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IBS is a common intestinal disorder causing pain in the stomach, gas, diarrhea and constipation. The condition affects millions of people around the world, mostly women. It may not fully be cured, but the condition can be kept under control diet and lifestyle changes and in severe cases with medication and treatment. The most common affected age groups are between 6 to 18 and 41 to 60.
Causes: There are several triggers to IBS although doctors are yet to determine a specific cause. Because IBS happens more in women than men, some people believe that hormones are responsible for it. Other studies suggest that IBS is triggered when
- The colon becomes hypersensitive reacting to an external stimulation
- The bowel muscles spasm causing diarrhea or constipation
- The muscles in the bowel don't squeeze normally, causing diarrhea or constipation
- There is an imbalance in chemicals like serotonin and gastrin which are responsible for the communication between the brain and the digestive system
- Certain bacteria in the bowel can cause this condition
So far, there are no extensive studies to back any of these theories.
Signs and symptoms: People with IBS have symptoms that can include diarrhea and /or constipation, sometimes alternating with each other, stomach cramps, gas and bloating and a belly that sticks out. Stress may, in some cases, aggravate the problem.
Diagnosis: Unfortunately there are no specific tests to identify IBS as the causes itself can vary in a big spectrum. Using your symptoms as a guide, the doctor may run tests to check for food allergies, lactose intolerance, reactions to any medications you may be taking like blood pressure drugs, infection in the stomach, enzyme deficiencies where the pancreas isn't releasing enough enzymes to digest the food properly and inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitisor Crohn's disease. You may have to undergo a colonoscopy or endoscopy, blood tests, stool tests and allergy tests for your doctor to devise a treatment that can best treat your specific symptoms.
Treatment: Because the symptoms and causes are so varied, there is no one specific treatment of IBS. You will need to identify and understand your specific triggers to isolate it and then make changes accordingly in conjunction with lifestyle change and medication.
Lifestyle changes: Look at IBS as a trigger to make you move into a healthier lifestyle and improved diet. Here are some basic changes that your doctor may prescribe
- Avoid coffee tea and sugary sodas
- Drink 8 glasses of water per day and time your water intake as per your food
- Limit fatty foods, milk and cheese
- Add wholesome fiber to your food.
- Relax and get some me time
- Add a good quantity of regular exercise
There is nothing here that you already didn't know can lead to a healthier life. It's just that you'll have to take it seriously now that the doctor has prescribed it for you. If you suspect that you are suffering from IBS, consult your expert medical practitioner today!
Abdomen pain or abdominal pain is usually experienced in the area between the chest and the stomach. This kind of pain usually comes as a dull cramp that also produces shooting stabs of pains intermittently, or it may be a localised pain in one side of the stomach. This may also be accompanied by inflammation, and other diseases related to organs like intestines, kidneys, pancreas, liver, spleen and stomach.
So what are the causes of stomach or abdomen pain? Read on to find out:
- Food Poisoning: Food poisoning can be caused due to dirty water or contaminated food. This can give rise to various infections as well as conditions like traveller's diarrhoea or loose motions.
- Gastro Intestinal Conditions: GERD or gastroesophaegal reflux disease and gastroenteritis, among various others can also lead to abdomen pain as a symptom along with severe acidity and nausea. Irritable bowel syndrome is another major ailment which can leave you with persistent abdominal pain.
- Generalised Pain: This kind of pain occurs in the overall area all around the stomach and may point at the presence of conditions like Crohn's Disease, a traumatic injury, appendicitis, flu, or even a urinary tract infection. Further, when the gas settles and tightens the stomach due to the inability to pass a motion on a normal, regular basis, this may be termed as constipation. This also leads to abdomen pain.
- Localised Lower Abdomen Pain: Pain that is found specifically in the lower area of the abdomen can be caused due to appendicitis, obstruction or blockage in the intestine or colon, and other ailments. This pain can also be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
- Localised Upper Abdomen Pain: This kind of pain may emanate due to the presence of gallstones, liver inflammation or hepatitis, pneumonia, or even in the middle of a heart attack.
- Localised Centre Abdomen Pain: Pain in the centre part of the stomach or abdomen may be caused due to gastroenteritis, an injury or even the accumulation of waste products in the body, otherwise known as uraemia.
- Abdomen Pain and Women: For women, such localised pain may be caused due to pelvic inflammatory disease, urinary tract infection, endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, menstrual cramps which are also called dysmenorrhoea, and fibroids. Miscarriages can also cause pain in this part of the abdomen, for women.
- Renal Stones: Renal stones or stone in kidney is one of the most common cause of abdomen pain. The pain caused by kidney stone is such that it can make a patient roll in bed and this pain may radiate to toward the groin as well.
Persistent pain and nausea that come with vomiting and finally give rise to blood in the vomit or stool should be checked by the doctor immediately, so as to rule out any serious ailment. Imaging tests, ultrasound and an X-Ray can help in diagnosis.
The symptoms of HIV vary from person to person. There are three main stages of HIV infections, where each stage has different symptoms.
Here are some facts about the three stages of HIV infections along with the accompanying symptoms.
Acute HIV Infection Stage: This is the first stage of HIV infection and after three to four weeks of becoming HIV infected, people experience symptoms, which are similar to flu. This flu usually does not last more than two weeks.
- Rashes on the body
- A sore throat
- Swelling of different glands
- Joint and muscle pain
- Improper digestion
These symptoms appear and indicate that the body is reacting to the HIV. Infected cells circulate throughout the blood, and the immune system produces HIV antibodies in order to attack the viruses. This process is termed as seroconversion, and it takes place within 45 days of getting infected. The levels of virus in your blood are quite high during this stage.
Clinical Latency Stage: This is the second stage of HIV infection, which follows the early stage. This stage is also known as chronic HIV stage. During this stage, HIV is active, but is reproduced at a very low level. People in this stage may not receive symptoms related to HIV or may get mild indications.
In case of people who do not take medicines for HIV treatment, this stage lasts for a long period. Some people, however, progress faster through this stage. Medicines should be taken to keep the virus in check. During this stage, people can transmit HIV to others very easily in spite of not experiencing any symptoms. People who are on medication stay suppressed virally and have a low level of HIV in their blood, and the risk of transmission is less.
Symptomic HIV infection or AIDS stage: This is the third stage of HIV infection, which is characterized by severe damage to the immune system of an HIV-virus affected person. A patient is likely to have serious infections and gets bacterial or fungal diseases. The infections are termed as opportunistic infections. The patient is now said to be having AIDS.
The symptoms of this stage are:
- Loss of weight
- Sweating at night
- Fevers and persistent coughing
- Problems in the mouth and skin
- Infections on a regular basis
- Illness and development of other diseases.
HIV infection affects the body via three stages and leads to AIDS in the third stage. Each stage is accompanied by several symptoms.
Children are highly at risk of developing a common cold. It has been said that 22 million school days are lost each year because of the common cold. This can easily be prevented by a number of simple measures. Here are the most common methods which people take to make sure that they do not catch the flu:
- Make your child wash their hands: This is the most common reason for children getting the common cold. It is possible that whatever you touch may get infected with your germs and pass on to your children. This can happen even hours later. Therefore, it is crucial that you wash your hands as often as possible and if this is not possible, you should at least make your child use a hand sanitizer.
- Do not sneeze into your hands: When you sneeze into your hands, the virus clings to your hands. Therefore, when you sneeze, try to sneeze into a tissue or at least into the inside of your elbow so that your child does not get a cold.
- Make your child not touch your face: Colds can only enter your body through the eyes, nose and mouth. Tell your kids not to touch their faces so that they do not catch a virus.
- Make your child do aerobic exercise: Aerobic exercise increases your heart rate and this means, that it also increases the ability of the body to kill viruses.
- Give your child foods with phytochemicals: Green, red and yellow vegetable and fruits are very good at fighting off viruses. Eat them so that the natural virus fighting ability of the body is increased.
- Do not allow your child to come near smoke: Smoking reduces the body's ability to fight off cold. This is why smokers get more severe and more frequent colds. It has been said that one cigarette can stop cilia from working for 30 to 40 minutes.
- Relax: There is also a lot of evidence that your immune system is stronger when you are not stressed out. Try to see that your child is not stressed from school or any other place which may cause them stress.
Wounds and bruises are both injuries. However, they differ widely in terms of the causing factors, the nature of the injury, the pain they cause and the kind of treatment they require.
The following are a few of the myriad ways in which the two injuries differ from each other:
- A wound causes quick damage - the skin tissue is cut or punctured while a bruise (also called a closed wound) is where the skin is not torn.
- A wound is usually caused by a sharp object but bruises are the results of blunt force or trauma.
- A wound almost certainly bleeds due to ruptured tissue and blood vessels. Blunt injury also damages the blood capillaries of the skin and causes blood to accumulate under the skin tissue, creating a dark patch of skin. Blood vessels can also break due to lifting of heavy objects or overexertion of muscles.
- A wound carries the risk of infection because the skin is open but a bruise does not get infected.
- A wound has a burning or stinging sensation but a bruise is characterized by swelling and a blunt throbbing pain.
- A wound can be healed by antiseptic and antibiotic medication. Large wounds need to be closed by stitching them up to avoid severe infection. On the other hand, a bruise usually heals by itself. A cold compress and pain killers may be used to ease discomfort. Heat can be applied to the injured spot to normalize the blood flow and dissolve the blood clot.
- A wound can lead to complications like bacterial infections or the healing might be delayed by chronic diseases like diabetes. In case of a bruise, it usually does not cause complications but if there's a blunt injury to sensitive areas like the head, the tailbone or the eyes, medical attention is advised.
- Wounds and bruises can also be differentiated on the basis of their subtypes.
The different types of wounds are:
- Incision (sharp objects cutting the dermis layer of skin)
- Abrasion (the epithelial tissue is scraped off)
- Avulsion (a body structure is torn off)
- Penetration (a sharp object causes an entry and an exit wound)
- Puncture (only an entry wound caused by a sharp object)
The different types of bruises are:
- Hematoma (blood pools under the skin)
- Purpura (tiny spots of blood on the inside of the mouth)
- Contusion (similar to hematoma and caused by external trauma)
- Crush injury (caused due to a large amount of force on the body part for a long time)