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Abnormal uterine bleeding, also known as AUB, is one of the most common causes requiring gynecologic evaluation. Hysteroscopy is a procedure wherein a thin camera called hysteroscope is introduced into the uterus via the vagina and this light helps in a thorough examination of the uterus. In cases where there are cysts or fibroids or even cancerous growths, this is used to get more details on the lesions. However, hysteroscopy also has a therapeutic use in that it is used to treat conditions like abnormal uterine bleeding. Read on to know more about AUB and how hysteroscopy helps in treatment.
Causes of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: Vaginal bleeding that occurs more often than 21 days and farther apart than 35 days is known as abnormal uterine bleeding. The bleeding is also abnormal if it lasts longer than 7 days and more than 80 mL of blood is lost during each cycle.
Some causes include:
When a woman has abnormal bleeding, further diagnosis is required to confirm the exact cause of the bleeding. This is where the hysteroscopy comes into the picture. Hysteroscopy, literally translates to viewing the uterus from inside directly through a camera.
How it is done:
Hysteroscopy is done as an outpatient procedure and normally takes about 3 to 4 hours. General or spinal anesthesia may be used depending on complexity and overall patient health. The uterus is filled with a fluid like saline or glycerin and a thin lighted instrument called the hysteroscope is inserted through the vagina, up the cervix, and into the uterus. This tube is flexible and so can be moved across the uterus to identify any areas of abnormality. It also has a camera and so can be used to take pictures of suspicious areas.
Causes for infertility may also be detected using hysteroscopy. Small knives can also be used to remove the lesion like fibroid or polyp. These are often the cause of abnormal bleeding. Samples can also be taken for biopsy to confirm if any cancerous growth is detected.
Hysteroscopy is a safe and effective way to examine the cervical canal and uterine cavity. It is better to accompany D&C with hysteroscopy instead of going for blind dilatation and curettage, especially in women who are peri or premenopausal. Hysteroscopy is a safe procedure if done by a doctor, specialised in gynecological endoscopy and helps in both diagnosis and treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The term infertility in females explains a wide range of disorders but in order to simplify things, lets’ just say, infertility in women is a condition in which women are unable to conceive. There are numerous reasons that can be responsible for this situation and although some are preventable or curable, most others have no specific cure or treatment.
One of the most common reasons for infertility is an ovulatory disorder. Almost 30 percent of female infertility is caused due to this reason. 70 percent of such infertility is treatable with drugs such as Reprones/Menogan and Clomiphene. Here is a list of causes of failed ovulation-
Disruption in the complex hormonal balance.
Ovaries fail to produce mature eggs. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common disorder causing this problem. This syndrome has reduced FSH production and increased production of LH, Oestrogen and Testosterone. Suppressed FSH production may cause the partial development of ovarian follicles.
Hypothalamus may malfunction thereby causing the pituitary to malfunction, thus losing control over the process or FSH and LH production.
Physical damage to the ovaries by multiple surgeries or due to the formation of cysts.
A rare case of premature menopause.
Problems of the follicle.
Poor functioning of fallopian tubes
Diseases or disorders in the tube have been another major reason of infertility in women. Almost 25 percent of women infertility occurs due to this reason. Although treatments exist, success rates of the treatments are as high as 30 percent. The causes of tube damage may be as follows-
Infection caused by bacteria or viruses
Previous pelvic or abdominal surgeries.
A condition called ectopic pregnancy which occurs in the tube, and even if very carefully but successfully overcome, may leave permanent damage.
Rare congenital defects in which women may be born with tube anomalies.
This is the condition where the endometrium expands excessively thereby preventing individuals from getting pregnant. This affects almost 10 percent of the population of infertile women. Almost 40 percent of women with endometriosis are infertile.
Other additional factors may include:
Behavioural factors like personal habits, lifestyle and health factors.
Cigarette smoking reduces the chances of conceiving by one-third.
Alcohol increases the chances of birth defects.
Hence, pregnancy is tougher than it might really seem.
Me and my partner had sex on 16 may and 25 may was my periods date. We had unprotected sex but he is sure that he did not came inside me. I went to dic on 2nd june and she gave me cream tablets for 5 days. When should I expect my periods? I am having pcod problem. Is there any chance that a girl will get pregnant even if partner did not came in her?
I am confirmed with pcod. I am advised to take metsmall for it and thyronorm 50 mg for thyroid. Before this I was pretty fine but after starting my medication I have started feeling low. Is this due to my medicine. Please help.
I am 31 years old female, weigh 62 kg, height 4' 10" I have ovarian cyst (chocolate). Pains a lot during period. Underwent laparoscopy once. But cyst relapsed. Visited numerous doctors but no solution. Few advised to conceive. Tried but failed. Married for 3 years now. Doctors said for IVF but I and my husband don't want to do so. Currently my life is becoming hell day after day. I am going into depression, get pissed off easily. Kindly give me some solution to get rid of this pain and lead a normal and Happy life. Have been taking "pulsatilla nigricans" also and have thyroid too.
I am 6 weeks pregnant through ivf. Before starting ivf my tsh level was 5. 5 and sugar was 88. But after 6 week pregnancy tsh is 17.5 and blood sugar is 108. I have a lot of ivf medicines nowadays. I am taking eltroxin 125 already. Totally confused. Please advise.
Colposcopy is a procedure that is used to get a closer view of a women’s cervix, vagina and vulva. It is a procedure carried on to detect the presence of any abnormal cells on the cervix and nearby areas.
Why is Colposcopy done?
This procedure is carried out to see the problems in the vagina and cervix which may otherwise be not visible with a naked eye. A colposcopy is done when the Pap test results are abnormal. These abnormalities could be due to several reasons like viral infections namely human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or any other fungal (yeast), bacterial or protozoan (Trichomonas) infection. Atrophic vaginitis or natural cervical changes due to menopause can also lead to abnormal Pap test results. However one needs to be careful because these untreated cervical cell changes that lead to abnormal Pap tests can at times develop into precancerous or cancerous changes.
In case during colposcopy, an abnormal tissue is found in the problem areas, the doctor will remove a tiny sample of it and send it to the lab. This is normally known as a biopsy or cervical biopsy which is done from inside the opening of the cervix or endocervical canal.
Procedure for a colposcopy and biopsy
A colposcopy is normally a pain free procedure where at times some women might feel a slight tingling or burning sensation when the solution is applied. Biopsy might lead to a little discomfort like that of a sharp pinch or a menstrual cramp. During colposcopy a speculum or a small instrument is inserted into the vagina to spread apart the vaginal walls. In order to see the area more clearly the doctor dabs the cervix or vagina with a cotton swab dipped in vinegar (acetic acid) or Iodine (Lugol's solution). The solution is used to remove any kind of mucus and also makes the abnormal cells turn white in order to be clearly visible.
The doctor then uses a colposcope, a light magnifying device that looks like binoculars and has a bright light mounted to it. It also has a camera attached to it to take the videos or pictures of the cervix and vagina.
Biopsies are normally done by scraping away abnormal cells with a small brush or a small curette.
Results of colposcopy or cervical Biopsy
In case of Normal results the vinegar or iodine will not show the presence of any abnormal cells and the vagina and cervix look normal. But in case of abnormal results, there are abnormal tissues seen in the problem areas. It could also be a sore or a genital wart or infection in and around the vagina. The biopsy report would clarify whether it is cervical cancer or is likely to develop.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!