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Dr. Manish Gondha

Doctor of Medicine

Psychiatrist, Junagadh

18 Years Experience
Dr. Manish Gondha Doctor of Medicine Psychiatrist, Junagadh
18 Years Experience
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Personal Statement

My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them....more
My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them.
More about Dr. Manish Gondha
Dr. Manish Gondha is an experienced Psychiatrist in Joshipura, Junagadh. He has been a successful Psychiatrist for the last 18 years. He is a Doctor of Medicine . He is currently associated with Shreyas Mind & Brain Care Clinic in Joshipura, Junagadh. Don’t wait in a queue, book an instant appointment online with Dr. Manish Gondha on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Psychiatrists in India. You will find Psychiatrists with more than 36 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Psychiatrists online in Junagadh and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Education
Doctor of Medicine - B J Medical College, Ahmedabad - 1999
Past Experience
18 yrs in field of psychiatry at shreyas mind & brain care clinic
Languages spoken
English
Hindi

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I am having sugar for last 16 years. On oral medication. But I use to smoke about 10 cigarettes and unable to get rid of what to do?

Reparenting Technique, BA, BEd
Psychologist, Bangalore
This extent of smoking for a diabetic is bad medicine, really. You have to stop smoking, but you must also want to stop. It is in the decision, that much help and support to cease the habit, is going to be very potent. Nothing can happen if you don? t cooperate from wanting to quit. Diabetes will affect the heart, the kidneys, the eyes among many other organs and smoking will affect them directly leading to many complications. The worst I can think of the damage to the kidneys. If that happens, you could be on dialysis, which is not only incorrigibly expensive but the whole process and frequency is very, very tedious. Please give this a serious thought and stop immediately and abruptly. It will be difficult but it is worth the effort. This knowledge is astounding and scary. That information itself should help you stay out of it. The tobacco tar in cigarette smoke lines your lung with huge patches that make that portion dysfunctional. Your oxygen carrying capacity is jeopardized, and breathing is impinged. The nicotine in tobacco smoke stimulates the heart beat to raise the blood pressure in no time at all. And one of its effects is to affect the erectile capacity of your penis. There are more than 4000 harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke! then you need to identify why you smoke: there is an oral need, the nicotine effect, the psychological effect of covering up some other issue, for style, to impress, etc. You may discover that the reasons may be unimportant at this stage because you have become too addicted and the habit has become compulsive. You should start exercises, gradually increasing it over a period of time. Do deep breathing exercises every time you feel like smoking (try yoga), and replace the oral urge with some healthy food substitute to satiate the need, for a little while. If the urge is too strong, then use nicotine chewing gum or nicotine patches, for a little while until the smoking drive reduces, substantially. You may join smokers anonymous in your city where the support is really extraordinary for like-minded people who are also in the same situation. Keep yourself occupied or engaged with interesting activities during the times when it is most tempting. Keep the company of non-smokers for some time i. E. At least for the first 21 days. Above all, announce it to everyone that you have quit smoking. Here? s a piece of very good advice: even if you accidentally/willfully take a cigarette, it is not the end of the world? you can start the cessation all over again. You must persevere with the best support until you defeat this addiction. Counseling is very useful in the initial stages, and when temptations are at their highest.
2 people found this helpful
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My wife is suffering from psychic disorder and is taking Rispond plus 1 tab daily at bed time from last 16 years. From last 6 months she has been advised by the Doctor to takeolimelt10 mg. One tab per day at night. Is this a lifelong treatment or this will be stopped at some point of time. Please advise.

Reparenting Technique, BA, BEd
Psychologist, Bangalore
My wife is suffering from psychic disorder and is taking Rispond plus 1 tab daily at bed time from last 16 years. Fro...
Schizophrenia is a lifelong disease and the treatment is good for her and must be continuously monitored by the doctor. However, I advise you to take her for therapy as well to provide her with skills and techniques to understand her condition and the measures she can take to have a relatively fulfilling life. This combination will help her tremendously but do not expect great changes. It will be a gradual process but somewhat rewarding. I commend you for having lived with her and helped her this far. The journey is, however, not complete and you will need to give her all he support until the end. If you have other people at home, they could all help too. If you notice any unusual symptoms, immediately inform the doctor. I wish you had started therapy a long time ago. Anyway do seek this help from a professional comp[etent to handle psychotic disorders like schizophrenia.
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Sir, Interest is not came in my life now, I fear something daily don't know and why I fear. Im a graduate of BCA ,I fear to stay single in new place except relative home. I don't know why I fear this happen run in last 5 yrs. Asked the question to me in any staff and I knew the answer but I say to fear. What's the problem for me sir.

Ph.D - Ph.D in Psychology, Ph. D - Education
Psychologist, Kakinada
Sir, Interest is not came in my life now, I fear something daily don't know and why I fear. Im a graduate of BCA ,I f...
Fear is dangerous. It means you have lost confidence on yourself and you are unable to make the right decision. You imagine what may go wrong. You mess up your brain for nothing. There is more perceived fear than actual fear. Stop imagining and start living.
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Hello, I am suffering from extreme depression from last one year. I failed in exams, as a result. I tried to overcome on my own but now it is becoming worse. I cant concentrate on studies, cant enjoy things, my brain always is in worry & always tensed, dont know when I smiled last tym, a temporary relief I get is only when I go out with friends but after reaching home again I forget to smile or if I go to gym. Every morning I cant wake up early. I always feel tired and my mind tensed. And what is even worse is my allergy. Every morning I get up with running nose and countless sneezes. Dust and particle allergy is to blame. Can I beat this stress with medicines, are medicines effective in depression, I wanna feel light and active and ofcourse happy like when I was in college?

Reparenting Technique, BA, BEd
Psychologist, Bangalore
The allergy is a sign of grief, and so is the depression. It is good that you have identified what activities help you and what do not. Now I recommend that you meet with a counselor soon and talk to the person about all these problems. You will be guided well, and you will also need to know about emotions and how to deal with them. It is good you like the company of your friends and can therefore keep in touch with them often and for long durations. In other words, do everything possible in your spare time to be with people. If you are staying with your family, then the other times can be spent with them until you have to sleep. Do not sleep beyond 6.30 am, every day. Get into a healthy routine of exercise, good diet, and proper sleep habits, soon. Exercise is really good for a lot of reasons but primarily because the aerobic exercise stimulates the brain to product natural antidepressants. The allergy too will disappear over time. There is some sadness from your past that is the culprit. Can you identify it? if not, the counselor will help you. The sadness will naturally precipitate a lot of tears. That too you must do with someone, never alone. Be committed to the therapy. If the counselor thinks that you need medical intervention, that person will surely send you to a doctor for psychiatric consultation.
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I want to stop smoking I smoke from past 14 years know I want to quit but not able.

MA In Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, Pune
Hello lybrate-user it's really good decision that you want to quit smoking. We says this is psychological disease if you decide if your willing power is strong you can quit. This is basic I know it is not that easy while implementation. So there are some steps which will help you to quit smoking.
2 people found this helpful
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I lost my love, I always thinks about her I am feeling very depressed every time mind diverted, please help me!

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology
Psychologist, Palakkad
I lost my love, I always thinks about her I am feeling very depressed every time mind diverted, please help me!
Dear Sachin. Welcome to lybrate. Depression related to lost love is pretty common. You have to accept the fact. Accepting the fact that the lost love will not come back, is the first step towards cure. Accept it. Also accept that you can do nothing about it. Slowly your emotions will die down. Don't worry. It is a matter of two or three weeks. Consult a psychologist online for counseling if need be. Take care.
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I am 45 year divorce male and Have one daughter custody with me, my problem is I am very frustrated and failure in my life in terms of my carrier as well in my personal life and So why I am an alcoholic and addicted to see dreams which are unrealistic. please Gude me how to come out from this.

Reparenting Technique, BA, BEd
Psychologist, Bangalore
I am 45 year divorce male and Have one daughter custody with me, my problem is I am very frustrated and failure in my...
Your alcoholism is not at all useful especially if you are frustrated and'addicted' to dreams which are unrealistic: this will only further the frustration and the alcoholism. Being divorced and having the custody of your child, you have a very important responsibility where you must act and remain sober. A failure in your career and personal life does not make a very reliable person and this is being imbibed by your daughter every day. Considering all these facts, your alcoholism will give you temporary relief and an equally vengeful reaction after the wearing out of the alcohol. During the high you will fantasize a lot and will tend to believe in those pipedreams. So, it is a vicious circle of dreaming high when you are drunk and slumping low when you are sober and discovering that it was all wild imaginations and this will make you dip into a depression. You may be scripted to ruin your life in this fashion and alcohol is a good aid to meet this tragic end. You need serious counseling or rehabilitation quickly to make straight your life and career. You may use antabuse as a preventive medication and abide with the counseling for a period of three years of abstinence. You will need to attend aa meetings simultaneously, and your daughter, depending on her age, will also need to attend al-teen meetings to resolve her issues connected to your drinking. You need to be responsible for the two of you and with proper counseling all aspects of your life can be put in order.
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Treatment of frozen shoulder

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Pune
Treatment of frozen shoulder
Treatment of frozen shoulder varies depending on the stage it is at, and how severe is the pain and stiffness. There is no outright cure and the aim of treatment is to keep the joint as mobile as possible. The most effective treatment is that which maintains a good range of movement until the shoulder starts to heal.

Treatment may Include the following:

1. Shoulder exercises: Regular, gentle exercise can help to keep the shoulder joint mobile. If your shoulder is very stiff, exercise may hurt, and it should only be carried out with the guidance of your doctor or physiotherapist. If you are able to, continue using your shoulder as normal saving' the shoulder can cause the muscle to waste and may make stiffness worse.
2. Painkillers: Over-the-counter painkillers such as paracetamol or prescription-only drugs such as codeine may be taken to ease pain and you should discuss this with your general physician or pharmacist.
3. Anti-inflammatory painkillers: Such as ibuprofen and diclofenac, are often prescribed to ease pain and inflammation. Any medication that you take should be discussed with your general physician or pharmacist.
4. Steroid injections into or near the shoulder joint may be effective at relieving pain and inflammation for a few weeks. However, injections are not a cure, and symptoms may return.
3160 people found this helpful

Dear sir, I need your help for my friend. She was raped by a guy in her childhood. The thing type rape came four time again in her life by some unknowns and close ones. Because of it she is so upset that some night she can't sleep. These things comes again and again into her mind and she cries every time. She didn't tell her parents and she don't want to tell them about this thing. She met with a psychiatrist but still she is not happy. She gets frightened when people suddenly comes close to her. Please sir help her in this regard. Thanks.

M.B.B.S., F.I.C.A. (USA), P.G.D.I.H, F.C.G.P., D.C.A.H
Psychiatrist, Vadodara
Dear sir,
I need your help for my friend. She was raped by a guy in her childhood. The thing type rape came four time...
This is an issue of very serious nature and it is going to affect any future relationship in her life. She doesn't need medicines but needs to personally meet relationship expert/ psychotherapist as early as possible to open her heart out and catharsis. She has suppressed all her sufferings and this is disturbing her behavior and life. For quality life and relationship. Marriage & sexuality she needs to be listen to & understood. So that clarity comes in her life, move on, be quick and meet up as early as possible.
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Dear doctors please help me to get out of my problems. please suggest me sleeping pills so that I can sleep for forever. I am just fed up with my life I cannot handle it. I love my parents alot I don't want to see them hurted only because of me. They want me to forget the man whom I love and marry some other boy. I explain them I love them a lot I cannot leave anyone neither my parents nor my love. Its been 6 months they still want me to forget him. I can't leave without my parents and my love. please suggest me sleeping pills so that this matter will become closed with me. I can't see both of them tensed because of me. I am dying daily to see my mother praying to God that I marry the boy whom they chose. I cannot leave anyone . So I have decided to leave this world. My parents think that I don't care about their feelings but they don't know how much I love them I daily think about what they want ,cry feeling helpless as my heart do not give permission me to do this. I do not have any option . I always keep praying that god please give me natural death . While walking on roads I wish some vehicle hit me to death. No one can explain my parents that what I am feeling. They are thinking about caste and their proud that what people will say if I marry my love.Please tell.

Masters in Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, Lucknow
Dear doctors please help me to get out of my problems. please suggest me sleeping pills so that I can sleep for forev...
Listen lybrate-user, people do face such tough situation in life and at times person needs to be practical more than emotional. You sure love your parents and can sacrifice the guy for him. Or move on with the guy and leave your parents i. E what they will say slowly and gradually they will adjust. Either ways things will be fine. Its your call ending life is not an option. God has given you life you should be thankful and make the most of it. Learnt o deal with pressure and stress take out the positives. Consult with me for coounseling.
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Morning depression my husband have morning depression can you help me about it how can l help him.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician,
Morning depression my husband have morning depression can you help me about it how can l help him.
If you feel depressed, it's best to do something about it — depression doesn't just go away on its own. In addition to getting help from a doctor or therapist, here are 5 things you can do to feel better. 1. Exercise. Take a 15- to 30-minute brisk walk every day — or dance, jog, or bike if you prefer. People who are depressed may not feel much like being active. In addition to getting aerobic exercise, some yoga poses can help relieve feelings of depression. Two other aspects of yoga — breathing exercises and meditation — can also help people with depression feel better. 2. Nurture yourself with good nutrition. Depression can affect appetite. One person may not feel like eating at all, but another might overeat.. Proper nutrition can influence a person's mood and energy. So eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and get regular meals (even if you don't feel hungry, try to eat something light, like a piece of fruit, to keep you going). 3. Identify troubles, but don't dwell on them. Try to identify any situations that have contributed to your depression. When you know what's got you feeling blue and why, talk about it with a caring friend. Talking is a way to release the feelings and to receive some understanding. 4. Express yourself. With depression, a person's creativity and sense of fun may seem blocked. Exercise your imagination (painting, drawing, doodling, sewing, writing, dancing, composing music, etc.) and you not only get those creative juices flowing, you also loosen up some positive emotions. Take time to play with a friend or a pet, or do something fun for yourself. Find something to laugh about — a funny movie, perhaps. Laughter helps lighten your mood. 5. Try to notice good things. Depression affects a person's thoughts, making everything seem dismal, negative, and hopeless. If depression has you noticing only the negative, make an effort to notice the good things in life. Try to notice one thing, then try to think of one more. Consider your strengths, gifts, or blessings. Most of all, don't forget to be patient with yourself. Depression takes time to heal. If you are happy with these answers please click on "useful” link so that I can know my efforts are not wasted. If you want more clarifications or prescription for medicines consult me on this site to ask me directly and not in open questions session It's not easy to say exactly what causes depression and anxiety – it's different for everyone. Sometimes a difficult time in you or your mates' life can set off depression or anxiety, sometimes it's caused by a combination of things that has built up over time and sometimes, there's just no obvious cause at all.
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Dear Sir, In my office I am getting negative some times as the other colleague are doing something political type. There inside thoughts are different what the showing in front. It is making me upset and reactive and sometimes negative. How to control and deal such situations to be positive.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician,
Dear Sir, In my office I am getting negative some times as the other colleague are doing something political type. Th...
You have to avoid people giving you negative thoughts and try to be friendly with them, avoid unpleasant talk and do your work and leave.
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Hello sir, I have this weird problem where I dream In the morning all the time. Sometimes upto 6 hours a day. I make up alternate realities in my head. I dream that I'm another person with a better life Inside my head and sometimes I act like how that person would act. I unknowingly act out the conversations that" that" person is having inside my head. This is really affecting my life as I'm unable to concentrate and focus on my studies. I read somewhere that it might be maladaptive daydreaming and tried meditation but it did not help. Do I need to visit a doctor? If so what kind of Doctor? And if someone can say what kind of issue I might have It will be very helpful. Thank you for your time.

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology
Psychologist, Palakkad
Dear lybrate-user, I think you are thinking too much. Dreams are not realities. Before concluding anything about dreams, you should know them. Day dreaming and night dreaming are two issues. Night dreaming is natural and it never lasts more than minutes. Your sleep might feel as if incomplete. That is all. The more you think about the dreams, the more you are worried. Obsession leads to worries and thereby anxiety disorder. Just leave the dreams alone and concentrate on your education and career. Take care.
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I am looking for a good therapist in Gurgaon for my son. He is seeking help on anger management issues.

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology
Psychologist, Palakkad
Dear lybrate user. I can understand. Anger and aggression are emotions. These emotions always arise because of irritation, disappointment or events which were negative and not expected. But you should understand, these are common. You cannot change situations or circumstances. But we can always alter our perception and behavior about what is happening. This the core of anger management. I suggest online anger management training. Take care.
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Hello Dr. My son is 5 years old. His habit is tumb sucked. He never like milk and take it. And also not constraight in study he is interested but not constraight. please guide what I do I really worried about him. What should I do he take milk or other alternate or the sucking or constipation in study please plz guide I really worried.

Post Graduate Diploma in Counselling, MA In Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, Pune
Hello Dr. My son is 5 years old. His habit is tumb sucked. He never like milk and take it. And also not constraight i...
Not to worry. For thumb sucking you need to use positive reinforcement lije if he is not suck thumb then give him a reward lije chocklats or whatever he likes. Other option you can use negative reinforcement like if he suck then don't speak with him for an half hour, that is depend on u. To drink milk use some flavour powder which he likes, use hot chocolate flavor generally children likes that flavour. You also can give him star after finish his milk. Use less quantity of milk in the starting & slowly increase it day by day. Good luck. Try it you will get good result.
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I am suffering from mood disorder and not able to study at all. I have lost interest in studies and I do not feel mentally alert. Whether I can take 5 hydroxy tryptophan supplement for my mood to boost my serotonin level.

MSC Human Development , Hypnotherapy , Special Educator , ms- counselling and physiotherapy, Applied psychology Hons
Psychologist, Faridabad
I am suffering from mood disorder and not able to study at all. I have lost interest in studies and I do not feel men...
As you say you are suffering from mood swings. You need a psychologist help. By the different kind of therapies (relaxation therapy, positive affirmations) they will heel you. Beside this you have to go for a morning walk daily. This will keep you fresh and some breathing exercise help you to get a concentrated mind. If you want to take our help you can contact us.
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I am 30 years old I am going through a tough phase in work and family. No matter how many hours I give at work things do not fall in place in return it has taken my mental peace and its affecting my family life. Work related issue is for last one year.

BHMS
Homeopath, Secunderabad
Nothing to worry because of excessive feeling stress it may happen. But my advice is better to take Homoeopathy medicines. Those medicines will give permanent solution to your problem. Please provide us your details for further treatment and evaluation.
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Sharpen memory: In case you have a short term memory or face other memory problems, various forms of B vitamins supplements will help you to regain the optimal state of mind.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician,
YOu also need brain exercises like mind sharpening games .Research-based strategies to boost your memory and keep it strong 7 Strategies for Remembering 1. Become interested in what you're learning. We're all better remembering what interests us. Few people, for example, have a difficult time remembering the names of people they find attractive. If you're not intrinsically interested in what you're learning or trying to remember, you must find a way to become so. 2. Find a way to leverage your visual memory. You'll be surprised by how much more this will enable you to remember. For example, imagine you're at a party and are introduced to five people in quick succession. How can you quickly memorize their names? Pick out a single defining visual characteristic of each person and connect it to a visual representation of their name, preferably through an action of some kind. Remember: Memory is predominantly visual. 3. Create a mental memory tree. If you're trying to memorize a large number of facts, find a way to relate them in your mind visually with a memory tree. Construct big branches first, then leaves. Branches and leaves should carry labels that are personally meaningful to you in some way, and the organization of the facts ("leaves") should be logical.. 4. Associate what you're trying to learn with what you already know. It seems the more mental connections we have to a piece of information, the more successful we'll be in remembering it. This is why using mnemonics. Write out the items to be memorized over and over and over. 5. When reading for retention, summarize each paragraph in the margin. This requires you to think about what you're reading, recycle it, and teach it to yourself again. Even take the concepts you're learning and reason forward with them; apply them to imagined novel situations, which creates more neural connections to reinforce the memory. 6. Do most of your studying in the afternoon. Though you may identify yourself as a "morning person" or "evening person" at least one Study. suggests your ability to memorize isn't influenced as much by what time of day you perceive yourself to be most alert but by the time of day you actually study—afternoon appearing to be the best. 7. Get adequate sleep to consolidate and retain memories. Not just at night after you've studied but the day, you study as well. Far better to do this than to stay up cramming all night for an exam.
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Sir I got nervous usually in any little problem. Usually got depress and it effects digestive system. Feel vomiting. Unwillingness for food. And at last week ness affect for long run. Although I back and recover in few days but it happen usually. Please suggest what should do.

Hypnotherapist, DCS, BSIC, Advanced Trainee of Transactional Analysis, Advanced Skills in Counselling
Psychologist,
Sir I got nervous usually in any little problem. Usually got depress and it effects digestive system. Feel vomiting. ...
Our body is linked to our mind and whenever we are emotionally disturbed, some part of the body which is weak already will get affected. You have very rightly connected your emotional state to your digestion. For nervousness, I suggest that you undergo counselling sessions to feel more confident from within and in control of yourself and the situation. The counsellor will help you to vent out whatever you are going through in a non judgemental and therapeutic space which is aimed at recovery from the stress and learning practical tips to handle stress better without feeling nervousness. Meanwhile some general tips foryou: 1. Keep in mind that you have some abilities and capabilities. If you are doing any work out of your comfort zone, then it's possible that you win feel nervous. All humans go through this and it is normal. But what helps to come out of nervousness and perform the job, is a core belief that I am capable and worthy of doing this job and I know how to do this job. If you don't have the knowledge then it is best to learn what is needed and then attempt the job. Eg. A receptionist must know how to type and answer phone calls. Thus it is important to know these skills before attempting to take this role. 2. Don't be afraid to make mistakes: all humans make mistakes even if they have been doing a particular work for many years. This is again human nature and tendency. So don't be hard on yourself and be ready to make mistakes. The best way is to learn from your error of judgement so that you don't do the same things next time. You will get hands on experience and know different ways of doing the same thing as well. People who succeed only make number of mistakes. Without making mistakes, nobody has yet succeeded. 3. From depressed I think that you feel disappointed in yourself. Please don't label yourself as depressed because disappointment is a normal emotion and nobody is immune to it. Life is dull of ups and downs. Your job is to bounce back and be ready to take the challenge again. The failure doesn't define you as a person. Failure and success are one part of life and you are much more than that. You might have not succeeded in one attempt. But you can make more attempts or try something new. There is no end to scope of exploration and learning. 4. Exercising regularly and eating light food full of lean proteins, complex carbs, good fats is very important for physical and mental health. Get your vit b 12 and vit d3 levels checked and if it's low then eat foods which will up this level or take supplements. Exercising is known to release natural and mood uplifting neuro transmitters to help feel good and confident about your self. And there are numerous health benefits including better digestion.
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Epilepsy: Knowledge for General Public

Diploma in Psychological Medicine, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Ludhiana

Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body (partial) or the entire body (generalized), and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.

Seizure episodes are a result of excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells. Different parts of the brain can be the site of such discharges. Seizures can vary from the briefest lapses of attention or muscle jerks to severe and prolonged convulsions. Seizures can also vary in frequency, from less than 1 per year to several per day.

One seizure does not signify epilepsy (up to 10% of people worldwide have one seizure during their lifetime). Epilepsy is defined as having 2 or more unprovoked seizures.

Fear, misunderstanding, discrimination and social stigma have surrounded epilepsy for centuries. This stigma continues in many countries today and can impact on the quality of life for people with the disorder and their families.

Signs and symptoms

Characteristics of seizures vary and depend on where in the brain the disturbance first starts, and how far it spreads. Temporary symptoms occur, such as loss of awareness or consciousness, and disturbances of movement, sensation (including vision, hearing and taste), mood, or other cognitive functions.

People with seizures tend to have more physical problems (such as fractures and bruising from injuries related to seizures), as well as higher rates of psychological conditions, including anxiety and depression. Similarly, the risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to 3 times higher than the general population, with the highest rates found in low- and middle-income countries and rural versus urban areas.

A great proportion of the causes of death related to epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries are potentially preventable, such as falls, drowning, burns and prolonged seizures.

Causes

Epilepsy is not contagious. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and has no identifiable cause.

Epilepsy with a known cause is called secondary epilepsy, or symptomatic epilepsy. The causes of secondary (or symptomatic) epilepsy could be:

  • brain damage from prenatal or perinatal injuries (e.g. a loss of oxygen or trauma during birth, low birth weight),
  • congenital abnormalities or genetic conditions with associated brain malformations,
  • a severe head injury,
  • a stroke that restricts the amount of oxygen to the brain,
  • an infection of the brain such as meningitis, encephalitis, neurocysticercosis,
  • certain genetic syndromes,
  • a brain tumor.

Treatment

Epilepsy can be treated easily and affordable medication. Recent studies in both low- and middle-income countries have shown that up to 70% of children and adults with epilepsy can be successfully treated (i.e. their seizures completely controlled) with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Furthermore, after 2 to 5 years of successful treatment and being seizure-free, drugs can be withdrawn in about 70% of children and 60% of adults without subsequent relapse.

Prevention

Idiopathic epilepsy is not preventable. However, preventive measures can be applied to the known causes of secondary epilepsy.

  • Preventing head injury is the most effective way to prevent post-traumatic epilepsy.
  • Adequate perinatal care can reduce new cases of epilepsy caused by birth injury.
  • The use of drugs and other methods to lower the body temperature of a feverish child can reduce the chance of febrile seizures.
  • Central nervous system infections are common causes of epilepsy in tropical areas, where many low- and middle-income countries are concentrated.
  • Elimination of parasites in these environments and education on how to avoid infections can be effective ways to reduce epilepsy worldwide, for example those cases due to neurocysticercosis.
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