Doctor in Ramkanai Polyclinic
Treatment of Depression
Treatment & Management of Stress
Treatment of Anxiety
Treatment of Alcohol Addiction Disorder
Treatment of Mood Disorder
Treatment of Fear
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Treatment of Eating Disorders
Treatment of Memory Loss
Treatment of Anxiety and Depression
Treatment of Overeating Disorders
Treatment of OCD
Treatment Of Anxiety Attacks
Treatment of Panic Disorders
Treatment of Stress at Work
Sex Addiction Counselling
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment of Schizophrenia
Treatment of Bipolar Disorder
Anger Management Therapy
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Schizophrenia is a disease of the mind that is usually degenerative in nature. The complex disorder is generally characterized by symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations (both auditory and visual) and disturbances in speech and is usually chronic in nature. The symptoms are not regular and can appear at any point of time. So it is highly possible that a person suffering from schizophrenia may sometimes bear resemblance to any other normal person and all of a sudden, might exhibit symptoms typical of Schizophrenia.
- Brain Dysfunction: Abnormalities in the cerebral cortex (the cerebrum’s outer covering that is vital in regulating consciousness) of the brain is the most common cause of this disorder. This is due to the presence of abnormally enlarged ventricles in that region. The decreased brain size owing to the enlarged ventricles is often related to the hallucinations and delusions experienced by schizophrenics.
- Genetic Factors: Studies have also stated ‘genetics’ to be an important cause behind this disorder. Closer the family ties, higher the risks of transmitting the disorder.
- Biochemical Factors: More than one neurotransmitter is being targeted by recent drugs to control schizophrenia.
Symptoms which most people do not experience normally, but are found in people diagnosed with schizophrenia are said to be positive symptoms. They are:
- Hallucinations: These are sensory experiences of things that do not exist outside the mind. Hallucinations usually manifest in the form of auditory or visual images.
- Delusions: Delusions on the other hand are false beliefs one has about oneself. Delusions are of 3 major types:
- Grandeur: Wherein the person imagines himself to be a famous personality
- Persecution: The belief that somebody somewhere is plotting against you and the whole world is going to get you.
- Control: The belief that a larger force, let’s say a witch, a demon or even a duck for that matter is controlling your actions.
These positive symptoms generally respond well to medications.
In addition to this, schizophrenics think and speak differently than the rest of the society. They jump from idea to idea, lose track of speech mid-way and often speak in fragmented and haphazardly joined sentences. They are, in fact, unable to fix their attention on anything in particular.
Examples of the most common negative symptoms include:
- The flat effect: The individual basically shows no facial expression and always has a flat emotionless mask on while staring into space. At times, they have inappropriate reactions to situations. Example - they might laugh at somebody's death and cry ad get angry when something good happens.
- Avolition: This condition occurs when the individual just sit for hours doing nothing as well as behaves in a way lacking any motivation or enthusiasm.
Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder in recent days, is a major mood disorder characterized by hypomanic or manic episodes (deviation from one's usual mood along with abnormally high energy levels). Mania involves sleeplessness, along with psychosis, hallucinations, rage, grandiose delusions or paranoia. Mania or hypomania isn’t usually harmful to the patient and they might exhibit increased capacity for work and creativity. Depressive episodes however, can be debilitating and often life threatening as the person becomes self-destructive and suicidal in many instances.
The extent of mood swings can vary from extreme to very mild. They can occur progressively or suddenly and might last for few days to weeks. Patients affected by bipolar disorder may experience disturbances in thinking apart from depressive or manic episodes. Distortions of perception and impaired social functioning are also not uncommon. The cause of bipolar disorder is not fully understood like most mental health conditions and is often thought to be hereditary.
The extent of the seriousness of the bipolar symptoms varies from person to person. In some people, the disorder is not full blown and they don’t exhibit all the symptoms. Others who aren’t that lucky might have to be hospitalized multiple times in their lives as the symptoms creep into their work and personal life and make living a normal life a tough challenge.
Psychotic symptoms such as disorganized thinking, hallucinations and delusions might make a person do things that demand the urgency of hospitalization to keep them safe from their suicidal impulses. These symptoms might need to be urgently addressed by a psychiatrist and with the help of medications, the person might be able to regain control of their lives.
The symptoms of bipolar disorder are many and can be mainly categorized into two (sometimes overlapping) categories of mania or hypomania and depression:
Manic symptoms include:
- Grandiose delusions (delusion of grandeur)
- Racing thoughts which are often disconnected
- Sense of euphoria or false elation
- Irritability without cause
- Hampered social functioning
- Increased sexual inclination and risky sexual behavior
- Increase in talking volume or speed
- Impaired judgment
- Reduced sleep requirements owing to extra energy levels
- Increased productivity and creativity
Depressive symptoms include:
- Abnormal eating patterns like over or under-eating to the extent of severe medical complications accompanied by drastic changes in weight
- Difficulty in concentration, making decisions and remembering
- Lack of energy or fatigue
- Contemplating about death for prolonged periods of time and suicidal behavior
- Oversleeping, insomnia or early awakening
- Persistent pessimism
- Irritability and restlessness
- Feeling of hopeless and negative attitude
Mood stabilizers, such as lithium are commonly employed to treat bipolar disorder. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and anti psychotics can also be used in the treatment. Along with medications, support from family and friends is of the utmost importance as they need to help provide all the support required in making the person functional and healthy.
Sleep is the most essential part of our lives because it is the time when our body gets rejuvenated and recharged. However, due to numerous reasons, quite a few individuals fail to achieve proper sleep or any sleep at all. This condition in which a person is unable to sleep at night can be termed as insomnia.
Causes of insomnia
There can be varied reasons for different people that can cause insomnia.
- Unhealthy lifestyle i.e. improper sleep cycle, improper food habits, untimely naps, substance abuse etc.
- Medical conditions like sinus allergies, gastrointestinal problems, endocrine problems, arthritis, asthma, neurological condition like Parkinson’s disease, chronic back pain etc.
- Psychological conditions like depression and anxiety
- Certain medications aimed to cure other health problems
In case of the treatable medical reasons, insomnia is gone once the problem is treated. However, for people who have no idea as to why they suffer from insomnia, here are certain tips that can help in fighting it.
Lifestyle changes to cure insomnia
Starting with a significant lifestyle change can be a great way to change one’s sleep cycles and get a good night’s sleep.
- Maintain a proper and healthy diet, with more fruits and vegetables and less carbs and fat.
- Try to sleep and wake up at the same time everyday (despite the fact that you may not feel sleepy). This will train the body and regulate the body clock.
- Avoid afternoon naps or any short naps during the day.
- Exercise daily for at least 30 minutes.
- Avoid caffeine as it has contains properties that keeps a person up for long hours.
- Avoid intake of alcohol and nicotine. Although alcohol is associated with fun and partying, it is actually a depressant and causes improper sleep.
- Avoid any meal right before bed time.
Tips that can help
- Take a good, warm shower right before sleep.
- Ask your partner to give you a nice massage before bedtime.
- Restrict bed activities to sleep and sex only, nothing more.
- Make a really comfortable and inviting sleep environment.
- Try and get rid of all your worries before going to bed.
- Reduce stress using a number of stress reduction therapies like meditation, deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation techniques, etc.
Apart from the lifestyle changes and the tips that will help you gain a better sleep, there is another therapy, which may be useful. It is called the cognitive behavioural therapy. This therapy can give essential knowledge about sleep and help achieve normal sleep routines.
While most children share a strong bond with their parents, especially the mother, some infants are unable to establish lasting relationships with their parents or caregivers. This is known as attachment disorder. It is a rare yet serious condition as it affects the child’s relationships at a later stage and also triggers delinquent behavior. Children, who have been abandoned, orphaned or are victims of abuse are the most vulnerable to this condition.
What causes attachment disorder?
The exact cause for attachment disorder is not yet understood. However, researchers have put together a number of viable hypotheses for this. One such hypothesis suggests that when needs of a child are ignored or when he begins to feel unwanted, the child begins to expect hostility, negativity and rejection. This is a learnt response and the child begins to feel that his needs are unwanted. With time, these responses make the child untrusting and he withdraws into himself to avoid social contact. This affects the development in the brain and causes attachment problems that affect the child’s personality and future relationships.
Risks associated with it
Some children are at a higher risk of attachment disorder than others. This includes
- Children living in orphanages or other such institutes
- Children whose caregivers are changed frequently
- Children who have had prolonged hospitalization
- Neglected children
- Children who have suffered from physical, sexual or verbal abuse
- Children living in extreme poverty
- Children born to parents with mental conditions or anger management problems
- Children born to a mother suffering from post partum depression
There are two types of attachment disorders; inhibited and disinhibited.
- Inhibited attachment disorder: Children suffering from inhibited attachment disorder are likely to be:
- Unresponsive to comforting ie. they shun all types of relationships and generally do not get along with their peers or caregivers.
- Disinhibited attachment disorder: On the other hand, children suffering from disinhibited attachment are likely to:
- Seek attention
- Display inappropriate behavior
- Frequently break social boundaries
- Be inappropriately familial and attached to selective figures.
Additionally, children suffering from either type of attachment disorder are manipulative, destructive, moody and lack compassion and remorse.
Effects of attachment disorder
If not managed properly in its early stages, this disorder can continue into adulthood. This leads to:
- Relationship problems with peers, friends and family members
- Low self esteem
- Anger management
- Academic problems
- They are also at a high risk for drug abuse and alcohol addiction
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
We all have mood swings but not all mood swings have the same intensity. People who have extreme mood swings ranging from depression to manic highs are said to be suffering from bipolar disorder. These extreme moods are known as episodes and usually, last for a few days or even a few weeks. A person suffering from bipolar disorder could have an episode several times a year. This is a very common psychological problem and can affect both children and adults. Though it cannot be cured, this disease can be managed with medication.
There are no known causes for bipolar disorder but genetics may play an important role in triggering Bipolar Disorder. Hence, if a parent or sibling suffers from this condition, you have a risk of developing it as well. An imbalance in the neurotransmitters in the brain may also play a part in the development of this condition. Stress or traumatic events like the loss of a loved one can also increase your risk of suffering from this condition. Given that mood swings affect almost each one of us, bipolar disorder can be difficult to diagnose. Some of the things to look out for are:
- Change in self-esteem
- Unusual talkativeness or quietness
- Being increasingly prone to distractions
- Decreased need for sleep
- Recklessness in terms of spending decisions, relationships etc
It must be kept in mind that a person must display at least 4 of the above symptoms simultaneously to be diagnosed as bipolar. Also, none of these symptoms should be a result or side effect of any kind of medication, drugs, alcohol or other intoxicants.
There are four main types of bipolar disorder:
- Bipolar I: In such cases, the person has at least one episode of elevated moods and associated abnormal behaviour in his or her life. This may be preceded or followed by depressive episodes.
- Bipolar II: In these cases, the person must have suffered from at least one depressive episode. It is very similar to bipolar I except that in bipolar II the highs never reach the manic stage.
- Rapid Cycling: Some people can have 4 or more manic and depressive episodes a year. In such cases, they are said to be rapid cycling. This condition affects 10-20% of bipolar cases.
- Mixed Bipolar: Usually, bipolar patients show mood swings that alternate between manic and depressive moods. However, sometimes a person may experience both elation and depression simultaneously or in rapid succession of each other. These cases are known as mixed bipolar.
Once diagnosed, bipolar disorder can be managed with a combination of medication and psychotherapy. In some cases, electroconvulsive therapy may also be needed.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
With age, most body organs begin to deteriorate in their function. This happens to the brain also, thereby reducing the overall speed of functioning of most organs. While slowing of bodily movement is visible, the internal organs functioning also slows down, which is not that obvious. Memory loss or dementia is one of the main manifestations of this degeneration of the brain.
Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia, and the associated symptoms includes reduced reasoning abilities and cognitive defects. Though it is seen only in the elderly, not all elderly people will have Alzheimer’s. The overall quality of life of the affected person is reduced with difficulty remembering things that were recently learned. It is a progressive disease and as it gets more severe, a full-time caretaker may be required.
Causes: The brain cells are affected by protein masses known as plaques and tangles. These hamper the way communication between the brain cells happens as well as affect nutrition from reaching all parts of the brain. This leads to shrinking of the brain, eventually leading to memory loss and other problems. There is also a strong genetic linkage, as most people with Alzheimer’s have the lipoprotein A gene.
Symptoms: Though memory loss is the most common symptom, there are other symptoms:
- Being confused about places, people, and times
- Inability to find the right words during conversations
- Regular objects are misplaced
- Becoming irritable, (in someone who was not so previously)
- Mood swings
- Personality changes
- Inability to organise thoughts
- Not able to make the right decisions
- Repetitive talks and actions
- Forgetfulness (not something the person always does)
- Difficulty with numbers (again, not something calculations
- Difficulty managing everyday tasks and minor problems
- Suspicion of others (like immediate family members and friends)
Risk factors: While age is definitely a risk factor, the fact that not all aged people develop Alzheimer’s is to be borne in mind. Other risk factors include the history of stroke, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, and poor lifestyle choices.
Diagnosis: While there is no definitive way to diagnose Alzheimer’s, symptoms along with brain scans and neuropsychological function testing are useful ways to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment: This is aimed at two things reducing the rate of disease progression and treat (or reverse) symptoms if possible.
Cholinesterase inhibitors improve cellular communication in the brain and also manage depression and agitation. Memantine is used to slow the pace of disease progression.
In people with the disease, small changes are useful to help them with the symptoms. These include keeping essential things like keys and wallet in the same place, keep a daily diary to help them remember things, keep pictures of friends and family within visible distance.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
When you spend so much time with someone you are bound to have at least an occasional difference of opinion, to say the least, and it’s not always easy to keep objective and levelheaded when you enter into a disagreement with your partner. When this happens, remember to use these effective communication skills with your partner to improve the odds of reaching a solution that is in the relationship’s best interest.
This is because no matter how much you love and respect each other, it might not be possible to always keep cool and be levelheaded while entering into a disagreement with your significant other.
Here are a few effective communication skills that can improve the odds of reaching an amicable solution:
Use ‘I’ in the statement: Never blame your partner. This can make your partner feel that you are trying to attack your partner’s feelings, which often takes a negative turn. For example, if your partner is late, you can say “I would have appreciated if you had called me”. In this case, it’s all about how you feel and so it’s now up to the partner to appreciate, understand and consider your situation.
Don’t interrupt; listen first: Generally, in an argument, both the partners usually wait for their turn to talk and spurt out their anger and resentment. But this often makes things get worse. Most of the time, disagreements and petty discords, often, get resolved more easily, when someone pays more attention to the cause that might be making the other person upset. Also, watch out for the other person’s body language for getting a grip of his/her feelings. Try and pay undivided attention to what your partner has to say. Only when you have understood what might be the reason for all the hullaballoo, should you start explaining.
Don’t dig up the Past: Always stick to the discussion and the controversy at hand. Never dig up old corpses. Digging up past hatchet will only churn out further heated arguments, things you surely would want to avoid. Remember, resolving multiple conflicts could only get nastier and even more difficult.
Explain later, Acknowledge first: The most effective way of avoiding sudden escalation of disagreements is to first listen and acknowledge your partner’s feelings. Do it even if you think that the other person’s argument lacks reason. Take your time to hear out the other person.
Maintain a Positive and a Respectful Tone: Lastly, maintain a positive and a respectful tone. And never abuse. Abusing is derogatory and can invite further malice that will only keep on spiraling north. There never was and will never be any alternative to maintaining dignity and holding your ground no matter how much the malice is.
Feeling tired all the time? Do you feel that you can’t focus on things anymore? Have you lost interest in things and people you once loved spending time with? Does your temper fly off the hook at the drop of a hat? If it is a ‘yes’ to the questions above, then you might be slowly but steadily succumbing to depression. Depression is a psychological disorder that is characterized by symptoms of extreme sadness, worthlessness and hopelessness over a prolonged period of time.
- Lack of Interest: This is probably the starkest of all the symptoms. Hobbies or activities that you used to enjoy once no longer catch your fancy. You do not find little or no pleasure in social activities or any other hobby of yours anymore.
- A constant Feeling of Hopelessness: You tend to develop a negative outlook towards life in general, as you feel that the current situation will never get better and will only worsen.
- Loss of Appetite: Loss of appetite is a common feature of depression; it can also lead to rapid weight loss. If engulfed by depression, one generally tends to ignore food completely, remain hungry, both of which contribute to the vicious cycle that depression is.
- Changes in Sleep Patterns: Insomnia is a condition that is marked by a sheer inability to sleep, no matter how physically exhausted one is. Depression tends to exhibit this particular symptom in maximum cases. However, oversleeping, or sleeping more than the sufficient hours is also common.
- Reckless Behavior: Depression makes one more prone to reckless behavior; one generally develops an angry and irritated persona; this in turn, may make one to exhibit reckless and rash behavior.
- Lack of Energy and Focus: Depression causes one to feel fatigued and sluggish the entire day. Factors such as a total loss of appetite contribute to this particular symptom. Stemming from these symptoms are two other major occurrences; an inability to focus on anything and an inability to decide on anything.
Self-help, Coping tips and Treatment-
- Connect with different people: Being isolated from the rest can and usually aggravates symptoms of depression. So, reach out to other people and your loved ones; talk to your loved ones and try to empty your mind when you are having a one-to-one with them. Interacting and talking to others will make you feel better and should go a long way in taking that huge rock off your chest.
- Try to ditch that sedentary lifestyle; go out in the open: An early morning jog can feel daunting at first but the benefits are immense. Exercising regularly has been proven to be as effective as anti-depressants in combatting depression. Even a 20 minutes jog early in the morning releases ‘endorphins’ in the body, also known as the ‘feel good hormones’. These hormones induce a feeling of happiness and relaxation, thus taking your mind off any particular event or circumstance that has been ruining your sanctity of late.
- Avoid Alcohol and Drugs: Avoid alcohol and drugs to come out of your sadness; they have never helped and will never help. Taking these substances provides a temporary solution to depression, as it will again show up once the effects of the intoxicants wear off. It will also interfere with other medications that you may be taking to combat depression, thus reducing their potency.
- It’s high time you bought the meditating mat: Sleep has a beneficial effect on your mental health as it has been proven to improve memory and other cognitive and brain functions. Another way to improve brain function and be more relaxed is to meditate regularly. Meditation induces a state of relaxation, and if done on a regular basis, can be an effective treatment for depression. Meditation also helps with an improved focus and reduced anxiety.
- Medications can always help: Medications such as anti-depressants are administered to treat depression. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), including citalopram, fluoxetine and sertraline are the most commonly administered medications to cure this condition. However, it is advised to try the abovementioned methods first so that you do not have to depend on medications alone; the reason being that these medications do have their fair share of side effects.