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Apollo Taratala Behala

  4.4  (16 ratings)

Internal Medicine Specialist Clinic

taratala Kolkata
1 Doctor · ₹800
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Apollo Taratala Behala   4.4  (16 ratings) Internal Medicine Specialist Clinic taratala Kolkata
1 Doctor · ₹800
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Please book with Apollo Clinic Taratala Behala
More about Apollo Taratala Behala
Apollo Taratala Behala is known for housing experienced Internal Medicine Specialists. Dr. Anirban Chakraborty, a well-reputed Internal Medicine Specialist, practices in Kolkata. Visit this medical health centre for Internal Medicine Specialists recommended by 62 patients.

Timings

MON, THU
11:00 AM - 02:00 PM

Location

taratala
Taratala Kolkata, West Bengal - 700038
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Doctor in Apollo Taratala Behala

Dr. Anirban Chakraborty

MBBS, MRCP (UK), CCST, FRCP
Internal Medicine Specialist
87%  (16 ratings)
18 Years experience
800 at clinic
Unavailable today
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Joint Pain Due To Arthritis - Ways Acupuncture Can Help!

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Chandigarh
Joint Pain Due To Arthritis - Ways Acupuncture Can Help!

Acupuncture is a Chinese method of treatment which aims at maintaining the energy balance in the body. The procedure involves stimulating the energy channels of the body by using fine steel needles. It enhances the production of endorphins (pain controlling hormones) in the body, therefore less pain.

Signs you are suffering from arthritis

Arthritis is a disorder that is characterized by inflammation and swelling in the joints. The symptoms of arthritis are tenderness in the joints, fatigue, fever and stiffness in the joints that worsen in the morning. Initially, the smaller joints in the body are affected; it then progresses to joints in the elbows, wrists and the knees.

Causes behind it

Arthritis is caused when the immune system starts attacking the membrane surrounding the joints. Inflammation occurs, resulting in destruction of the bone and cartilage. It causes the ligaments and the tendons holding the joint to weaken. The joints then starts to lose their original alignment and shape.

Dietary guidelines you must follow

You need to follow dietary guidelines such as avoiding refined and processed foods as they can contribute to the inflammation of the joints. You also need to steer clear of foods which may trigger a reaction from your immune system. Mild exercises to strengthen the joints may be performed to improve mobility.

Acupuncture and arthritis

The procedure begins with the practitioner applying alcohol to the affected spot and tapping the area with a needle. The disorder determines the number of needles required, the spots of insertion and the depth to which they have to be inserted. The duration for which the needles are kept in the body ranges from a few minutes to an hour. In order to enhance the effect of the needles, they may be heated or energized electrically. You may experience a tingling sensation in case electricity is used.

Acupuncture is a holistic method of treatment that has no side effects. It does not involve chemicals; so it is safe to use. It will not cure the disorder, but can reduce the pain to a large extent. One of the added benefits of this procedure is that no matter, which part of the body is subjected to this process, it does help calm your mind down.

Cystic Fibrosis- Causes and Symptoms!

DDF, FCCP, MD , MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Cystic Fibrosis- Causes and Symptoms!

Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder that is known to affect some of the vital organs of the body including the lungs, digestive system to name a few. For long it was believed that cystic fibrosis affects a person in their childhood. However, various research and studies suggest that adults are also susceptible to this inheritable disorder. In this article, we will discuss the cause and symptoms associated with cystic fibrosis.

Cause
The epithelial cells that line the stomach, nasal cavity and lungs, are responsible for the production of the digestive fluids, sweat, tears, mucus. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene codes for a protein called the CFTR protein. The CFTR protein, a membrane protein plays a pivotal role in transporting the chloride ions of the epithelial cells inside and out of the cell. This regulation of the chloride ions goes a long way in ensuring that the mucus produced is free-flowing and thin.

In the case of Cystic Fibrosis, the CFTR gene that codes for the protein undergoes a mutation. With the CFTR protein unable to perform its function, sticky and thick mucus builds up and clogs some of the major systems of the body including the digestive system, reproductive, and respiratory system. There is also a higher salt content in the sweat of the affected person.

For a person to be affected by cystic fibrosis, he/she must inherit a copy of the mutated CFTR gene from both the parents ( Autosomal Recessive Disorder) at birth.

Symptoms
The symptoms associated with cystic fibrosis depends on the organs and systems affected.

  1. The thick mucus formed can clog the digestive tract resulting in incomplete absorption of the essential nutrients from the food. This may have an impact on the overall growth and development of the body.
    • - There may be stunted growth or no weight gain.
    • - The stool may appear greasy and foul smelling. Some may also suffer from constipation.
    • - Newborns and infants may suffer from an intestinal blockage.
  2. Cystic fibrosis, left unattended can lead to diabetes, intestinal blockage or obstruction.
    • - The mucus can also block the bile duct triggering a host of problems including liver disorders.
    • - At times, the obstruction or blockage can occur at the junction where the large and the small intestine meets (Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome).
  3. The thick mucus can also affect the lungs and the respiratory system by blocking the tubes that act as a passage carrying the air inside and out of the lungs. As a result,
    • - A person may suffer from lung infections frequently.
    • - There may be difficulty in breathing, stuffy and blocked nose, or wheezing.
    • - Some people may also suffer from a chronic cough with a thick sputum.

Left untreated the complications can worsen resulting in

Nasal polyps, Chronic infections, Hemoptysis (there is blood while coughing), and Pneumothorax (air fills up in the space bifurcates the chest wall from the lungs).

In severe cases, there may be a respiratory failure.

Cystic fibrosis can also trigger fertility problems (both in males and females).

Excessive Facial Hair - Laser Surgery To Get Rid Of Them!

MBBS, DNB - Dermatology & Venereology
Dermatologist, Mumbai
Excessive Facial Hair - Laser Surgery To Get Rid Of Them!

Laser hair removal is a permanent hair removal method that makes use of laser beams to reach the hair follicles before the light from the beam is absorbed by the same. This method is preferred by people who do not want to go in for traditional methods like waxing, tweezing and epilating as these require regular sessions and may not always be convenient.

Laser surgery for facial hair removal helps your skin look younger and healthier by treating aging, acne, and blotches, scars, wrinkles, lines or excess hair on the face.

This surgery comes with its own share of benefits, which are:

  • First of all, laser hair removal is precise. The laser only targets the pigmented area of the skin on your face, such as the hair follicle. This is why only the hair follicle is burned and not the skin surrounding the area, making it a safe procedure.
  • Laser hair removal removes unwanted hair from your face at the speed of light. The laser is designed to treat several hairs in a large surface area, all at the same time. There is no downtime after the service and no sticky residue left behind.
  • The pain factor varies from person to person because every person has a different level of pain tolerance. Laser surgery is described as feeling like a gentle pinch or like the snap of a warm rubber band.
  • Laser hair removal is most effective on the hairs in the early part of the hair growing stage. A concentrated beam of light is aimed at the hair follicle. The laser then converts its energy into heat and heats up the hair follicle preventing it from growing any further.
  • Laser hair removal has many benefits that make it a viable option for many people to permanently deal with unwanted hair. You can ask many questions during your consultation to make sure you fully understand the procedure they use and how they deal with the treatment of pain.

Ways Ayurveda Is Beneficial In Treating Erectile Dysfunction!

MD - Ayurveda
Sexologist, Pune
Ways Ayurveda Is Beneficial In Treating Erectile Dysfunction!

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a condition in which a man has difficulty in achieving or maintaining an erection. It is also known as impotence.

Statistics

It is a condition that affects most of the men to some degree. It is common in people who are above the age of 40 years. Experts believe that the statistics of ED is low because many men do not report the condition to their doctor because of the uncomfortable feeling. It is the most common condition which is causing depression and distress in men. It is one of the leading causes of relationship problems amongst the couples. It can be a symptom of major health problems, such as cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.

Other factors that can increase the risk of ED are as follows:

  1. Smoking of tobacco
  2. Excessive alcohol consumption
  3. Obesity
  4. Sedentary lifestyle
  5. Age-related degeneration

Trauma Role of Ayurveda in Erectile Dysfunction

Ayurveda is a system of medicine which originated in the Indian subcontinent. It is based on the holistic treatment of the disease. According to the Ayurveda, health depends on a balance between the mind, body, and spirit, and it acts at all these levels to improve the health. In Ayurveda, Vajikarana therapy is one of the most indicated treatments for ED. All the substances which help in enhancing the sexual activity are called as Vajikarana Dravyas, and they are used in Vajikarana therapy. A Vajikarana therapy leads to improvement of the fertility rate and the span of erection. In Ayurveda, Vajikarana therapy includes herbs, ornaments, gold, silver, pearls, precious stones, etc.Vajikarana therapy helps revitalize all the seven dhatus (body elements), thereby, restoring equilibrium and health. It has great results in minimizing the shukra (sperm) defects.The herbs that are used in Vajikarana therapy regulate the endocrinal (hormonal) system. They act on the higher centers of the brain, such as the hypothalamus and the limbic system. It also claims to have anti-stress actions, which help relieve anxiety associated with sexual desire and performance.

Apart from the Vajikarana Dravyas, the most common Ayurvedic medicines which have a great role in improving the condition are follows:

  1. Asparagus Racemosus (Shatavari)
  2. Indian Ginseng (Ashwagandha)
  3. Safed Musli (Musli)
  4. Cassia Cinnamon

The ayurvedic method of treatment for any health condition includes physical exercise, such as yoga along with the medicinal treatment. The practice of Yoga causes stretching of the body. It also improves circulation and reduces stress level. The Yoga therapy helps to maintain healthy levels of testosterone (the primary sex hormone in men) in the body. Thus, ayurvedic treatment can play an effective role in the management of ED.

Laser Hair Removal: Say Hello To Smooth Hair Free Skin!

BAMS, Diploma In Emergency Medicine, PG Diploma In Clinical Cosmetology (PGDCC)
Cosmetic Physician, Navi Mumbai
Laser Hair Removal: Say Hello To Smooth Hair Free Skin!

Many find it difficult to keep up with the time-consuming, ineffective hair removal treatments that they've performed their whole lives in the hopes of maintaining a hairless body. But hair removal doesn't need to be so challenging. Due to many benefits, laser hair removal has become very popular amongst youngsters. At Clinic Cosmoderma, we've mastered the process of laser hair removal and stand behind it as one of the best ways to achieve permanent hair reduction. 

What is the theory behind laser hair removal? 

Laser hair removal is a medical procedure that uses a laser – an intense, pulsating beam of light – to remove unwanted hair. During laser hair removal, a laser beam passes through the skin to an individual hair follicle. The intense heat of the laser damages the hair follicle, which inhibits future hair growth. Laser hair removal is used to reduce unwanted hair. Many types of laser removal procedures are available, among these, Neodymium YAG, diode, alexandrite, and intense pulsed light sources are well known. 

Why should you choose laser hair removal? 

Unwanted hair on your face, underarms, legs, arms or any other area can be easily removed using this procedure. Laser hair removal procedures offer you with a healthy and smooth skin free of unwanted hair. The laser used for hair removal target dark and bristly hairs without damaging the surrounding areas. Known for its speed, laser hair procedure can treat small areas in approximately one minute and less. Common treatment locations include legs, underarms, upper lip, chin and bikini line. However, it’s possible to treat unwanted hair in nearly any area – except the eyelid or surrounding area. 

How long does it take? 

Laser removal method is performed by skilled doctors. The doctors need to decide how many days and sittings will it take to get the procedure done depending upon the growth of hair in that specific area and how much area of your skin is to be covered. Once the procedure is done, one may need to get it done in few years again depending upon the regrowth of hair on his/her body. 

Benefits: 

Hair colour and skin type influence the success of laser hair removal. For example, laser hair removal is most effective for people who have light skin and dark hair because the laser beam targets the pigment (melanin) in the hair. However, advances in technology have made laser hair removal a good option for people with darker skin too. 

  1. Precision: Lasers can selectively target dark, coarse hairs while leaving the surrounding skin undamaged. 
  2. Speed: Each pulse of the laser takes a fraction of a second and can treat many hairs at the same time. The laser can treat an area approximately the size of a quarter every second. Small areas such as the upper lip can be treated in less than a minute, and large areas, such as the back or legs, may take up to an hour. 
  3. Predictability: Most patients have permanent hair loss after an average of three to seven sessions. 

Risks: 

Laser hair removal doesn’t guarantee permanent hair removal. Some hair could be resistant to the laser treatment or grow again after treatment, although the new hair growth might be finer and lighter in colour. The most common side effects of laser hair removal include: 

  1. Skin irritation: Temporary discomfort, redness, and swelling are possible after laser hair removal. Any signs and symptoms typically disappear within several hours. 
  2. Pigment changes: Laser hair removal might darken or lighten the affected skin, usually temporarily. Skin lightening primarily affects those who have darker skin, especially if an incorrect laser is used at an incorrect setting. 
  3. Others: Rarely laser hair removal can cause blistering, crusting, scarring or other changes in skin texture. Other uncommon problems that can occur include greying of treated hair, or paradoxically, hair might begin to grow excessively in or around treated areas. 

If you're tired of shaving, tweezing, or waxing and are seeking a permanent solution to unwanted hair consider laser hair removal and say hello to smooth hair free skin at Clinic Cosmoderma.

Plantars Fasciitis - How To Manage It Effectively?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, Fellowship In Arthroscopy & Sports Medicine
Orthopedist, Raipur
Plantars Fasciitis - How To Manage It Effectively?

Plantar fasciitis is an orthopedic problem that gives rise to pain in the foot and heel due to strain or pressure on the plantar fascia. This is a ligament or connective tissue which lies in a flat band, connecting your heel with the toes and effectively, providing a basis for the motion of the feet in general. Inflammation, swelling and bruising of this tissue or ligament can lead to excessive pain in the heel.

Let us look at ways that can help you deal with this pain:

  1. Rest: Taking rest and giving your feet a break from all kinds of strain inducing activities can help in relieving the pain. Also, you can keep your feet elevated to help in reducing the pain in the area.
  2. Supportive footwear: Using pads within your shoes with gel built into them, or using specific footwear that help in walking without feeling too much of pain is a good way of dealing with Plantar fasciitis. The shoe inserts must be rubber, felt or plastic so that they are soft for your feet. They also give your heel and its arch good support, while Orthotics pulls the ligament so that there is less stress on the same. You can also pull on a pair of night flints which will keep the foot and the ligament stretched while you enjoy a good night of sleep.
  3. Exercise: Indulging in mild muscle strengthening exercise that also involves stretching and heel hooks can help in alleviating chronic pain that you may be suffering from. Lie flat on your back and take a towel. Lift your leg and hook your foot into it. Now press against the towel and pull down the towel simultaneously. Repeat at least ten times per foot. This will give you flexibility and strength in the area.
  4. Painkillers: Use pain killers only when absolutely necessary and with due advice from the doctor or Orthopaedic specialist. The use of Ibuprofen and other pain relievers can help in numbing the pain inducing nerves in the brain and give you instant relief.
  5. Anti-inflammatory drugs: Your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory medication that can bring down the swelling for more comfortable functioning when you are on your feet. Naproxen is one such drug that helps in bringing down the inflammation. Also, corticosteroid injections can relieve severe pain.
  6. Surgery: Heel spur removal or Plantar fascia release are some of the surgical options for chronic and severe cases.

Taking care of your feet is a matter of ensuring that you look into the slightest discomfort and report the same to a doctor.

Laser Assisted Liposuction - How Can It Be Of Help?

MBBS, Diploma in Venerology & Dermatology (DVD), MD
Dermatologist, Jabalpur
Laser Assisted Liposuction - How Can It Be Of Help?

Your genetic background influences where your body fat is stored. In case, your mother or father has fat stored in the abdomen, hips, waist or in the thigh, it is likely for you to develop deposits of fat in the same regions.

Circumstances of Genetic Fat

  • You may have a proper or a balanced BMI (body mass index) but still tend to develop bulges in areas, which are likely to make you look disproportional.
  • You may become obese by development of excess fat accumulation in the lower abdomen region, referred to as pannus. Extra fat may accumulate in your lower back and hips as well, which cannot be lost in spite of taking weight losing measures.

Liposuction to get rid of extra fat:

  • Liposuction is a cosmetic surgery that allows you to remove genetic fat or any extra fat from the body, in order to change the body's shape. Liposuction does not remove cellulites and tightening of loose skin cannot be done.
  • Liposuction removes excess fat from the body by suction. Small, narrow tubes with blunt tips known as the cannulae are inserted through incisions in the skin surface. The tubes are moved under the skin to target the suction of fat deposits.

There are several types of liposuction techniques:

  1. Tumescent Liposuction: In this form of liposuction, a wetting solution such as lidocaine with a local anesthetic is injected into the patient before surgery. This causes the shrinking or constriction of blood vessels due to which it allows liposuction to be performed while the patient is under local anaesthesia. Blood loss and post surgical pains are reduced.
  2. Suction Assisted Liposuction: This mode of liposuction also known as SAL is the most primary form of liposuction. It involves drawing out of fat using a vacuum.
  3. Power Assisted Liposuction: This liposuction technique called PAL in short involves the process of SAL with an extra tool for increasing the motion of the cannula. The process is faster.
  4. Ultrasound Assisted Liposuction: This process (UAL) involves the transmission of energy via a specialized hand piece for loosening and melting of fat. A greater volume of fat can be removed via UAL.
  5. VASER: It is a variation of the UAL method where an ultrasonic cannula with grooves helps in energy disruption to improve removal of fat.


Laser Assisted Liposuction:
LAL is a newly developed liposuction technology where a laser works like an ultrasound for disruption and removal of fat cells. This mode is more efficient and involves less trauma. Liposuction is an effective way to remove unwanted, genetic fat from your body, which may be harming your body image. However, liposuction is associated with severe side effects.

Bone Fracture - Types, Causes & Treatment Of It!

DNB - Orthopedics, D ( ORTHO), MBBS
Orthopedist, Trivandrum
Bone Fracture - Types, Causes & Treatment Of It!

Broken bone is commonly known as bone fracture a d it occurs when an exorbitant amount of force is applied causing the bone to split or shatter. While some minor fractures lead to cracks and crannies, others may lead to complete breakage of the bones. Despite being hard, bones are formed in such a way that they can absorb pressure to only a certain extent, beyond which they break. Statistically, the incidence of broken bones are most common in children and in old age people.

Causes of Bone Fracture
Bone fracture can be caused due to a number of reasons; both intentional and accidental. Some of them include:
1. Accidents and injuries: Sports injuries, being hit by a car and tripping and falling are some of the typical episodes.
2. Old age: Diseases such as osteoporosis and brittle bone disease are common in aged people. As bones tend to become more fragile among the aged, they are at a greater chance of bone fractures.

Type of bone fractures

Primarily bone fractures are of four types, based on the way the bone splits. They are:

 

  1. Complete fracture: This type of fracture refers to a complete breakage of the bone wherein the fracture may occur at various parts of the bone.
  2. Incomplete fracture: In this type of fracture, the bone partially breaks instead of splitting entirely.
  3. Compound fractures: This is a type of a fracture wherein the bone breaks past the skin. It is also known as an open fracture.
  4. Simple fracture: In this type of a fracture, the bone breaks without causing an open wound on the skin.

Treatment of bone fractures
In case of a broken bone, the immediate course of action would be to reach for the first aid box. This can be done to stabilize the bone prior to hospitalization. Icing the injury, elevating the injured area to prevent further swelling and covering the wound with bandages are common measures. In many cases, people also make household splints (made of newspapers) to keep the bone stabilized. Hospitalization and especially surgery, can be also opted for in case of severe fractures.

Brain Stroke - Things You Must Know!

DM - Neurology, MD - Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Neurologist, Bangalore
Brain Stroke - Things You Must Know!

A brain stroke can affect anyone at any point of time when the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted. It can threaten major physical functions and can prove to be fatally dangerous at times. The brain stem which is placed right above the spinal cord controls the breathing, heartbeat and levels of blood pressure. It is also in charge of controlling some elementary functions such as swallowing, hearing, speech and eye movements.

What are the different types of strokes?

There are three main kinds of stroke: ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes and transient ischemic attacks. The most common type of brain stroke is the ischemic stroke is caused by narrowing or blocking of arteries to the brain, which prevents the proper supply of blood to the brain. Sometimes it so happens that the blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body have travelled via the blood vessels and has been trapped in the blood vessel which provides blood to the brain. When the supply of blood to a part of the brain is hindered, the tissue in that area dies off owing to lack of oxygen. The other variant of brain stroke is termed as hemorrhagic stroke is caused when the blood vessels in and around the brain burst or leak. Strokes need to be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible in order to minimize brain damage.  Remembering the F.A.S.T. acronym can help with recognizing the onset of stroke (Face, Arms, Speed, Time - explained below). 

What are the common symptoms of a brain stroke?

The symptoms of the brain stroke are largely dependent on the area of the brain that has been affected. It can interfere with normal functioning, such as breathing and talking and other functions which human beings can perform without thinking such as eye movements or swallowing. Since all the signals from the brain as well as other parts of the body traverse through the brain stem, the interruption of blood flow often leads to numbness or paralysis in different parts of the body.

Who is likely to have a stroke?

Anyone is at a risk of developing brain stroke although ageing is directly proportional to the risk of having a stroke. Not only that an individual with a family history of brain stroke or transient ischemic attack is at a higher risk of developing stroke. People who have aged over 65 accounts for about 33 percent of all brain strokes. It is important to point here that individuals with high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol, cancer, autoimmune diseases and some blood disorders are at a higher risk of developing brain stroke.

There are a few factors which can increase the risk of developing stroke beyond any control. But there are certain lifestyle choices as well which aids in controlling the chances of being affected by stroke. It is crucial to refrain from long-term hormone replacement therapies as well as birth control pills, smoking, lack of physical activity, excessive use of alcohol and drug addiction. A brain stroke is a life-threatening medical condition, and when an individual has symptoms that resemble that of stroke, it is crucial to seek immediate medical help.

Treatment for stroke

  1. Treatment depends on the type of stroke.
  2. Ischemic strokes can be treated with 'clot-busting' drugs.
  3. Hemorrhagic strokes can be treated with surgery to repair or block blood vessel weaknesses.
  4. The most effective way to prevent strokes is through maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

What is TPA?

TPA is a thrombolytic or a “Clot Buster” drug. This clot buster is used to break-up the clot that is causing a blockage or disruption in the flow of blood to the brain and helps restore the blood flow to the area of the brain. It is given by intravenous (IV). This can be given only within 4.5 hrs of the onset of symptoms

Time is brain

  1. Remember Every second Loss means brain cells die.
  2. Rush to the nearest Stroke Centre whenever you experience such symptoms.
  3. U can save the brain cells dying if you reach within 4.5 hrs by the CLOT BUSTER. 

Endovascular procedures 

Another treatment option is an endovascular procedure* called mechanical thrombectomy, strongly recommended, in which  trained doctors try  removing a large blood clot by  sending a wired-caged device called a stent retriever, to the site of the blocked blood vessel in the brain

Stroke prevention

The good news is that 80 percent of all strokes are preventable. It starts with managing key risk factors, including 

  1. High blood pressure,
  2. Cigarette smoking,
  3. Diabetes
  4. Atrial fibrillation and
  5. Physical inactivity.
  6. More than half of all strokes are caused by uncontrolled hypertension or high blood pressure, making it the most important risk factor to control. 

Rehabilitation

The best way to get better after a stroke is to start stroke rehabilitation ("rehab"). In stroke rehab, a team of health professionals works with you to regain skills you lost as the result of a stroke.

Shoulder Pain - Causes, Diagnoses & Treatment

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, Ozone Therapy
Orthopedist, Ghaziabad
Shoulder Pain - Causes, Diagnoses & Treatment

Shoulder pain can be a persistent dull and nagging sensation in the upper arm or shoulder area. It can be easily differentiated from neck pain as it is related to the movement of shoulders i.e. it will increase and decrease with shoulder movements especially overhead activities. The other signs to identify shoulder pain is if your shoulder movements are reduced.

If you find it difficult to scratch / wash your back, comb your hair or reach your back pocket. Shoulder pain can happen due to various reasons, vary from person to person depending on the activities he/she is involved in, for e.g. sports, manual job etc.. It can be a single major injury or multiple small injuries due to repetitive usage patterns. Also, degenerative changes in various parts of the shoulder can lead to shoulder pain.

In case of middle to old age, injuries that can cause shoulder pain are-

  • Biceps Tendonitis
  • Acromio-clavicular Joint arthritis
  • Scapular Dyskinesia
  • Trapezitis
  • Suprascapular nerve entrapment In young age, injury due to sports or gym activity can cause shoulder pain
  • Superior labral anterior/posterior (SLAP tear)lesion

Also, traumatic or repeated dislocations of shoulder can cause shoulder pain due to...

  • Bankart lesion

Diagnose Shoulder Pain-

Shoulder pain can be diagnosed only after thorough history taking and clinical examination. However, some imaging studies can be very helpful like:

  1. X-rays: Through an x-ray one can view the shoulder in many different views
  2. Ultrasound: With an ultrasound, you can also check the damaged caused to the tendons and muscles of the shoulder but the quality of reporting depends upon the expertise of the doctor.
  3. MRI: MRI gives a clear picture of the shoulder as it shows everything related to a shoulder joint that is joints, vessels, tendons and muscles that too from different angles.
  4. Diagnostic Arthroscopy: A surgical procedure often used by orthopaedic surgeons to diagnose and treat issues inside a joint. Arthroscopy has the big advantage that one can use it to diagnose as well as treat at the same time.

Treatment for Various Types of Shoulder Pain-

  1. For Shoulder Impingement or Rotator Cuff tear: Give rest to the shoulder for a few days only Dedicated Physiotherapy Protocol Bursal injections If these fail then, (Surgery)Arthroscopic sub-acromial decompression If Cuff tear is found, then one can go for Arthroscopic/Mini-open repair
  2. Labral Lesions: For anterior Labral lesions (Bankart's) following anterior shoulder dislocation then surgery in the form of Arthroscopic Bankart's repair is the only option to reduce risk of recurrence and degeneration.

SLAP Lesions --

  1. Pain relief and physiotherapy as first step If this fails then following surgical options are available
  2. Arthroscopic debridement or repair of labrum
  3. Biceps tenotomy or tenodesis

Arthritis --

In this case, the joint is already destroyed and has to be resurfaced for pain relief and to maintain ROM. If Rotator cuff muscles are working, then Shoulder resurfacing hemiarthroplasty (preferred in young people), that has a life of 10 to 15 years, Total shoulder replacement (preferred in middle aged to old people) has a life of 10 to 15 years. But, if rotator cuff muscle are not working then Reverse Geometry Shoulder replacement is recommended, that has a life of 10 years.

It is always advisable to get yourself diagnosed properly in case of shoulder pain as management changes depending on clinical situations. Neglecting shoulder conditions can lead to bigger problems later on.

Remember "a stitch in time saves nine"

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