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Hepatitis B is the most severe liver infection due to hepatitis B virus. The virus attacks the liver, causing liver failure, cirrhosis or liver cancer. It spreads via infected blood and bodily fluid. Health care workers, emergency personnel, primary assistants, persons who have given birth to infants and have infected partners are in danger of getting infected with the virus. If you are associated with a hazardous group, then you need to know how to save yourself from infection and transmittal.
How do you know if you are at danger of Hepatitis B infection?
If you are a healthcare worker or you need to manage blood, blood products, and body fluids at your work, then you are in contact with hepatitis B virus.
How to safeguard yourself?
All healthcare personnel, primary carers, casualty worker and others who are prone to blood and bodily fluids in the work need to get hepatitis B vaccination. In a period of six months, the vaccine is given in three doses. It is advisable to test your Hepatitis B antibody level once in 6 weeks after completing the immunization series. This aids you to make sure that you get adequate safety against hepatitis B virus. If the defending antibiotics have not been growing in your body even after completing the immunization series, and then you have to repeat the chain.
What are the extra careful measures?
It is recommended to avoid direct contact with blood and body fluid. If blood spreads, then clean those using thin bleach solutions. If you have any cuts or open wounds, then cover them properly before taking care of the infected person. Avoid sharing sharp objects like blades, nails, slippers, and earrings. Make sure whether or not the new and sterile needles are used during the treatment of certain diseases. Wash hands with soap and warm water after possible risk.
How to get your Hepatitis B status?
You can determine even if you are infected with Hepatitis B virus and the condition of the virus by 3 part blood test. Hepatitis B virus is a dangerous blood born pathogen that can cause fatal disease. Avoiding getting in touch with this virus is the measure to save you from diseases.
If you are prone to Hepatitis B virus and if you are not vaccinated then you should immediately take medical attention. The doctor usually advises you to obtain Post Exposure Prophylaxis as soon as possible. It is worth getting the first dose of vaccine within 24 hours of exposure. To determine whether you have developed defending antibiotics, you have to test.
Hepatitis B can cause liver cancer therefore investigation is necessary.
Family should be screened as it can be in family Pregnant mother with hepatitis B can transmit infection to newborn. All pregnant females should be screened and precaution should be taken to stop transmission to newbor
Feeling bloated or acidic after a heavy meal can take away all the satisfaction the taste of food gave you. Indigestion and gas are some of the most common gastrointestinal problems faced by people around the world. In most cases, indigestion is a result of bad food choices and an unhealthy lifestyle. Heartburn is a not a condition of the heart, but a condition of the digestive system and to reduce its frequency, it is very important to drink and eat the right food. All three conditions, gas, heartburn and indigestion, can be relieved at home and do not necessarily require too much medication. Here are 4 easy steps that could help relieve heartburn, gas and indigestion.
The 4 steps to lower heartburn, gas and indigestion
- Include More Fiber in the Diet: It is very important for a healthy digestion to include more fiber in the diet. Intake of fiber makes the digestion process simple and helps to push out the waste from the system. The system is detoxified by adding more fiber to your food and it also helps in preventingconditions such as heart disease, diabetes and hemorrhoids. Fiber can be added to your food in the form of fruits, cereals, whole grains, nuts, vegetables and plenty of water. It is very important for men to have about 25g of fiber per day.
- Eat healthy food: It is very important that you chew your food well for proper functioning of the digestive system. The functioning of the stomach can be improved by eating smaller portions of food. It is best to avoid foods that are difficult to digest and it is also imperative that food must be consumed 1 hour before going to bed. Indigestion can be caused if you lie down immediately after eating food.
- Intake of spicy food must be reduced: To reduce the frequency of heartburn it is very important that you reduce the intake of spicy food. It is possible to get relief from heartburn by avoiding spicy foods. Foods rich in probiotics can be supplemented as these help in better digestion.
- Exercise regularly: Regular exercise is very essential for the fitness of the body and that includes a healthy digestion. The main benefit of exercising regularly is that it helps to fight stress which is the main cause of digestive problems such as indigestion. The passage of gas in the digestive system can be regulated by taking a walk after your meal. There are many benefits that can be gained by regular exercising such as the prevention of bloating, constipation, gaseous build up and even heartburn. Exercises such as swimming, cycling and yoga will have a positive impact on your digestive system and overall health.
Warning signs for serious disease
The build-up of gases in the stomach can be uncomfortable and very embarrassing when it leads to flatulence. Flatulence can be defined as the release of intestinal gas from the anus. This may or may not be accompanied by sound and odour. Both men and women can be affected by flatulence at any age.
Some of the causes of flatulence include:
- Milk intolerance SIBO( Small intestine bacterial overgrowth)
- Post-surgical abdomen are few important causes
- Hydrogen breath test
- Abdominal X Ray Stool examination
- Swallowing excessive amounts of air while eating
- Lactose intolerance
Food that is difficult to digest often triggers the formation of gas such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and sulphur in the digestive system as a result of the microbial breakdown of this food. Sulphur is largely responsible for the odor that accompanies the release of these gases. Beans, chickpeas, cauliflower and cabbage are some such foods that can trigger flatulence.
Flatulence on its own is not a serious condition and usually resolves itself without medication. However if it triggers severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea, persistent constipation, blood in the stools, nausea and pain in the right side of the abdomen, medical care should be immediately sought.
If flatulence is a problem you suffer from often, take a look at your diet and modify your eating habits. Keep a food diary to determine what food triggers this condition and avoid it. If you are lactose intolerant switch your dairy products for soya substitutes and avoid dairy. Anti-gas compounds that are available over the counter can also provide relief. Chew your food slowly, thoroughly and ensure that your mouth is closed while chewing to prevent swallowing air. For this reason, also avoid chewing gums and fizzy drinks. If you must eat beans, soak them overnight before cooking.
Flatulence can be easily treated with home remedies. Following home remedies can be used
1. Ginger: Ginger aids the digestion process, eases bloating and reduces gas. It also helps stool pass smoothly and helps keep the intestines clear. This does not give stomach gases a chance to build up. Ginger can be consumed in the form of capsules or a tea made by steeping ginger in hot water for a few minutes.
2. Papaya: Along with being rich in antioxidants and flavonoids, papaya contains an enzyme known as papain that helps digest proteins and reduce gas. To benefit from papain, you could eat the papaya fruit or drink a tea made with papaya leaves. Papaya enzymes are also available as supplements.
Dysphagia is the medical term associated with difficulty in swallowing. This condition results from an impeded transport of liquids and solids from the pharyngeal opening to the stomach. Some people with dysphagia have difficulty in swallowing certain foods or liquids, while others are unable to swallow at all. Painful swallowing is termed as Odynophagia. It is usually caused by nerve or muscle problems and it can be painful. It is more common in older people and infants.
The different types of dysphagia are as follows:
- Oral dysphagia (high dysphagia): Caused by tongue weakness after a stroke, difficulty in chewing food, or problems transporting food from the mouth. The causative factor is present in the oral cavity itself.
- Pharyngeal dysphagia: Throat is the area of causation. Problems in the throat are often caused by a neurological problem that affects the nervous system (e.g. Parkinson's disease, stroke, or sclerosis).
- Esophageal dysphagia (low dysphagia): Esophagus is affected primarily, usually due to a blockage or irritation. A surgical procedure is often required.
Causes of esophageal dysplasia include
- Diffuse spasm
- Esophageal stricture
- Esophageal tumors
- Presence of foreign bodies
- Esophageal ring
- Gastro intestinal reflux diseases (GERD)
- Eosinophilic esophagitis
- Scleroderma and radiation therapy
Odynophagia is different condition. It is possible to be suffering from both conditions at the same time. Globus is the sensation of something being stuck in the throat. Differential diagnosis should be made prior to treatment.
Signs and symptoms of dysphagia include:
- Inability to swallow
- Experiencing sensation of food getting stuck in throat or chest
- Frequent heartburn
- Feeling of food or stomach acid back up into the throat
- Unexpected weight loss
- Coughing or gagging during swallowing
- Swallowing disorders needs proper diagnosis before treatment
- Aging affects the normal wear and tear of the esophagus and increases the risk of swallowing difficulties.
- Certain neurological or nervous system disorders are more likely to act as risk factors of dysphagia.
- Upper GI tract endoscopy is done to provide a confirmatory diagnosis of dysphagia.
- When the upper GI endoscopy is normal, biopsies are advised to rule out eosinophilic esophagitis.
Treatment of dysphagia is aimed at an elimination of the cause.
Oropharyngeal or high dysplasia: Since oropharyngeal dysphagia is commonly a neurological problem, provision of an effective treatment is challenging.
- Targeted treatment is useful, e.g Patients with Parkinson's disease respond well to Parkinson's disease medication.
- Swallowing therapy is done with a speech and language therapist.
- The individual will learns different ways of swallowing properly and conveniently.
- Exercises can help to improve the muscles and their response.
- Dietary changes are advised.
- Certain foods and liquids are easier to swallow.
- A well-balanced diet easy to swallow diet is prescribed.
- If the patient is at risk of pneumonia, a nasal feeding tube (nasogastric tube) or PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) is used to provide nutrition.
- The PEG tubes are surgically implanted directly into the stomach. They are passed through a small incision in the abdomen.
Esophageal or low dysplasia: Surgical intervention is usually necessary. A dilatation procedure is undertaken to widen the esophagus. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Acute pyelonephritis is a suppurative inflammation of the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. It is a potentially life threatening condition caused by bacterial infection. It can occur suddenly and causes the kidneys to swell, which may damage them permanently too. If the condition occurs repeatedly, it is termed as chronic pyelonephritis.
The most common bacteria involved in causing pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Other causative bacteria are Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Infection starts in the lower urinary tract as a urinary tract infection. Urethra provides an entry for the bacteria, which enter the tract and begin to multiply and spread up to the bladder. They further travel through the ureters to the kidneys. Any septic infection in the bloodstream can also spread to the kidneys and cause acute pyelonephritis.
How it spreads - Pyelonephritis spreads through two routes, homogenous or from the lower ascending tract (ascending infection).
Risk factors - Urinary obstruction, vesicoureteral reflex, catheterization, pregnancy, Diabetes Mellitus, age over 65.
Symptoms - The symptoms are observed within two days of infection. Common symptoms include:
- High fever of a temperature greater than 102 degree F
- Pain in the pelvic region
- Burning sensation during urination
- Flank pain
- Presence of pus discharge or blood in the urine, fishy odor in urine and vomiting.
The symptoms observed can vary in children and older adults than they are in other people. Mental confusion is common in older adults and it often is their only symptom. In chronic pyelonephritis, people experience only mild symptoms or may even lack noticeable symptoms altogether, which is the major reason of negligence by the patient towards treatment. Flank pain in the abdomen and signs of infection can be observed.
Diagnosis - Uncentrifused urine is analyzed for the presence of pus cells. The leucocyte esterase dipstick method is used to check for Pyuria. However, it is less sensitive than microscopy. In the urine culture, significant bacteriuria is detected on presence of more than 105 colonies/ml of the sample. Imaging studies can be done to check for the presence of kidney stones. Amongst the inflammatory markers, the values of C-reactive protein (CRP), ESR, and plasma viscosity may be raised. An elevated white cell count with neutrophilia is seen on blood culture.
Complications - Abscess formation in either the kidney parenchyma or the surrounding retroperitoneal spaces is a common complication. Other complications include the development of a xantho-granulomatous or emphysematous pyelonephritis. In severe cases, there can be chronic renal failure too.
Treatment - The duration of treatment depends on spread of infection. Empirical antibiotic treatment can be started until the confirmatory tests reports of culture and sensitivity are observed. Antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Cefixime can be given. Medications for acute pyelonephritis are continued for up to 3 weeks, whereas for chronic conditions medicines should be given for 6 months.
Chronic pyelonephritis - It is a morphologic entity which is associated with a predominant interstitial inflammation and scarring of the renal parenchyma. There is a grossly visible scarring and deformation of the pelvic-calyceal system. Chronic pyelonephritis further leads to chronic renal failure.
The two forms of chronic pyelo-nephritis are
- Chronic obstructive pyelonephritis, where obstructive lesions lead to recurrent bouts of renal inflammation
- Reflux nephropathy.
Management includes controlling blood pressure to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, long term antibiotic coverage for urinary tract infection, removal of calculi and antibiotic prophylaxis for vesico-ureteral reflex.
Exposure of hepatitis A virus can cause severe liver infection, which is usually lighter and resolves by itself. There is a considerable difference in the symptoms and duration of the disease, in which many people do not see any signs. Two of the symptoms associated with hepatitis A infections are fever and joint. If you drink water or food which has become contaminated with the stools of someone with the virus, then you can catch the disease. You may also be infected, if you:
1. Eat fruits, vegetables, or other foods that were contaminated during handling
2. Eat chopped raw shellfish with water that has a virus
3. Swallow the contaminated snow
If you have this infection, your liver may be swollen due to your virus. You do not always get symptoms, but when you do, you may have:
Children generally have diseases with some symptoms. You can develop hepatitis A virus approximately 2 weeks before your symptoms appear and they appear during the first week, or even if you do not have any.
If you are prone to the disease:
- Stay with or have sex someone who is infected
- Visit the country where Hepatitis A is common
How is it detected?
Blood tests enable doctors to detect it.
Is there a prolong effect?
Usually, the virus does not cause any long term issues or complexities. But as per the CDC, 10% to 15% people with Hepatitis A will have symptoms that last for long periods or come back in the 6- to 9 month’s period. In rare cases, some people may suffer liver damage or require transplantation.
Is there a Hepatitis A Vaccine?
Yes, Vaccination is suggested:
- Visitors to places of the world with an increase infection in hepatitis A.
- Men who have sex with other men
- People with blood clotting problems
- People who infuse an addictive drug
- Any person with prolong liver disease
What is the treatment?
There is no treatment to cure this disease. Your doctor can take such tests to check your liver function to make sure that your body is recovering.
- Receiving vaccination is your best protection. If you come in exposure with someone with hepatitis A, you can get a particular drug called immune globulin within 2 weeks.
- Good hygiene is also necessary. After using the bathroom, always wash your hands with soap and water, after changing the diapers, before and after managing the food.
- If you have symptoms of Hepatitis A or infection then meet your doctor. Vaccination within two weeks of contact with Hepatitis A can help against the development of infection.
Patients with preexisting liver disease should be vaccinated as occurrence of hepatitis A can lead to risk to life. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Knowingly or unknowingly, people often end up consuming food items that affect their digestive health negatively, instead of providing health benefits. Yes, the majority of people think that they can digest any kind of food and won't suffer from any side effects at all. But in reality, based on the preparation, processing, and ingredients present in them, some foods end up triggering digestive problems.
Let's take a look at some such foods that can be bad for the digestive health.
- Processed Foods: Processed or packed foods are high in carbohydrates, and can cause various digestive issues, such as bloating, cramping, gas formation, hypertension, and diabetes, when consumed in large amounts.
- Alcohol: Technically speaking, alcohol may not be a food; but if you consume alcohol every time you eat, it can be counted as a food item. When the consumption of alcohol is moderate to high, it can cause acid reflux or heartburn, inflammation in the stomach lining, stomach cramps, and even diarrhea.
- Artificial Sweeteners: Artificial sweeteners may work great for keeping your blood sugar in control but may affecctyour digestive system adversely. Artificial sweeteners contain ingredients that can increase the chance of bloating, gas, diarrhea, and inflammation.
- Fried and Greasy Foods: Fried foods and greasy food are not only difficult to digest but they can also cause minor digestive problems, which later lead to intense stomach conditions such as acid reflux, heartburn, bloating, tummy upset, belching, etc.
- Chocolates: Are you fond of eating chocolates? Having a sweet tooth can cost you your digestive health. From heartburn to an upset stomach, eating too many chocolates or candies can result in loose stools and diarrhea.
- Foods Rich in Spice: Eating too much of spicy foods and those that contain chili peppers for a tangy flavor can often lead to heartburn and acidity. While you may enjoy eating something delicious with a tangy and spicy taste, the damage it may cause to your digestive health can be a cause forconcern.
- Too Much of Caffeine: Drinking too much coffee or drinks with a high caffeine content cannot only irritate the stomach but also damage the smooth functioning of the digestive system. Heartburn, inflammation, constipation, and dehydration are some of the common digestive problems posed by coffee.
- Raw Vegetables and Acidic Fruits: While consuming too many acidic fruits can cause acid reflux and stomach inflammation, eating raw vegetables leads to cramps, diarrhea, bloating and gas as they pass through the digestive system undigested.
For those who are concerned about their digestive health, consulting a doctor is recommended. In case you already have a stomach related ailment or disorder or have suffered from any in the past, a doctor can suggest and advice you and what are the best foods to incorporate in your diet. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Peptic ulcers are wounds that develop in the stomach lining, less esophagus or small intestine. They are usually due to inflammation caused by bacterial H. pylori, in addition to corrosions from stomach acids. An ulcer is generally rooted in the stomach or inner layer of the small intestine. A stomach ulcer is the most visible sign of peptic an ulcer disease.
People with an ulcer may have a really hard time dealing with it. It is an open wound on the outer or internal surface of the body, which causes excessive pain. It is due to a breakdown in the mucous membrane or skin which fails to recover.
Causes of peptic ulcer:
Several reasons can cause stomach, esophagus, and small intestine to break. Contains:
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a type of bacteria that can cause stomach infections and swelling
- Continuous use of Aspirin (Bayer), Ibuprofen (Advil), and other anti-inflammatory drugs (the risks linked with this behavior among women and people over 60 years of age)
- Alcohol drinking
- radiation therapy
- stomach cancer
Symptoms of peptic ulcer:
The most common symptom of peptic ulcer is burning abdominal pain, which spread from navel to chest, which can range from light to severe. In few circumstances, the pain can get you up at night. Small peptic ulcers cannot develop any symptoms in initial stages.
- A burning, grinding pain in the upper middle part of the stomach and is comforted just by eating or taking antacids.
- Change in taste
- Bloody or dark stool
- Ambiguous weight loss
- Pain in chest
Below are the ways to you from Peptic ulcers?
Stomach ulcer pain is not a joke: it can leave you weak. Fortunately, following these steps are ways to reduce your risk of getting ulcer.
- Avoid some foods such as spicy, lemon, fatty, etc., because they can be burdens your stomach. Specifically, if you have seen that particular types of food disturb your stomach, keep away from it.
- Improve the quality of your life by including exercise, stress-free activities, yoga etc. in your daily routine.
- The heavy consumption of alcohol can cause ulcers. They have been contributing to the development of ulcers, so it is good to reduce the consumption of alcohol.
- Taking no steroid anti-inflammatory medicines can reduce the risk of disturbing your stomach lining and thus avoiding the growth of ulcers.
- Management of anxiety level avoids the expansion of ulcers. Do yoga and other comforting arts that help prevent the ulcer.
Some lifestyle choices and habits can reduce your risk of developing the peptic ulcer. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The problem of acidity occurs when the gastric glands of the stomach release extra acid, i.e. hydrochloric acid. This acid helps in the breakdown and digestion of eating food and when the extra hydrochloric acid is produced, that is when the problem of acidity arises.
Types of acidity
Two types of acid reflux are
- Upright acid reflux: Every hour when you are sitting throughout the day, upright acid reflux occurs.
- Supine acid reflux: This form of acid reflux generally happens at night when the acid flows twice in the esophagus. Throughout the night time, we usually relax ourselves, so the acids are likely to go upside down. Visit a doctor before your supine acid reflux gets worse.
Symptoms of acidity:
Dyspepsia and heartbeat are the major symptoms of acidity. Heartburn usually occurs when you have your meal and is more irritated if you are involved in heavy weight lifts which result in stomach pressure.
Although you can experience different forms of acidity, symptoms of both types can be common. General symptoms of both the upright and supine Acid Reflux include ulcers, sinusitis, dysfunction, tooth decay. Chronic Supreme Reflux can cause chronic pain in the chest, long-term damage to the arms and jaws, stomach and respiratory tract.
Treatment for Acidity
There are seven ways to help treat your acidity:
- Maintain a healthy die as maintaining proper habit is important. The consumption of spicy, processed food, pebbles, and high-fat food is not recommended. Eat slowly and chew your food properly.
- Quit smoking and avoid alcohol consumption, as it increases heartbeat problems.
- Diagnose yourself and meet a doctor. Some clinical trials to be conducted include X-rays, blood tests and endoscopy.
- Some tips that you can follow to prevent insult include: (A) Avoid exercising with the entire stomach (B) Do not wear tight fitting clothes while sleeping (C) If you go to bed at least three Wait hours ago.
- Your body weight also plays a crucial role. The weight of the extra body is pressured on the lower esophagus (LES) sphincter, which can weaken it over time. If LES fails to shut down correctly, then you are likely to experience from acid reflux.
- Long-time acute stress and anxiety can cause acidity. You can follow some relaxation techniques to deal with stress and anxiety.
- Dietary supplements available in health food stores and drug stores such as calcium and digestive enzymes can reduce the acidity.
Most of us can understand that acidity is a superficial issue, but when it gets spoiled it causes serious health issues such as an ulcer. Therefore, it is suggested to be attentive to the symptoms and moves forward a suitable remedy for acidity, positively.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!