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Cancer is the most dangerous disease noticeable throughout the world. The most common type of cancer that affects men is prostate cancer. Prostate is a small exocrine gland situated directly below the bladder and in front of the rectum. This is gland is approximately in size of a walnut and plays an important role in production of a milky fluid during orgasm of sex in which the semen travels. During the climax stage of the prostate gland is forced to push the fluid and remove the semen out of the reproductive structures.
Prostate gland is a slow progressive disease which makes many males left unidentified even the presence of prostate cancer even until they die. 6 out of 100 male over the age of 60 are getting prostate cancer. Though prostate cancer can be cured at a better rate when compared to other type of cancer it is always best to stay protected. Prevention is always better than cure. Here are few tips to keep your prostate healthy.
Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer-
During the early stages of prostate cancer there are usually no symptoms. Most men at this stage find out they have prostate cancer after a routine check up or blood test. When symptoms do exist, they are usually one or more of the following:
The patient urinates more often
The patient gets up at night more often to urinate
He may find it hard to start urinating
He may find it hard to keep urinating once he has started
There may be blood in the urine
Urination might be painful
Ejaculation may be painful (less common)
Achieving or maintaining an erection may be difficult (less common).
If the prostate cancer is advanced the following symptoms are also possible:
Bone pain, often in the spine (vertebrae), pelvis, or ribs
The proximal part of the femur can be painful
Ways to have a healthy prostate –
Diet and weight – the most important factor is the diet to maintain a healthy weight. Avoid fatty food items and take fats from vegetables than from animals. Avoid dairy products and increase the intake of fresh fruits and vegetables.
Exercise – have a regular practise of doing exercise at least for 30mins a day. This really helps you to keep your body fit.
Be precautious – if you have a family history of prostate cancer or if you feel you are at high risk of getting prostate cancer talk with your doctor about it and take preventive drugs as per the doctor’s advice.
Red foods – research shows that men who consume red foods like watermelon, tomato and other red fruits are at lower risk of getting prostate cancer as they contain a powerful antioxidant called lycopene
Caffeine – three to four cups of coffee per day reduces your risk of getting prostate cancer.
- Stop smoking – if you are at high risk of getting prostate cancer it is best advised to quit smoking and alcohol.
One of the most common problems faced by ageing men is benign prostatic hypertrophy. Prostate is the gland at the base of the urethra near the bladder and when it enlarges it can lead to symptoms, mostly related to urination.
- Frequent urge to pass urine
- Prolonged urination
- Frequent nocturnal visits to the toilet
- Intermittent urination
- Difficulty to start urinating
- Inability to completely empty the bladder
- Urinary tract infections
- Blood in urine
There are medications available to manage this, but offer only temporary and partial relief. Many men therefore prefer the surgery to manage these bothersome symptoms. However, like any surgery, the risks and benefits need to be considered along with other conditions like age, overall health status, other comorbid conditions, etc. Surgical removal of the enlarged prostate gland is a more definitive approach to manage these symptoms.
- Patients who do not respond to medications
- Refractory urinary retention
- Presence of blood in the urine
- Associated bladder stones or Hernia
- Frequent infections of the urinary tract
- Associated damage to the kidneys
Procedure of Surgery
During the procedure, a tube fitted with camera is passed through the tip of the penis into the urethra towards the bladder neck. Once it is in the desired position, laser is passed through it to deliver energy that acts on the prostate to resect or evaporate it.
There are two methods by which laser acts on the enlarged prostate and making way for free flow of the urine.
- Ablation: Excess prostate tissue is vaporized by the laser by using photosensitive vaporization of the prostate. This is also known as Greenlight laser therapy or KTP laser vaporization. Alternately, Diode or Thulium LASER can be used as the source of laser energy to ablate the prostate tissue.
- Enucleation: Entire adenomatous prostate tissue is cut and teased out into the bladder by using Holmium laser. Morcellator is used to grind this enucleated prostate into smaller pieces to enable easy retrieval.
More men now opt for laser prostate removal as it has the following advantages:
- Reduced risk of bleeding: This becomes essentially important in patients who are on blood thinners.
- Minimal hospitalization: This can be done with minimal one or two days stay at the hospital
- Immediate symptom relief: As compared to medications, the relief is felt almost immediately after the surgery
- Minimal catheter: With laser surgery, a catheter may be required for less than 24-48 hours unlike in open surgical cases.
As noted above, as with any surgery, once enlarged prostate symptoms set in, have a detailed discussion with your doctor to identify if you are a suitable candidate for laser surgery.
Benign Prostrate Hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition which results in the enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostrate grand is situated near the Urethra (a tube which helps flush out the urine from the bladder). Generally, the chance of developing BPH increases after one crosses the age of 50. But it is yet unknown as to why some men experience more severe symptoms than others.
Causes of BPH
This condition generally occurs because of old age and affects almost all men above the age of 75. It occurs because of the various hormonal changes and changes in cell growth that the body goes through, as one becomes old. Sometimes BPH can set in due to genetics. If BPH sets in due to genetically reasons, it usually is quite severe and affects men before they reach 60.
Symptoms of BPH
Quite a few men who develop BPH, experience no symptoms at all. But when symptoms of BPH, known as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUT) start, they can be either mild or very severe. The severity of the symptoms is not related to the extent of the enlargement. Many a times men with only a mild enlargement complain about severe symptoms, while men with a highly enlarged prostate gland have not complained about any discomfort faced.
Symptoms of BPH tend to worsen due to cold weather and also because of physical and emotional overexertion. There are certain medicines, which should be avoided if you suffer from BPH, as they have a tendency to worsen your symptoms, for example diphenhydramine, pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline spray and other antidepressants.
The symptoms of BPH are related to bladder emptying and issues with bladder storage.
Symptoms related to the urine drainage from the bladder are:
- Strain while urinating
- Weak urine flow
- Some dribbling after urination
- Sudden urge to urinate
- Pain while urinating
Symptoms related to storage of urine in the bladder are:
- Waking during the night to urinate
- Urinating frequently during the day and at night
- Sudden urge to urinate, which may be hard to control
It however, has to be kept in mind that these symptoms may not primarily occur due to prostate enlargement, but are the result of other conditions like urinary tract infections, prostatitis, prostate cancer, neurological disorders and even diabetes. Thus, it is essential that you visit a doctor and get the cause for these symptoms diagnosed properly.
Prostatitis is a very common infection of the prostate. However, it is worth to note that prostatitis can also be an inflammation of the prostate without infection. Only 5 to 10 percent of prostatitis is caused by bacterial infection. Prostate cancer does not normally have its chances increased by prostatitis. There are several forms of prostatitis, including acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (which is also known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome ).
The exact cause for prostatitis is not known, but here are some factors which increase its risk, particularly acute bacterial prostatitis.
- Medical instrumentation: Putting an instrument like a urinary catheter may well cause prostatitis.
- Rectal intercourse: This is basically another name for anal sex.
- Abnormal urinary tract: The urinary tract comprises of the bladders, kidneys, ureters and urethra. If any one of these organs gets infected, then prostatitis is much more likely.
- Bladder infection: A bladder infection may well spread to the prostate.
Prostatitis has a variety of symptoms. Here are the most common symptoms of prostatitis.
- Constant need of urination: This is one of the most common symptoms of prostatitis.
- Difficulty when urinating: Just like the constant need of urination, difficulty urinating is also a sign that you may have prostatitis.
- Pain while urinating: This is because the prostate gland is a part of your urinary tract and if it does not work properly, there will be pain.
- Chills and fever: This is a rarer symptom, but may indicate prostatitis if it is coupled with the other symptoms.
- Pain in perineal area and genital organs: If you are experiencing pain in genital organs, than it may indicate prostatitis.
- Painful ejaculations or relief of perineal pain after ejaculations: If you are having painful ejaculation or the pain arises after ejaculation, then it may be due to prostatitis.
- Hematospermia: Pinkish or brownish semen.
If these symptoms are persistent or bothersome, then a proper consultation is required. Evaluation includes physical examination along with few simple tests. This can be followed by proper treatment for cure or relief of symptoms.
Hi, I was just wondering about a smear test. My mam was diagnosed with breast cancer seventeen years ago and recently was diagnosed with ovarian cancer and I was just wondering if it is necessary for me to get a smear test I am 19 year old.
Hpv vaccine cost for 3 doses. Time limit between the doses. Is it only prevention for cervical cancer?
- Seminomas: These grow and spread slowly and respond to radiation therapy.
- Non-seminomas: These grow and spread rapidly, do not respond to radiation, and often require surgery.
While the exact causes for testicular cancer are not clear, the following are considered to be the possible risk factors:
- Family history
- Prior history of testicular cancer
- Undescended testicles
- Congenital abnormalities of the penis or urinary tract
Symptoms: While testicular cancer is often not easy to diagnose, the patient will have symptoms, which he may ignore.
- Painful lump in one or both testicles
- Pain in the lower abdomen and groin area
- Enlargement of the testicles, due to fluid collection
- Back pain
Often, this type of cancer originates in the testicles and spreads to the adjacent groin lymph nodes. It can also reach distant organs like lungs, liver, and brain via metastasis.
The good news about testicular cancer is that the above symptoms would lead to early diagnosis, confirmed by ultrasound and other tests. Once confirmed, even if diagnosed in the late stages, treatment is quite effective and prognosis is good.
Stages of Testicular Cancer
There are four stages of testicular cancer – 0 to III, and treatment and prognosis would depend on the stage at which it is diagnosed.
Treatment: Various modalities are used depending on the stage and extent of spread.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs are used to kill the existing cancer cells and arrest the further growth of testicular cancer. These can be given as tablets or injected into the system.
- Radiation: Either internal or external radiation can be used. External is when a beam of radiation is directed at the scrotum to kill the cancer cells. Internal is when a needle, seed or wire is planted in the scrotum, which constantly gives out radiation to kill the cancer cells.
- Surgery: If one testicle is involved, then it is removed along with the neighbouring lymph nodes. This may be followed up by chemotherapy or radiation in most cases. If distant organs are involved, it may not be removed. Instead chemotherapy or radiation will help control the spread.
- Clinical trials: There are various drugs in final trial phase, and with the risks understood, some men may choose to be part of such trials.
With any of these treatments, surveillance follow-up is very essential, as testicular cancer is known for recurrence. If only one testicle was involved initially, the second one also could be affected later. Infertility is another issue, which needs to be managed in men with testicular cancer.
Most commonly occurring in children aged 5 or younger, Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer developing from immature nerve cells most often found in and around the adrenal glands. However, it is not limited and can develop in several other areas of the body, like the chest, neck, spine and different areas of the abdomen where nerve cells can be found in clusters.
Depending upon the area of the body affected, signs and symptoms may include:
1. Neuroblastoma in the abdomen:
- Abdominal pain
- Diarrhea, constipation or other changes in bowel movements
- A lump of mass under the skin which is anything but tender
2. Neuroblastoma in the chest:
3. There are other signs and symptoms caused by neuroblastoma. These may include:
- Lumps of tissue found under the skin
- Bruise-like dark circles visible around the eyes
- Proptosis (a condition in which eyeballs seem to protrude from the sockets)
- Back pain
- Bone pain
- Unexplained weight loss
Causes: Neuroblastoma typically originates in neuroblasts. These are immature nerve cells formed by the fetus as part of the development process. Eventually, neuroblasts convert into fibres and nerve cells which then make up the constituents of the adrenal gland. Normally, they either mature or gradually disappear. Others, which neither mature nor disappear, form tumors.
A number of problems may result out of neuroblastoma, including:
- Metastasis or spread of the cancerous cells
- Spinal cord compression
- Paraneoplastic symptoms, such as rapid eye movement or difficulty with eye coordination
- Abdominal swelling
Depending on the child's age, the stage of the cancer, or the types of cells involved, the treatment plan varies accordingly:
- Surgery - However, this depends on the size and location of the tumor. Tumors growing near vital organs are too risky to remove
- Chemotherapy - involves the use of chemotherapy drugs
- Radiation therapy - involves high energy beams, like X-rays
- Stem cell transplant or autologous stem cell transplant in case of high-risk neuroblastoma
- Immunotherapy - involves drugs which stimulate the immune system to destroy cancerous cells
My prostrate volume is 45 cc. I am a diabetic. I am aged 56 years. Since 1 week I am having back ache also.
Dear sir, I am giving breast feeding for my kid of 3.5 years old. He is taking one but another breast is coming pain which he is not consumed. I am suffering with gastric problem. Why it is coming pain. Is there any serious problem? Sir.
A hypoechoic SOL (2.88*2.75*2.95 CM)is seen in upper and inner quadrant of left breast. A small lymph node (0.79*0.53 cm) is seen in left axilla. We have done FNAC and report shows infiltrating Duct carcinoma. Is it cancer or tumor? How to proceed further. I am Female age 47.
One of the most common issues with old age in men is the enlarged prostate. Any difficulty with urination (no constant stream, difficulty initiating, or incomplete emptying of the bladder for instance), and the first suspect is an enlarged prostate. These symptoms are followed by a digital rectal exam to check for an enlarged prostate. Once confirmed, the next step is to check for levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If both the exam and the PSA are positive, it could mean prostate cancer. As with any cancer, it is believed that sooner it is diagnosed and the treatment is started, the better.
Historically, the best way to rule out the prostate cancer had been to do a prostate biopsy. This is a minor invasive procedure, wherein biopsies are taken from various regions of the prostate which are known to develop cancer (about 12). A disadvantage of this procedure includes missing out on the front part of the prostate which can also develop cancer. Secondly, it is not a very pleasant experience and given a chance, most men would not want to have it done.
There is good news for these men who would like to avoid prostate biopsies. The first is the multiparametric MRI which uses no x-rays and is considered very safe with extremely accurate results. This MRI exam requires about an hour, and once the images are obtained, the doctor will analyse these images and check for several parameters to assess for prostate cancer. The absence of cancer can be confirmed with up to 90% accuracy, which is far greater than with usual biopsies. If there is a possibility of cancer, then a biopsy can be done to confirm it.
Also, these images indicate the exact region where cancer likely is, and this guides the doctor to biopsy only where absolutely essential. The chances of false positive and false negative results are reduced drastically. The one disadvantage here is that MRI detected biopsies usually tend to be of a higher grade which requires immediate treatment.
Another way to reduce chances of the biopsy by 30% to 50% is by the 4K test. It helps detect a variety of prostate issues including cancer. It can be used once higher levels of PSA is identified and before going for a biopsy. It combined 4 prostate-specific biomarkers with clinical information to accurately provide men with a risk of developing prostate cancer. It can be used even after negative biopsies to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
These two measures can drastically reduce the incidence of prostate biopsies, which is neither pleasant for the patient nor very effective for the doctor.
I am having tightness in my right breast from past 2 days. I felt like a knot in my breast. Then I took a hot bag as it was paining allot. Now the tightness is less. And I can feel the pain only when I touch it. Little redness was there. But no excretion was there from my breast. I had my last periods on 31st october. Please suggest.
I am from poor financial background. My mom is bedridden for 3 months, can not sallow anything even water, sleeps a lot. Doc said its like lymphoma sign but not confirm and to go higher center like cmc vellore and do brain biopsy but we do not have enough money. And is there any test other than biopsy to confirm if c is having lymphoma or not? please doctors do answer.
Breast cancer is a type of a cancerous infection that develops in the skin cells of the breast. This condition is more commonly diagnosed after you have skin cancer and is more common in women than men. There are certain signs to identify this disease, which are as follows.
1. Breast lumps - Lumps are patches of skin that occur due to the thickening and swelling of the skin. Breast lumps is a very common phenomenon for women but that does not always lead to a breast cancer; however, frequent and reoccurring instances of the same increases the risk of breast cancer. A breast lump is easily identifiable through the naked eye as it looks different from the surrounding tissues.
2. Blood discharges - The nipple is one of the most sensitive areas in the human body. In case of women, it is meant to emit milk during pregnancy, in order to feed the infant externally. A probable symptom of breast cancer can also be a frequent discharge of blood from the nipple without any visible damage or injury.
3. Breast changes - If you are experiencing any visible changes in the size, appearance or shape of the breast, then it is an indicative sign that you may have breast cancer. Thus, it is of paramount importance that you observe, touch and physically examine your breast regularly for changes. If there is any major change detected then it is advisable to consult a doctor.
4. Inverted nipple - The tip of the nipple is generally bulging and pointing outwards both in cases of men and women. But sometimes the tip of the nipple is pushed inside due to excessive suction caused by the skin tissues present inside the breast around the nipple area. This suction forces the nipple to grow inwards which is abnormal and might harm the breast and skin in various ways.
However, apart from these main symptoms, some other signs are also there that increase your chances of being diagnosed with breast cancer. They are redness or pitting of the skin over your breast like an orange, peeling or scaling of the pigmented area around the nipple, dimpling of the skin on the breasts, and such others.