the stairs instead of the elevator.
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Hello Doctors, I couldn't concentrate on my work for last 15 days due to head pressure and fogginess. Slightly neck stiffness & tickling in upper arm. My physician suggested me Renal & lipid profile test. Later other doctor suggested me spinal x-ray, B12 and vitamin D test. The report details as below: Total Lipid profile Triglyceride 245 (<200 mg/dl GPO-PAP) VLDL 49 (5-35 mg/dl Calculated) Slightly high Renal Profile - Ok Vitamin B12 level (serum, CMIA) Observed value - 156 Unit pg/ml Biological Ref - 187-883 25 Hydroxy (OH) Vit D (serum, CMIA) Observed value - 9.30 ng/ml Biological Ref - deficiency < 10 Insufficiency - 10-30 Sufficiency 30-100 Cervical X-ray Slightly straight in top and bottom My Doctor suggested exercise and plus huge deficiency of vitamin b12 and D of the root cause. Prescribed: Vitcofol injection, D- Rise 60000 U, gemcal 500/0.25 mcgm. Please let me know your expert suggestion. How to overcomes Vitamin B12 & D deficiency. And diet chart. Any help would be highly appreciated. About me- 40 year male, Software Developer in IT sector, Mild psoriasis taking homeopathy medicine of Doctor Batra for last 2 years. Weight - 70 kg Height 5'10' Thank you.

MS Orthopaedics, DNB Orthopaedics, ASSI Fellowship in Spine Surgery, Spinal Deformity Fellowship (UK)
Orthopedist, Pune
Hello Doctors, I couldn't concentrate on my work for last 15 days due to head pressure and fogginess. Slightly neck s...
For Vitamin B12 increase intake of fruits, Salads & leafy vegetables in diet. If you are nonveg then you will also get max amt of B12 from it For Vit D increase exposure to sunlight between 11 to 3 pm increase intake of dairy products if you are nonveg increase intake of eggs & fish. If your neck discomfort & arm tingling continues plse see a Spine surgeon.
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I am 40 I am teacher I have a high bp I get angry too often once I think of some I think for day n night its never goes frm my mind. I do not get proper sleep becox of this what to do.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Mandya
I am 40 I am teacher I have a high bp I get angry too often once I think of some I think for day n night its never go...
Its like stress lead to hypertension and hypertension leads to stress apply oil to scalp before you go to bed if you are non diabetic drink milk with honey bedtime apply ksheerabala taila to your feet dip your feet in lukewarm water before you go to sleep.
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My father has undergone laparotomy with resection of gangrenous jejunum, ileum, caecum, appendix, colon with jejunostomy with closure of colonic loop under general anaesthesia. What is the diet plan of such patients? His heart EF is 38%

PDDM, MHA, MBBS
General Physician, Nashik
My father has undergone laparotomy with resection of gangrenous jejunum, ileum, caecum, appendix, colon with jejunost...
He should take a diet consisting of the following :- Milk and other dairy products, low-fat only Cooked vegetables Fruit juices and vegetable juices Cooked or canned fruit with the skin and seeds removed, Freshly prepared chapattis Lean, tender meats, such as poultry, whitefish, and shellfish that are steamed, baked, or grilled with no added fat Creamy peanut butter Pudding and custard Eggs Tofu Soup, especially broth Weak tea
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Dear cardiologist I simply want to know by which process can I find/detect the blockage/blockages in my heart main and other arteries better in between 1. Simple angiography or 2. CT coronary angiogram Thanks.

Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Dear cardiologist
I simply want to know by which process can I find/detect the blockage/blockages in my heart main an...
Both can detect blockages, angiography is more specific but it is invasive, needs a day in hospital, ct is also specific for heart blockages and it is a walk in test, regarding radiation risks-same for both.
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Hi I am 39 year old and have triglyceride level at 359. Please suggest suitable medication.

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine Specialist, Faridabad
Hi I am 39 year old and have triglyceride level at 359.
Please suggest suitable medication.
Hello dear High cholesterol can cause atherosclerotic heart disease or narrowed coronary arteries in the heart can cause the symptoms of angina, when theheart muscle is not provided with enough oxygen to function. Decreased blood supply to the brain may be due to narrowed small arteries in the brain or because the larger carotidarteries in the neck may become blocked. This can result in a transient ischmic attack or stroke. Peripheral artery disease describes gradual narrowing of the arteries that supply the legs. During exercise , if the legs do not get enough blood supply, they can develop pain , called claudication . Other arteries in the body may also be affected by plaque buildup causing them to narrow, including the mesenteric arteries to the intestine and the renal arteries to the kidney. Change life style .do meditation,yoga, Go walk daily, do any one physically activity daily i.e.play any game., Avoid fast foods,oily foods,junk foods,alcohol,smoking,fatty foods, non-veg.,avoid stress,take plenty of water in day time. And 1 glass of water before bed at night. use flax oil, omega-3 fatty meal or cap., take .green veg., whole grain. garlic,. Take anti cholesterol medicines .
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Heart faliour is the biggest killer in the modern world. Learn from a cardio logist how they detect heart diseases what are the various treatments aviable for heart disease.

MBBS
General Physician, Cuttack
Heart faliour is the biggest killer in the modern world. Learn from a cardio logist how they detect heart diseases wh...
Heart disease can be diagnosed by ECG, 2D ECHO, TMT, carotid angiography etc. Treatment could be by medicine, Angioplasty or CABG(By Pass surgery) depending on type of heart disease
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I am taking statins to reduce my blood cholesterol. Please explain how the cholesterol is removed from my body by statins.

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine Specialist, Faridabad
I am taking statins to reduce my blood cholesterol. Please explain how the cholesterol is removed from my body by sta...
Hello dear High triglycerides and cholesterol can cause atherosclerotic heart disease or narrowed coronary arteries in the heart can cause the symptoms of angina, when theheart muscle is not provided with enough oxygen to function. Decreased blood supply to the brain may be due to narrowed small arteries in the brain or because the larger carotidarteries in the neck may become blocked. This can result in a transient ischmic attack or stroke. Peripheral artery disease describes gradual narrowing of the arteries that supply the legs. During exercise , if the legs do not get enough blood supply, they can develop pain , called claudication . Other arteries in the body may also be affected by plaque buildup causing them to narrow, including the mesenteric arteries to the intestine and the renal arteries to the kidney. Change life style .do meditation,yoga, Go walk daily, do any one physically activity daily i.e.play any game., Avoid fast foods,oily foods,junk foods,alcohol,smoking,fatty foods, non-veg.,avoid stress,take plenty of water in day time. And 1 glass of water before bed at night. use flax oil, omega-3 fatty meal or cap., take .green veg., whole grain. Garlic,. Cod liver oil. Take anti cholesterol medicines . Cap. Ecosprin gold-10 at night daily.
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I, m 46 male, weighing 78 Kg. Have hypertension 137/85 mmHg, 75 BPM. I belong to Odisha, but working in Chennai. Other than hypertension ,I, m a healthy person, but I want to reduce my wight by at least 10 Kg without leading to any reduction of energy level. I walk on Sat.

MBBS, DMRD, MD - Radio Diagnosis, FIIM(Ayurved), D.SC, Post Doctoral Fellowship of Institute of Indian Medicine, Ph.D
Non-Invasive Conservative Cardiac Care Specialist, Ahmednagar
I, m 46 male, weighing 78 Kg. Have hypertension 137/85 mmHg, 75 BPM. I belong to Odisha, but working in Chennai. Othe...
Dear Tegular exercise and proper diet will help you over long run. Daily regular exercise commitment is must Vm
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After seeing the angiogram report one doctor says to go for open heart surgery whereas other doc says to put stent. How to get a conclusion as my family in distress. How safe is the open heart surgery. Pls advise.

MD - General Medicine
General Physician, Bangalore
After seeing the angiogram report one doctor says to go for open heart surgery whereas other doc says to put stent. H...
Hi, the decision depends on the type of block, number of vessels blocked, extent of block, location of block. It also depends on the expertise of the cardiologist. As stenting is less invasive, non surgical, involves less hospital stay, it is the preferred method of treatment.
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Ways to Identify and Treat ANGINA PAIN?

Sr. Fellowship in Electrophysiology & Pacing, M.R.C.P.(U.K.), DM - Cardiology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Cardiologist, Delhi
Ways to Identify and Treat ANGINA PAIN?

Angina or angina pectoris is the pain, discomfort or tightness in the chest that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle cells is not enough to meet its energy needs. It is not a disease itself but rather a symptom of the coronary heart disease.

What are the different types of angina?

1. Stable angina: It is the commonest form of angina. It can be triggered by stress or physical activity and usually only lasts a few minutes.

2. Unstable angina: It happens when you're resting or aren't very active. The pain is strong and long lasting, and may keep recurring. It may be a signal of an impending heart attack.

3. Variant angina: This might take place when you're asleep or at rest. This sudden tightening or narrowing of the heart's arteries causes a lot of pain.

How u know what your are experiencing is an angina pain?

You might be having angina pain if you suffer from one or more of these symptoms:

- Chest pain
- Heartburn
- Breathlessness
- Nausea
- Dizziness
- Restlessness
- Fatigue
- Pain in your arm, neck, jaw and back
- Numbness or loss of feeling in your arms, shoulders or wrists

Immediate Relief from Angina

If previously advised by a certified doctor, patients can take antiplatelet medicines which are blood thinners and prevent unstable angina. Final treatments include angioplasty (repair of a blocked blood vessel through surgery), insertion of a coronary artery stent (a tube that is used to treat weakened arteries) or a heart bypass surgery for serious complications.

'Consult'.

Tip: 5 Ways to alleviate nighttime heartburn

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Symptoms and Diagnosis of Heart Attack

MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Gurgaon
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Heart Attack

A person usually gets a heart attack when there is a blockage in the arteries of the heart. This is an emergency situation that can result in a fatality or death if it is not treated immediately. Not all heart attacks will have a crushing pain in the chest right in the beginning, there are a number of symptoms that can show the slow progression of this attack over a few hours. So how do you know if you are having a heart attack, and what kind of treatment will be required? This article seeks to answer all your questions.

Discomfort in the Chest: The patient will usually feel like there is some pressure and squeezing in the chest or pain or even fullness right in the centre. This pain can come and go every few minutes and it should not be ignored.

Pain and Discomfort in other Parts of the Body: There may be some amount of pain and discomfort in other parts of the body including the arms, the jawline, back, neck, stomach and even the teeth. This pain can also travel down to the abdomen above umbilicus. In case there is persistent pain along with the chest discomfort, then a doctor must be contacted immediately.

Other Symptoms: When you feel breathless without any reason or medical cause, and also when you experience symptoms like anxiety, indigestion, vomiting, nausea, light headedness, dizzy spells and fatigue, you may be suffering from a heart attack.

Immediate Treatment: Once you begin to experience these symptoms along with chest discomfort and chest pain, it is imperative to call the emergency unit of the nearest hospital or get in touch with a cardiologist. Until then, you will need to lie down and chew aspirin if you are not allergic to the same. This is usually more efficient that swallowing.

Diagnosis of heart attack: Heart attack is diagnosed if patient has 2 criteria out of following 3-

  1. Pain or discomfort thought to be due to heart disease

  2. ECG suggestive of heart attack

  3. Elevated levels of cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin) in blood test (these levels start rising after 6 to 12 hours of heart attack)

Once you reach doctor an ECG should be done immediately along with blood pressure and pulse. If ECG shows heart attack then immediate action needs to be taken. Remember a normal first ECG does not rule out a heart attack. So a series of ECGs may be ordered by the doctor and at proper time blood test of cardiac enzymes may be done. Ruling out a heart attack may need an observation and testing up to 6 – 12 hours as cardiac enzyme test shows results only after that period.

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