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A fracture requires quick and careful medical attention to ensure proper healing and alignment of the bone. Most fractures usually recover within six weeks but that is only half the problem. A lot of other tissues get damaged in the process when there is enough stress placed in the body to fracture a bone. Additionally, when you are unable to move that bone, you will have joint stiffness and significant muscle weakness.
After a fracture, physiotherapy might be recommended to guarantee that you come back to your ideal capacity. You might have to go for regular appointments to your physiotherapist in order to achieve full recovery. Usually, your physiotherapist will try to prevent your post-fracture stiffness in the nearby joints and muscles after the initial six weeks while you are recovering from your fracture. After six weeks or later, if x-rays show that the bone has not been fully healed, your physiotherapist can take a shot at recovering full movement of the joints and muscles near the affected area.
Here are five ways in which physiotherapy helps heal post-fracture:
- Physiotherapy after a fracture can help you enhance your muscle movement. In case you have fractured your leg, your physiotherapist can help you improve your walk and help you decide whether you need to take the support of a walking stick, crutches or a cane. In case you have broken an arm or shoulder, exercises focused on reaching and grasping are included.
- Modalities might be used to help with the pain and swelling. Your physiotherapist may choose to use ice, heat or whirlpool baths.
- Electrical stimulation can also be used to improve your muscle movement. You need to keep in mind that while inactive treatments like electrical stimulation or ultrasound might be used, you also need to keep your muscles physically active to better your movement and strengthen your bones.
- If you have had surgery to join the fractured bone, you may have surgical scar tissue. Scar massage can decrease scar attachments and increase movement around the scar.
- Exercise to improve the scope of movement and strength can also be started. Particular focus points need to be treated in the joints around the fractured area. If you have fractured a bone close to your elbow, exercises need to be included for your elbow, wrist, and shoulder. Moreover, a fracture in the shin needs to include exercises for the knee, lower leg, and hip. Exercise can guarantee that your bone can endure the load during daily routine work. Make sure to consult with your physiotherapist to learn the correct exercises for your condition.
A fracture can be very painful and might lead to a disability or problem in movement. Depending on the seriousness of the damage, the loss may be temporary or permanent. Physiotherapy can help you come back to your optimum function as quickly as possible. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
My age is 28 and I am suffering from back pain due to L3, L4, L5 Disc bulging. Kindly suggest me a solution to over come from back pain without surgery.
Symptoms, causes and treatment for Breast Cancer Patients
Hello friends. My name is Dr. Gayatri Juneja. I’m a practicing gynecologist in Model Town for the last 20 years. I’m a visiting consultant in Apollo Cradle Hospital Moti Nagar, and Fortis Hospital Shalimar Bagh, and Sunder Lal Hospital Ashok Nagar. It’s a great pleasure for me to talk to you about certain problems which I think is becoming very important for all of us to know. I am going to talk about Breast Cancer.
Unfortunately, even in India, cancer breast is becoming very common. And it is not that it is a cancer which we cannot pick up at time. The only thing we need is to be aware of it. Only if we know what is happening with our body, is only then we can do what is normal, only then we can see what is not normal, right? It is one of the breast cancer is one of the easiest cancers to pick up. How? My body is my own. I should know what’s happening to me. So minimum a lady can do is do a self examination. Teach your daughters how to do a self examination for the breast. If you find any lump, any time, if you feel there is some pain, which was not there, if you see the nipple is not in the normal position, it is retracted inside, if you see there is skin changes on your breast, if you see any size difference. See minor size difference will be there. That is a natural thing. But if you see there is drastic change, and if you are not comfortable with something, do not neglect it. It’s not at all a normal thing. Go, see a gynaecologist.
It is a confidential thing between you and your doctor. Let her examine you. Let her guide you. You give her a proper history, if you have taken any contraceptive pills, even I-pill is very dangerous. I’ll come to it later how. The thing is…your doctor has examined you, then she will guide you what has to be done. There are various ways of diagnosing cancer of breast. First step is, you do a self examination. First step is over. You find the lump, you go to a doctor. Your doctor will ask for a sonography, that is ultrasound of the breast. And another part of it is an x-ray of the breast. Sometimes in younger age group the breast is very dense, and you cannot diagnose anything on mammogram.
You still are suspecting something, then your doctor might ask for an MRI. MRI is very effective in diagnosing, but we do not suggest it as first line treatment, first line of diagnosis. Once it is confirmed that yes, there is a lump, then what we do is, we ask for a biopsy. Now biopsy can be in 2 forms. It can be taken through the needle, which we call FNAC – Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, and other is open biopsy, where we remove the whole lump, and send it for testing. If the test comes negative, good, fine, everything is fine. If it comes positive, then further treatment depends upon the type. Then they will do a special CT scan for you, where the will diagnose if any lymph nodes are involved.
Depending on preliminary staging, your doctor will ask for a surgery. Now the surgery will…it is better that the whole breast gets removed. Or what has to be done will be diagnosed, because it is not a single person specialty, it is going to be a multi-specialty treatment then. Now let’s come down to who are the people who are at higher risk. Why should I consider that I am at higher risk? What…who are those people? First, specially after menopause, obesity. If your lifestyle is not at all healthy, your food habits you eat lot of non-veg and processed food, like pizzas and burgers and frozen food, yes you are at risk. Then comes genetics.
If you have a family history of cancer in your nani, dadi, your bua, maasi, cousin, ya sister ya brother, or even cancer of ovaries, you are at high risk. But that doesn’t mean who all have had the history of cancer will also develop this. You are at higher risk, but it is better only to be careful. Then comes very tall ladies it has been seen they are also prone for diabetes. Obesity, and people who have had hormonal replacement therapy with…and once you’re diagnosed don’t get scared. It is a curable cancer, and life expectancy with variable modalities these days is quite good.The quality of life is also good.
So my suggestion would be, to conclude, that please be aware of what is happening with you, and take good care of yourself. If you are healthy, only then you can look after your family. Thank you so much.
Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the breast. Mainly it occurs in females but less than 1% of all the breast cancer cases develop in males. The majority of breast cancers start in the milk ducts. A small number start in the milk sacs or lobules. It can spread to the lymph nodes and to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs and to the brain.
With more reliable early detection methods as well as the trend towards less invasive surgery, there is hope that even more women with breast cancer will be treated successfully and will go on to resume their normal lives.
Signs & Symptoms
It is painless, especially, during the early stage. Watch out for the following changes in the breast:
- A persistent lump or thickening in the breast or in the axilla.
- A change in the size or shape of the breast.
- A change in the colour or appearance of the skin of the breast such as redness, puckering or dimpling.
- Bloody discharge from the nipple.
- A change in the nipple or areola such as scaliness, persistent rash or nipple retraction (nipple pulled into the breast).
Consult a doctor immediately if you notice any of these changes.
Being a woman puts you at risk of getting breast cancer. There are certain factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Some of them have been listed below:
- The risk increases with age; most cases of breast cancer develop after the age of 50
- Genetic alterations in certain genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2
- Family history of breast cancer
- Being overweight
- Early menarche (onset of menstruation before the age of 12)
- Late menopause (after the age of 55)
- Never had children
- Late childbearing
- No breast feeding
- Excessive consumption of alcohol
- Use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) for a long period of time
However, most women who have breast cancer have none of the above risk factors. Likewise, not having any of these risk factors does not mean that you will not get breast cancer.
Early Detection and Screening
More treatment options are available when breast cancer is diagnosed at an early stage and hence the chances of recovery is also higher. So regular breast screening is important for early detection even if there are no symptoms. Following are the ways of screening:
- Breast Self-Examination (BSE): Perform BSE once a month about a week after your menses are over. If you no longer menstruate, choose a date each month which is easy to remember e.g. your date of birth or anniversary.
- Clinical Breast Examination: Get a breast specialist to examine your breast once a year if you are 40 years and above.
- Mammogram: Go for a screening mammogram once a year if you are 40 to 49 years old and once every two years if you are 50 years and above even if you do not have any symptom. It is not recommended for younger women (less than 40 years of age) as they have dense breasts, making it difficult for small changes to be detected on a mammogram. So ultrasonography of the breasts is advisable to them.
Types of Breast cancer
- Non-Invasive Breast cancer: These are confined to the ducts within the breasts. They are known as Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS).
- Invasive Breast cancer: It occurs when cancer cells spread beyond the ducts or lobules. Cancer cells first spread to the surrounding breast tissue and subsequently to the lymph nodes in the armpit (Axillary lymph nodes). These cells can also travel to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs or brain and hence known as metastatic breast cancer.
Making A Diagnosis
If you notice any unusual changes in your breasts, you should see a doctor immediately. He will examine you clinically and may ask you to undergo some tests so that a definitive diagnosis can be made. Further, the staging work up is done to find out the stage of the disease and management accordingly.
Treatment of breast cancer may include various methods such as surgery with or without breast reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy. Treatment options offered, depend upon the number of factors such as the stage of cancer and likelihood of cure, your general health and your preference. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have hypertension n slip disc issue in L4 n L5. need to reduce weight badly. Restriction of exercise. Non veg food habits. Suggest diet.
The presence of a lump or a tumor in the breast is not always indicative of breast cancer. In some instances, the breast tumor can be benign or noncancerous as well. Thus, to understand breast cancer better, one should know the difference between a benign and malignant breast tumor. In this article, we will discuss the factors that differentiate a benign breast tumor from a malignant one.
- Breast Fibroadenomas are benign breast tumors that often affect women in their early 20s and 30s (can also affect women of other age groups). Research suggests that in spite of being benign and noncancerous, breast fibroadenomas make a woman more susceptible to breast cancer in the future.
- It may be difficult to decipher the underlying factor that triggers fibroadenomas. However, increased use of birth control pills (that results in an elevated estrogen level) can be a contributing factor.
- Thus, in spite of no discomfort, it is safe to get fibroadenomas removed by lumpectomy or by radiation therapy. There are also instances when fibroadenomas dissolved on their own.
- Sometimes, the lobules of the breast can undergo enlargement resulting in the formation of lumps (can be a tumor or a cyst) that are non-cancerous in nature. Such tumors are known as Adenosis.
- The benign tumor growth can also develop in the milk ducts of the nipples, a condition known as Intraductal papillomas (characterized by discharge from the nipples).
- To stay safe and lower the risk of breast cancer, doctors often recommend the removal of the tumor.
Differences between Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors
- One of the major factors resulting in a tumor is the abnormal growth of cells that could be triggered by an injury, an infection or prolonged inflammation.
- A factor that plays a pivotal role in differentiating malignant from benign breast lumps or tumors is its ability to metastasize or invade other organs, cells and tissues of the body.
- A malignant tumor starts off as a primary tumor that remains confined within its point of origin. Gradually, the cancerous growth metastasize, invading other neighboring as well as distant cells and body organs (Secondary cancer or tumor).
- Benign tumors, on the other hand, contains chemical adhesions that prevent their metastasis and invasion to the other vital organs in the body.
- As compared to malignant tumors, benign breast tumors, once removed, do not recur.
- On the cellular level, microscopic examination reveals that malignant breast tumors often contain unusual, mutated, and modified genes and chromosomes.
- More than often, malignant breast tumors give rise to Paraneoplastic Syndrome. The Paraneoplastic Syndrome is characterized by an elevated production of substances (can be antibodies or hormones) by the cancerous growths or tumors. The hormones or the antibodies circulate in the bloodstream and can alter the functioning of a host of vital body tissues and organs with deleterious health consequences.
Such things seldom take place in the case of benign breast tumors. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The treatment options for bone cancer depends on the type of cancer one is suffering from, the general health of the patient, the stage of cancer and the general preference of the patient. Different treatment options are designed for different types of cancer, based on the diagnosis. Each treatment responds in a different way. An oncologist decides the treatment options considering all the factors mentioned above. For instance, some cancer is best suited to surgery, while some cancer needs radiotherapy or chemotherapy to curb them. In many cases, all three modes of treatment might be required to tackle the growth of the cancer cells.
The goal of surgery is to eradicate the cancer cells in totality along with some surrounding healthy tissues. This involves special techniques to remove a tumor in one piece. Following are the types of surgeries that are available:
- Removing the cancer cells sparing the limb: At the very first sight, the surgeon tries to understand whether it is possible to separate cancer cells from the tissues and the nerves. If the same is possible, the surgeon tries to save the limb while getting rid of the cancer cells. For the sake of safety and to ensure that the surgery is effective, the surgeon removes some of the healthy bone from the body and may replace the same with tissue from other parts of the body. To achieve this, a doctor might seek the help from of a bone bank or use a special metal prosthesis.
- Surgery that does not involve the limbs: If the bone cancer does not involve the legs and the arm, surgeons can remove the affected bone along with some healthy bone from the surrounding areas. Cancer of the ribs and the spine are good examples of this type.
- Surgery that affects the limb: Bone cancer that has spread to a significant extent and is strategically located in such areas that it is very difficult to remove, requires amputation. While this form of treatment is being increasingly discouraged by the wider medical community, it still does exist. In such cases, patients are fitted with artificial limbs and trained to do their job without the use of natural limbs.
This is a form of drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill cancer cells throughout the body. This medication is mostly given through an IV and the medication kills whatever cancer cells it comes across.
Radiation therapy involves the use of special X-ray beams that have high power and can kill cancer cells. The patients are required to lie on a table, while a machine moves around the affected area and treats it with high energy X-rays, thereby killing the cancer cells. Radiation therapy is often used in conjunction with chemotherapy to reduce the size of a tumor before operating on it. Also, Brachytherapy is another kind of radiotherapy in which plastic tubes for introducing radioactive sources are placed over tutor bed during surgery, later it is connected with brachytherapy machine to give extra high dose to tutor bed to improve cure rates.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I have got pain in my leg from two years. The MRI shows this diffuse posture lateral iv disc at L4-L5 level causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess narrowing with mild thecal sac indentation and abutting transversing nerve fibres and existing neural foramen stenosis.(2) subtle L3 -L4 diffuse posture lateral iv disc bulge causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess effacement. What is the treatment of it .is surgery necessary for it.
Peripheral arterial disease or commonly known as PAD is a common cardiovascular disease. Despite having the power to cause painful symptoms and severe health risks, it is overlooked by many. This particular arterial disease may lead to life-threatening consequences if left untreated for long. Read on to know more about the condition.
What is PAD?
PAD refers to the situation where in the peripheral arteries to the arms, head, stomach, and legs become narrow. Often referred to as the peripheral vascular disease, here, the arteries start to grow narrower due to the slow but constant buildup of fatty deposits on the artery walls. Though it can affect all the arteries in a person’s body, except those that supply blood to the heart, in the majority of cases, it affects the arteries in the leg.
What are the threats it poses?
PAD is indeed a life-threatening disease, as the blockages, it creates in the peripheral arteries prevent normal blood circulation to the different organs, legs, and brain. And when the blood flow is restricted, or the vital organs of the body fail to receive necessary blood flow, then the legs, brain and all the vital organs suffer severe damage. And when PAD continues to harm the blood flow for a long time, then it leads to tissue infection or tissue death, which is known as gangrene.
Additional health issues it causes
PAD also creates various other health concerns, such as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of fatty materials’ build up. In the case of atherosclerosis, the entire blood circulatory system gets damaged, including the arteries leading to the heart. The risk of blood clot build ups and vascular inflammation are also common additional threats posed by the fatty deposits.
Depending on the part of the body that is affected, the PAD symptoms vary from one to another. However, painful cramping in the muscles of one’s legs is the most common symptom of this condition. The pain, originating in the legs often goes up to the muscles in the thighs or hips too. Except this, weakness or numbness in the legs, ulcers or open sores on the feet or legs, skin color changing into bluish or pale are some of the other symptoms of PAD.
The peripheral arterial disease can be diagnosed easily, painlessly and straightforwardly under proper medical attention. Both prescribed medications and a lifestyle change are considered to be the best treatment for controlling PAD. Including a healthy diet and adopting a healthy lifestyle have often been successful in preventing PAD in its early stage.
The moment any signs or symptoms of PAD is noticed one should not be late in seeking immediate medical attention.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!