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Goethals Memorial Health Centre

Multi-speciality Clinic (ENT Specialist, Physiotherapist & more)

3, Lenin Sarani Road, Dharamtala, Landmark : Opposite To Tipu Sultan Mosque, Kolkata Kolkata
15 Doctors · ₹100 - 300
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Goethals Memorial Health Centre Multi-speciality Clinic (ENT Specialist, Physiotherapist & more) 3, Lenin Sarani Road, Dharamtala, Landmark : Opposite To Tipu Sultan Mosque, Kolkata Kolkata
15 Doctors · ₹100 - 300
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It is important to us that you feel comfortable while visiting our office. To achieve this goal, we have staffed our office with caring people who will answer your questions and help you ......more
It is important to us that you feel comfortable while visiting our office. To achieve this goal, we have staffed our office with caring people who will answer your questions and help you understand your treatments.
More about Goethals Memorial Health Centre
Goethals Memorial Health Centre is known for housing experienced Dentists. Dr. Soosi Christopher, a well-reputed Dentist, practices in Kolkata. Visit this medical health centre for Dentists recommended by 109 patients.

Timings

MON-SAT
08:05 AM - 05:50 PM

Location

3, Lenin Sarani Road, Dharamtala, Landmark : Opposite To Tipu Sultan Mosque, Kolkata
Amtala Kolkata, West Bengal
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Doctors in Goethals Memorial Health Centre

Dr. Soosi Christopher

BDS, Certificate in Dental Implants
Dentist
90%  (10 ratings)
26 Years experience
150 at clinic
₹200 online
Unavailable today

Dr. Soham Bhattacharyya

MBBS, MD - Dermatology
Dermatologist
13 Years experience
200 at clinic
Unavailable today

Dr. Tanushree Bhattacharyya

BPTh/BPT, Post Graduate Diploma in Orthopedic Rehabilitation (PGDOR)
Physiotherapist
7 Years experience
150 at clinic
Available today
03:05 PM - 04:00 PM

Dr. Premlata Kapoor

MBBS, DOMS, Fellowship in Vitreo-Retina
Ophthalmologist
34 Years experience
200 at clinic
Available today
10:00 AM - 11:00 AM

Dr. Javid V. Sadique

MBBS, Diploma in Tropical Medicine Health, DCH
General Surgeon
27 Years experience
300 at clinic
Unavailable today

Dr. Malini Cherian

MBBS, DGO, DNB - Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gynaecologist
23 Years experience
200 at clinic
Unavailable today
42 Years experience
100 at clinic
Unavailable today
22 Years experience
100 at clinic
Available today
04:30 PM - 05:30 PM

Dr. Utpal Goswami

MBBS, MD - Pathology
Pathologist
32 Years experience
100 at clinic
Available today
08:05 AM - 05:50 PM

Dr. Sagir Asad

MBBS, DOMS
Ophthalmologist
49 Years experience
150 at clinic
Unavailable today

Dr. Anup Kumar Sandhu

MBBS, MD - Radio Diagnosis/Radiology
Radiologist
34 Years experience
100 at clinic
Available today
08:05 AM - 05:45 PM

Dr. Sukharanjan Hoaldar

MBBS, MD - Radio Diagnosis/Radiology
Radiologist
22 Years experience
100 at clinic
Unavailable today

Dr. Hui Shang Hsue

BSc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist
4 Years experience
200 at clinic
Available today
10:00 AM - 05:00 PM

Dr. Saibal Mishra

MBBS, MS - ENT
ENT Specialist
22 Years experience
200 at clinic
Unavailable today
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Gymming Hard? What Should You Do To Protect Your Spine?

MBBS, AFRCSI, FRCS - Trauma & Orthopedic
Orthopedist, Chennai
Gymming Hard? What Should You Do To Protect Your Spine?

The human spine is endowed with tremendous strength and flexibility, but it is also prone to severe injuries. Due to the presence of a vast network of nerves in the spinal cord, particularly in the lower region, injuries can become gravely complicated with a large scope for permanent damage. Heavy lifting, sudden movements and twisting can lead to spinal injuries and must be avoided while working out in the gym.

There are simple precautions that you can take to protect your spine from accidents and injuries while doing heavy lifts in the gym. Not only will these precautions ensure that your spine is protected from any harm, but they also yield a range of health benefits in the long run.

Following are a few precautions that can be taken from spinal protection:

  1. Check the object before lifting: It is important that you check the weight of the object before performing the lift. Test it out by pushing it with your hands or your feet very lightly to see how heavy it is and determine whether or not you should be lifting it.
  2. Perform a warm up exercise: This is one of the most essential factors for preventing exercise-related injuries. Pace around and stretch all your muscles before you start lifting. This will keep your muscles from suddenly stiffening or locking while you do the lift.
  3. Ensure that the weight is well balanced: Unbalanced weights greatly increase the risk of injury. You should always make sure that the weight you are lifting is evenly balanced on all sides and that the packing is proper so that it does not move around when you lift or have pieces falling off it.
  4. Maintain proper postureOne of the most important aspects of lifting in the right manner is to maintain proper body posture. You must always avoid arching your back or reaching out while you lift as that will surely lead to injury.
  5. Move slowly: Sudden jerks and movements are sure to lead to injury when lifting weights in the gym. Slow and smooth movements are recommended as they keep you from straining your muscles. There is no need to rush through your workout. Always avoid twisting while performing a lift.
  6. Create enough space: There has to be enough room all around you while you are lifting. This will ensure your safety while you are working out.

Getting The Flu Vaccine - Why It's Important

CCEBDM, PG Diploma In Clinical Cardiology, MBBS
General Physician, Ghaziabad
Getting The Flu Vaccine - Why It's Important

There are a variety of reasons why a person can fall sick. A good number of these illnesses cannot be prevented though a person may take general precautions. Having said that, in the case of influenza, it can be prevented to a large extent and it does not seem all that smart to avoid taking easy precautions when one has an option, right?

Every year, thousands of people die from influenza, which is so unfortunate because an annual shot can reduce that number by almost 60 percent. So what exactly makes a flu shot or vaccine work? As a result of the vaccine, after about two weeks or so, antibodies begin to develop in the body. These antibodies help fight off infection, specifically the kind that is targeted by the vaccine. It is important to get vaccinated for this flu on an annual basis.

Choosing the right flu shot
Considering the great number of options there are when it comes to flu vaccines, which are the ones to be injected? It is a good idea to get the opinion of a doctor to see which one to choose. This is because the choice is dependent on a variety of factors, which a medical professional would be able to assess appropriately. Note that it is important not to use the nasal spray version of the vaccine as the medical authorities have recently found that it is not as effective a method as it once was.


When should you get it?
Flu season does vary across the world, but in the US, it starts in about October and goes on till May. During this time, the flu viruses are a lot more active. When one gets a flu shot, it is this period that one needs to look out for. So, it is better to get vaccinated in late September or the start of October, so that there is minimal unprotected exposure to the viruses.

Who is it for?
It is to be kept in mind that every individual who is older than six months should be vaccinated. While it is said that getting a vaccine shot year after year reduces its effectiveness, it is still important to do so. This is because each year, the shot is altered to reflect the biggest virus threats in that year. There might be few side effects of the flu vaccine such as redness in the injected area, soreness or swelling. However, as long as one gets a flu shot in time, it is almost a given that there will be almost no time spent ‘down with the flu’.

Pregnancy - Exercises That Can Be Of Help!

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ultrasonography Basic Traning Course, Diploma in Minimal Access Surgery, Advanced Infertility & ART training, Advanced training in ultrasonography, PG Diploma in IVF & Reproductive Medicine
Gynaecologist, Ahmedabad
Pregnancy - Exercises That Can Be Of Help!

Advice for an expectant mother is plentiful to come around from family and friends. While it may be well intentional, it may not be the best advice possible. One of the things most people would advise is to avoid exercising as it may affect the health of the mother and the baby. This is in fact a very wrong advice as expectant mothers like everyone need exercise to stay fit and healthy. The only difference from normal people is that certain types of exercises may not be suitable for pregnant women and the nature of exercises may change from trimester to trimester.

Some of the best exercises during pregnancy

  1. Swimming: This one is in fact recommended by doctors as the best and the safest exercise for pregnant women. Swimming is beneficial because of the following reasons:
    • It has immense cardiovascular benefits
    • Large muscles groups are exercised in the process
    • Helps reduce swelling and inflammation
    • Helps with low back pain and relieves the stress on your spine which is caused due to the extra weight you are carrying around.
  2. Walking: This is one of the safest exercise during any trimester as long as you don’t over exert yourself. Walking promotes blood circulation, improves heart health and is all around a good exercise for pregnant women. The key is to invest in a good pair of shoes for walking so as to prevent the knees and legs from jarring and also to support your upper body properly.
  3. Stretching: In the later trimesters, it may be a little difficult to manage other exercises as your body becomes heavier and movement may bse limited. However, you can do basic stretching exercises to improve mobility and also help with circulation.
  4. Weight training exercises: Certain exercises which utilize the weight of your body rather than external weight can be performed easily. You can also use lighter weights to help keep muscle tone and strength. A few examples of these exercises are
    • Side leg lifting: Lie on one side and lift one leg up slightly higher than hip height. You can use your forearm for balance in this case. Keep lifting the leg and hold it there for a few seconds and do the same motions a few times for repetitions.
    • Curling and lifting: Sit on a chair with your back straight with 2 to 4 kilo weights in each hand and curl up your hands up to the shoulders. Sit with your legs spread apart but comfortably. Also start the curl with your fore arms at a 90° angle from your elbows.
    • Yoga and meditation: Yoga is possibly one of the most well suited regimens during pregnancy. Pranayama and meditation can definitely help you be more at peace and also manage many of the changes happening in your body in a much better fashion.

It is best to consult with a specialist or a physiotherapist who can give you a step by step guide as to the exercises you can do and the precautions that you need to take while performing them.

Fistula - How Ayurvedic Remedies Help You Avoid Surgery?

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), P.G.C.R.A.V. (Kshara Sutra)
Ayurveda, Ghaziabad
Fistula - How Ayurvedic Remedies Help You Avoid Surgery?

Anal fistulas or fistula-in-ano generally cause discomfort due pus or watery discharges and sometimes pain. This is a condition where a nodular swelling appears in area surrounding the anal opening. Intermittent pus discharged is noticed from this nodular swelling. Instead of a nodular swelling; there might be simply an opening in this region. An anal abscess is one of the most common causes for this condition.

Here are ten things you should know about these anal fistulas:

  1. It is curable through Ayurveda only: Till date many treatment options are tried to cure Anal Fistula which include Anal Fistula Surgery/ Glu technique/ cutting seton/ Colostomy/ Fistula plug/ VAAFT and many more. But all of these treatment methods have pretty high recurrence rate of about 20-25 %. However with Ksharsutra treatment for Anal Fistula; chances of recurrence are negligible. Other complications generally seen in surgery like bleeding, incontinence (inability to hold stool); are not seen with Ksharsutra Treatment. Clinical trials conducted by Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR); at AIIMS New Delhi and PGI Chandigarh in 1992 have proved that Ksharsutra treatment is more convenient and more effective than Surgery in the patients of Anal Fistula. 
  2. There are symptoms you can look out for: Some of the symptoms that indicate anal fistulas include appearance of a nodular swelling in area surrounding Anal opening. Intermittent pus discharge is also observed from this swelling. Usually pain subsides and opening closes after the discharges; and patient feels relief. But after certain interval of time again pus accumulates; swelling re-appears with some amount of pain which is again relieved after the discharge. This cycle is repeated at varying interval in the patient of anal fistula.
  3. Medication can only provide temporary relief: Anti biotics and painkiller might give temporary relief from the symptoms. But after some time there will be again pus formation and associated swelling & pain in area surrounding anal opening. 
  4. Anal fistulas can recur after surgical treatment: As discussed above all the treatment options tried by modern medicine (including most recent treatment VAAFT) have high incidence of recurrence (about 20-25%) Whereas there are negligible chances of recurrence after Ksharsutra Treatment for Anal Fistula. . 
  5. Anal fistulas treated by Graded Ksharsutra do not recur: Ayurvedic treatment for anal fistulas is known as Kshar sutra therapy. This involves the use of medicated thread being ligated in Fistula Tract. The medicines present in this thread act as a strong debriding agent and induces healing of Fistula tract. In few weekly sittings of Ksharsutra change; Fistula gets healed completely and it do not recur. Pt. maintains his normal routine life during treatment period. 
  6. Sitz bath can be beneficial: This involves sitting in a tub filled with warm water so that the affected site is submerged. An antiseptic and astringent agent like Triphala decoction may be added to the water if needed. A sitz bath soothes the skin and provides relief from pain. This also helps keep the area clean and thus reduces chances of infection
  7. Oily and spicy foods should be avoided: When dealing with anal fistulas, you should try and take a diet that keeps your stool soft and regular. Hence use of oily and spicy foods should be reduced. Eat plenty of fiber and drink lots of water. Alcohol should also be avoided. 

Comparative Study: 

Ksharsutra vs Surgery in Anal Fistula Patients- 

  1. Ksharsutra is done under Local Anesthesia. Hence complications of General Anesthesia are avoided. Surgical procedures are done under GA with all impending complications of General Anesthesia. 
  2. Ksharsutra being a parasurgical procedure hence no bleeding/ cutting of tissue is involved. Surgery involves cutting/ bleeding. 
  3. No hospitalization or bed rest is required in Ksharsutra Treatment. In Surgery hospitalization is must. 
  4. In Ksharsutra; patient can continue his normal daily routine Surgery may require bed rest. 
  5. Complications like incontinence (inability to hold stool) and recurrence are seen after surgery
  6. Ksharsutra is a safe procedure and these complications are not seen. 
  7. Ksharsutra Treatment is more economical as compared to VAAFT surgery. VAAFT Surgery is comparatively too expensive.

Cosmetics - A List Of Ingredients That Can Harm Your Skin!

MD - Dermatology, MBBS
Dermatologist, Delhi
Cosmetics - A List Of Ingredients That Can Harm Your Skin!

There are many cosmetic ingredients that can actually have a negative effect on your skin in the long run. The skin is a layer that must be taken care of. This does not merely include staying away from pollutants and dirt and cleaning your skin with the best products. It also means staying away from the wrong cosmetics and ingredients which can harm your skin.

So, let us look at the ten elements from the world of cosmetics that can do more harm than good for the skin.

1. Carcinogens in Lipsticks: This cosmetic ingredient can suck the moisture out of your lips and leave it looking discoloured in the long run. The carcinogenic oils and chemicals that are contained in many long wear lipsticks can damage the delicate skin leaving it exposed to the risk of cancer as well.

2. Benzoyl Peroxide: This is a toxic element that can be found in a number of cosmetics and must be avoided at all costs as it may also expose you to the risk of cancer.

3. Synthetic Colors: The use of synthetic colours in many cosmetics helps you in getting that unique colour of your eyes, cheeks and even lips. But did you know that too much use of this product can actually harm your skin? This is due to the coal tar source of the ingredient which is a skin irritant.

4. Parabens: These widely used preservatives can be found in a number of cosmetics like body washes, shampoos, facial cleansers and even deodorants. This has elements that can cause breast cancer with its estrogen mimicking effects.

5. Triclosan: This antimicrobial chemical also acts as an endocrine disruptor, which can have an adverse effect on the thyroid glands as well as the production of the reproductive hormones. It can be found in soaps and toothpaste.

6. Bleach Cream: Hydroquinone cream is one of the most commonly used ingredients in bleach creams, which causes significant damage to the skin. This also breaks down the essential natural oils of the skin to cause redness and rashes.

7. Acrylates in Nail Paint: These chemicals are usually found in acrylic nail paint and can cause cellular damage on the skin and can cause neurological problems and organ toxicity.

8. Fragrance: The chemical and synthetic fragrances used in many perfumes can be found in detergents and fabric softeners as well, which can have a harsh effect on one’s skin.

9. Dioxin: This is an ingredient used in many cosmetics and it may cause malfunctioning of the nervous system as well as rashes on the skin.

10. Wax: Wax is an ingredient can cause bleeding and lead to changes in the direction of the growth of hair from hair follicles. It can also make the skin rough in the long run.

Colour Blindness - Understanding Everything About It!

DOMS(gold Medal);guru Nanak Eye Centre;University Of Delhi, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Colour Blindness - Understanding Everything About It!

Colour blindness is not a type of blindness at all; it is an insufficiency in the way some people see colour. Once afflicted by this vision problem, people face difficulty in distinguishing specific colours like red, green, blue or yellow. So to call it colour vision deficiency would be much appropriate, and it hits men more often than women. In a report by Prevent Blindness America, it is revealed that about 8% of males and less than 1% of females are affected with colour vision problems. Generally, red and green colour deficiency is the most commonly found. In very rare instances, a person may carry a trait which lessens his ability to distinguish between blue and yellow colours. This blue-yellow hue insufficiency normally is found in men and women equally.

Understanding signs and symptoms: Do you have any difficulty in seeing yellow, green or red colours? Do people often tell you that you are seeing the wrong colour? If so, then these are key signs that you are affected with a colour perception deficiency. Quite opposite to popular belief, hardly a colour blind person is able to see only the shades of gray. Most people who are deemed as colour blind are able to see shades but cannot distinguish between one colour and another and get easily confused with other shades, depending on the kind of colour blindness they are affected with. If you have suddenly developed a colour vision deficiency when you were able to view and distinguish all the shades previously, then you should visit an ophthalmologist without further delay.

Causes behind colour blindness: Colour blindness takes place when the light-sensitive cells within the retina stop responding accurately to variations in wavelengths of light.

Photoreceptors present in the retina are termed as rods and cones. Rods are present abundantly, and about 100 million rod cells are present in human retina and these cells are very sensitive to light, but rods are impervious to sunlight and therefore, are incapable of perceiving colours. The cones, on the other hand, are responsible for our understanding of different colours. There are three types of cones, each of which is responsible for perceiving red, green and blue light. The three cones work together to help us see the whole range of colours. People who are colour blind usually have faults in a particular cone cell, which makes them unable to distinguish that particular shade.

Combatting colour blindness: Gene therapies are reported to cure colour blindness in monkeys, as per the reports of a study conducted by researchers of the University of Washington and Florida in September 2009. While early methods appear promising, gene therapy is not considered effective for human beings unless the treatments are verified to be safe.

Hence there is no effective means of curing colour blindness, but there are some strategies that may aid you to function better. However, if you are into graphic designing or anything that requires handling of different colours, then you will need professional help. The sooner you become aware of your insufficiency, the better you can compensate for it.

Some people also use contact lenses or eyeglasses that act as filters to enhance colour perception. If you are affected by this problem, make sure you visit an eye-care practitioner for detailed advice.

6 Homeopathic Remedies That You Should Always Keep At Home

BHMS, MD - Homeopathy
Homeopath, Rajkot
6 Homeopathic Remedies That You Should Always Keep At Home

Homeopathy is a slow form of treatment, but is has negligible side effects. This makes it safer to self medicate with light doses of homeopathy than an antibiotic. Homeopathy can be used for first aid, to fight common infections and as general constitutional remedies.

Here are a few common homeopathic medicines you should keep at home. 

  1. Nux Vomica: Nux vomica can be safely used to treat gastrointestinal diseases, a loss of appetite, depression and migranes. The ideal dosage for nux vomica depends on the age of the patient, their overall health and several other conditions. Nux vomica can also be used to cure a hangover
  2. Aconite: When taken at the onset of a cold, aconite can stop the virus from progressing further. Aconite can also be used for joint pain, gout, inflammations and to speed up the healing of wounds. Apart from the pill form, aconite can also be used as a cream.
  3. Arnica: If you have kids at home, arnica is a must have. It is the most common homeopathic remedy for bruising, accidents, injuries and shocks. It can also be used to treat arthritis and the pain that follows dental work and jet lag. Arnica can also be used to promote hair growth. Depending on its use, arnica can be used in the form of pills, cream or oils.
  4. Cantharis: Cantharis is an ointment that should be kept in every kitchen. It is the most effective anti inflammatory cream to treat burns of any kind. When a burn is treated with cantharis, it leaves minimal scars. It can also be used to treat urinary tract infections. Cantharis is usually used as a cream. 
  5. Magnesia phosphoric: This is a must have for women. It can be used to treat any form of cramps including menstrual cramps. It can also be used to treat tiredness, headaches, nerve pain, insomnia and to help a person relax. Magnesia phosphoric is usually prescribed in the form of homeopathic pills. 
  6. Rhus tox: Rhus tox is a common homeopathic remedy for muscle sprains and bruising. It is also beneficial for people suffering from back aches, arthritis, sciatica and body aches associated with the flu. Rhus tox is usually found in the form of homeopathic pills. 

One should not do any type of self medication, however, you should check with your homeopathic practitioner about the dosage and frequency of consumption. Do not take it for granted that homeopathy has no side effects and take a more intense dose than required. Also store these medicines properly. Ideally, homeopathic medicine should be stored  in a cool place without direct exposure to sunlight or extreme heat or cold.

How Can You Ease And Prevent Eczema Flare-Ups?

MBBS, MD - Dermatology
Dermatologist, Gurgaon
How Can You Ease And Prevent Eczema Flare-Ups?

Are you experiencing skin itchiness and development of dry, scaly rashes on your skin? This indicates you have eczema, which is a group of skin diseases occurring due to the inflammation and irritation of skin. Atopic dermatitis is the most common form of eczema. The disease can be controlled if proper treatment is undertaken.

Symptoms
Itchy skin is the most common symptom of eczema. In some cases, the itching starts before the development of the rash. The rash appears most commonly on the back of the knees, face, hands, wrists and feet. The affected areas become dry and thickened and in people with a fair complexion, the areas may turn reddish initially and then become brown.

Causes
The specific cause of eczema is yet to be determined. However, the condition is associated with an overactive response by the immune system to an external irritant. This response leads to eczema. The condition is more common in people who have a family history of allergies or asthma.

Treatment

  • As the condition turns the skin dry and itchy, certain creams and lotions are recommended to be used in order to keep the skin moist. You should apply these products when your skin is damp, ideally after taking a shower. This helps the skin in retaining moisture. You can use a cold compress to ease the itching.
  • Several creams such as hydrocortisone cream and ointments which contain corticosteroids are prescribed in order to reduce inflammation.
  • In case the affected area becomes infected, antibiotics should be taken to eliminate the infection-causing bacteria.
  • Antihistamines are used for reducing the severity of the itching. 

Prevention of Eczema Flare-ups

  • Moisturize your skin frequently
  • Avoid sudden changes in humidity or temperature
  • Abstain from overheating and sweating
  • Try to reduce stress
  • Avoid starchy material
  • Avoid soaps, detergents and solvents, which are harsh
  • Be aware of food items which trigger eczema flare-ups

It is recommended for you to consult a dermatologist if you experience any symptom of eczema. This will help you with a quick diagnosis so that you can start the treatment without further worsening of the symptoms.

Overweight? Can It Increase Your Risk Of Breast Cancer?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine, DNB - Medical Oncology, MRCP - Medical Oncology, ECMO - Medical Oncology
Oncologist, Delhi
Overweight? Can It Increase Your Risk Of Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the breast. Mainly it occurs in females but less than 1% of all the breast cancer cases develop in males. The majority of breast cancers start in the milk ducts. A small number start in the milk sacs or lobules. It can spread to the lymph nodes and to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs and to the brain.

With more reliable early detection methods as well as the trend towards less invasive surgery, there is hope that even more women with breast cancer will be treated successfully and will go on to resume their normal lives.

Signs & Symptoms 
It is painless, especially, during the early stage. Watch out for the following changes in the breast:

  1. A persistent lump or thickening in the breast or in the axilla. 
  2. A change in the size or shape of the breast. 
  3. A change in the colour or appearance of the skin of the breast such as redness, puckering or dimpling. 
  4. Bloody discharge from the nipple. 
  5. A change in the nipple or areola such as scaliness, persistent rash or nipple retraction (nipple pulled into the breast).

Consult a doctor immediately if you notice any of these changes.

Risk Factors 
Being a woman puts you at risk of getting breast cancer. There are certain factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Some of them have been listed below:

  1. The risk increases with age; most cases of breast cancer develop after the age of 50 
  2. Genetic alterations in certain genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 
  3. Family history of breast cancer 
  4. Being overweight 
  5. Early menarche (onset of menstruation before the age of 12) 
  6. Late menopause (after the age of 55) 
  7. Never had children 
  8. Late childbearing 
  9. No breast feeding 
  10. Excessive consumption of alcohol 
  11. Use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) for a long period of time

However, most women who have breast cancer have none of the above risk factors. Likewise, not having any of these risk factors does not mean that you will not get breast cancer.

Early Detection and Screening

More treatment options are available when breast cancer is diagnosed at an early stage and hence the chances of recovery is also higher. So regular breast screening is important for early detection even if there are no symptoms. Following are the ways of screening:

  1. Breast Self-Examination (BSE): Perform BSE once a month about a week after your menses are over. If you no longer menstruate, choose a date each month which is easy to remember e.g. your date of birth or anniversary.
  2. Clinical Breast Examination: Get a breast specialist to examine your breast once a year if you are 40 years and above.
  3. Mammogram: Go for a screening mammogram once a year if you are 40 to 49 years old and once every two years if you are 50 years and above even if you do not have any symptom. It is not recommended for younger women (less than 40 years of age) as they have dense breasts, making it difficult for small changes to be detected on a mammogram. So ultrasonography of the breasts is advisable to them.

Types of Breast cancer

  1. Non-Invasive Breast cancer: These are confined to the ducts within the breasts. They are known as Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS).
  2. Invasive Breast cancer: It occurs when cancer cells spread beyond the ducts or lobules. Cancer cells first spread to the surrounding breast tissue and subsequently to the lymph nodes in the armpit (Axillary lymph nodes). These cells can also travel to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs or brain and hence known as metastatic breast cancer.

Making A Diagnosis 

If you notice any unusual changes in your breasts, you should see a doctor immediately. He will examine you clinically and may ask you to undergo some tests so that a definitive diagnosis can be made. Further, the staging work up is done to find out the stage of the disease and management accordingly.

Treatment options 
Treatment of breast cancer may include various methods such as surgery with or without breast reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy. Treatment options offered, depend upon the number of factors such as the stage of cancer and likelihood of cure, your general health and your preference.

World Thalassaemia Day - How This Disorder Can Be Managed?

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
General Physician, Jaipur
World Thalassaemia Day - How This Disorder Can Be Managed?

Thalassaemia, which is commonly referred to as thal, is a disorder of the blood which is inherited from the previous generation. This condition triggers the production of abnormal red blood cells in the body which in turn paves the way for chronic anaemia. Red blood cells play an indispensable role in carrying oxygen all through the body and hence any abnormality in this regard can result in thalassemia, the symptoms of which include, weakness all over the body, fatigue, faint and shortness of breath.

Understanding the type of thalassemia:
Thalassaemia is often thought to be an iron deficiency disease (anaemia), but can be differentiated with the aid of certain blood tests. This disease is a lifelong condition which requires efficient management. The type of thalassemia an individual is suffering from can be attributed to the number of faulty genes the person has inherited.

The two variants of thalassaemia are beta and alpha. In the case of alpha thalassemia, having one faulty gene would lead to no health problems while two faulty genes can cause mild anaemia. If there are three mutated genes, it will cause Haemoglobin H disease, and regular blood transfusions may be required. But an unborn child with four mutated genes will not be viable enough to survive the pregnancy.

The beta thalassaemia also comes in various forms. The beta thalassaemia major needs lifelong transfusion of blood and it is the most common form of thalassaemia across the world. The beta thalassemia intermedia do not have to depend on blood transfusion.

Treating thalassaemia:
The treatment option for mild thalassaemia is entirely dependent on the type of the disease and how intense it is. When the disease is on a mild and minor level, then there may not be need of any comprehensive treatment. But at times, blood transfusions become necessary especially after undergoing surgery or when the thalassaemia causes complications.


People who are affected by severe levels of beta thalassaemia will require transfusion of blood from time to time. The treatment also causes an overload of iron and thus it is important to remove the surplus iron content. There are several oral medications available for this, and the healthcare provider can recommend suitable medications.

Managing moderate to severe thalassaemia:
Some of the most general methods of managing and treating thalassaemia include

  1. Frequent blood transfusions: When the thalassaemia gets too severe, it becomes necessary to opt for blood transfusion after every few weeks. The blood transfusion can cause iron build up with the passage of time. This, in turn, can affect the heart and lungs along with other crucial organs. Therefore, it is important to take medicines that can eliminate the extra iron.
  2. Stem cell transplant: Also referred to as the bone marrow transplant, the stem cell transplant can be the best bet. It is recommended for kids who are born with severe thalassaemia. This treatment option can mitigate the need of a lifelong transfusion of blood and intake of drugs for controlling the iron overload.
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