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Laparoscopic surgery is also called keyhole surgery or minimally invasive surgery. In traditional method of surgery, large incision is a major post-operative side-effect which results in longer recovery period. The alternative technique, laparoscopy also known as minimally invasive surgery or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical procedure in which small incisions of about 0.5-1.5 cm are made far from the location of the operation.
Laparoscopic surgeries cause smaller, lighter scars once the surgery wound heals completely. However, as with any surgery, complications may occur during the course of Laparoscopic surgery.
- Anesthesia-related complications: To prevent anesthesia-related complications during Laparoscopic surgery, it is essential that procedures related to the airways, ventilation, analgesia, anti-emetics are followed in the pre-operative state.
- Wound infection: Even though laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and the possibility of contracting infections is considerably less, the wound is capable of getting infected. Hence, it is essential to maintain cleanliness and hygiene recommendations provided by the medical staff concerned. It is also assumed that the surgeons would prevent this possibility by maintaining strict protocols regarding this issue on their part.
Piles are a common ailment, albeit distressing, which can be treated with proper operative measures. Piles refer to hemorrhoids which have become swollen or inflamed. Comprised of vital tissues, blood vessels, elastic and muscle fibers, Hemorrhoids are masses and clumps of tissue cushioning and lining the anal canal. The inflammation occurs when there is a rise in the pressure in the small arteries that make up hemorrhoid causing them to enlarge and swell with blood.
Besides the fact that piles, also called as pathological hemorrhoids, can be extremely painful, not operating can give rise to severe health issues. There are different types of piles surgery procedures conducted according to individual needs as prescribed by individual doctors.
Surgery For Piles - What To Expect?
Piles are a common ailment, albeit distressing, which can be treated with proper operative measures. Piles refer to hemorrhoids which have become swollen or inflamed.
Comprised of vital tissues, blood vessels, elastic and muscle fibers, hemorrhoids are masses and clumps of tissue cushioning and lining the anal canal. The inflammation occurs when there is a rise in the pressure in the small veins that make up hemorrhoid causing them to enlarge and swell with blood. Besides the fact that piles, also called as pathological hemorrhoids, can be extremely painful, not operating can give rise to severe health issues other than severe anemia and weakness. There are different types of piles surgery procedures conducted according to individual needs as prescribed by individual doctors.
This procedure involves injecting a chemical into hemorrhoids. The chemical causes the hemorrhoids to contract and stop bleeding. Most individuals encounter little or no pain with the shot. In the case of small internal hemorrhoids, Sclerotherapy is shown to have the best benefit rates.
Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy, also commonly known as MIPH, is a form of surgerywhich requires 12 hours of hospitalization. This process necessitates general, regional, or local anesthesia. This kind of surgery is used to handle hemorrhoids that have already prolapsed. A surgical staple fixes the prolapsed hemorrhoid inside your rectum and cuts off the blood supply so that the tissue can contract. Recovery from hemorrhoidopexy is less painful and takes lesser time than the recuperation period of a hemorrhoidectomy.
Excision used to be prescribed for hemorrhoid sufferers. This therapy involves the surgical removal of the hemorrhoids with a cautery, laser or knife. Although these methods are slightly different, the outcomes are identical. Excision results in discomfort and pain in the perianal area that lasts from two weeks to two months. The pain during bowel elimination also lasts for approximately the same time.
Management of the hemorrhoids with proper medication, diet and workout is by far the safest way to go. Only in the case of lifestyle changes failing to solve the condition, surgical interference should be considered.
Proctology refers to the study of the structure and diseases of the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon. Laser surgery in proctology field enables excellent cutting, limiting thermal damage to the surrounding tissues reducing the post-operative pains. Piles are also called hemorrhoids. They are swellings in blood vessels found in or around the rectum and anus. Piles manifest symptoms like bleeding after passing stool, itchy bottom, hemorrhoid mass hangs out of the anus that pushes back in after passing of stool (prolapse), a mucus discharge, soreness, redness and swelling around the anus. Proctology conditions like piles might not be life-threatening, but they’re associated with poor quality of life and embarrassment.
- Grade one is the initial stage where a person has bleeding or itching but no prolapse. At this stage conservative measures are recommended.
- In grade two, the mass of hemorrhoids begins prolapse during defecation but goes back in, on completion of the act.
- In Grade three, the prolapsed haemorrhoidal mass does not go back on its own, and manually pushed back. LHP is recommended for early stages of Grade 3; however, stapler surgery is recommended for advanced stages.
The LHP process
A laser fiber is passed through the anal opening and laser energy is applied to the haemorrhoidal mass. The controlled emission of laser energy reaches the submucosa zone, causing the haemorrhoidal mass to shrink. Fibrosis reconstruction generates new connective tissue, ensuring the mucosa adheres to the underlying tissue preventing the recurrence of prolapse.
- Reduced pain, faster healing, higher outcome, and shorter procedures.
- Optimal treatment and outcomes.
- Presets enabling ease of use improved surgical control and accurate dosage.
- Requires no incisions and suturing.
- The procedure leaves no foreign material in the body.
Hernia surgery is performed for the correction of a hernia which refers to the bulging of internal organs or tissues through an abnormal opening. It is easy to detect hernia through any pain or discomfort while lifting heavy objects, cough and strain during urination or bowel movements or during prolonged standing or sitting. It can be found in both men and women. The Hernia can be congenital or can be developed over a period of time. If it doesn’t get better over time and also does not go away by itself, then surgery becomes the only option.
Types of Surgery
There are two types of surgery for hernia treatment. One is the conventional open method, which requires an incision in the skin directly over the hernia. The other one is the Laparoscopic hernia repair in which surgery is performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope. In this type of surgery minimal invasions are made and the hernia is repaired with only small incisions adjacent to the hernia. Most hernia operations are performed on an outpatient basis, which means that you can go home the very same day.
Tips for early recovery
- Wear comfortable clothing with expandable waistbands.
- Keep yourself active by moving around as much as you can as it increases circulation, which further speeds up healing.
- Eat a diet rich in fibre, fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Drink lots of water and other fluids to avoid constipation.
- Do not lift any objects even if it is very light as it can bring back pain.
- Do not to pick up things from the floor as it will be difficult to bend.
- Hold a pillow against your stomach while sneezing or coughing to lessen the pain.
- Use stool softener for a few days before and after surgery to help you with your bowel movements.
- Avoid driving till the time you feel any pain and as long as you are taking narcotic pain medicines.
- Band-Aids which cover the incisions should be changed as and when needed.
- Refrain yourself from intercourse as it can be painful.
- Check with your doctor when to take a shower so as not to hurt your incisions, and make sure to gently dry your incisions and replace the Band-Aids after taking a shower.
- Do not consume any alcoholic drinks for at least 24 hours.
The tips mentioned above will definitely provide help to cope up with post surgery blues. However, in case of fever, excessive sweating, difficulty in urinating, bleeding or any prolonged pain consult your doctor immediately.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
How Smoking Impacts Your Organs
As you inhale cigarette smoke, about 7000 carcinogens stir the crevices of your body. In India, about 3,00,000 people die every year due to smoking-related issues.
Here's a list of 5 such organs, which are the most affected by cigarette smoke.
1. Your lungs - Your lungs are probably the first organs to bear the wrath of cigarette smoke. Majority of the lung cancer cases are due to smoking. Other diseases include bronchitis and emphysema. This smoke paralyzes the cilia lining the inner walls so much so that it overproduces mucous. When the mucous builds, respiration suffers. Asthma and cancer follow.
2. Your Skin - Your skin also gets affected up to a huge extent if you smoke. You could have deep circles under your eyes, wrinkles on your skin, and stretch marks, if you continue smoking over time. Also, there lies the risk of major health issues like skin warts, psoriasis, skin cancer, and wounds, which may take longer to heal.
3. Your Penis - Studies revealed that you can take longer for an erection and find it difficult to maintain it if you are a heavy smoker. Studies have also revealed that men who quit smoking had longer and firmer erections.
4. Your Liver - Smoking increases the chances of you suffering from liver cancer dramatically. According to studies, half of the liver cancer cases are due to smoking. Obesity can also take place if you're a heavy smoker.
5. Your Eyes - Smoking affects your eyes to the extent of making you blind. Partial vision loss, glaucoma, cataracts, dry eye syndrome, and diabetic retinopathy are some of the other diseases you are susceptible to if you smoke.
Despite the negative effects, quitting smoking can save you from all of these potential health hazards.
Here are some ways to help you quit smoking.
1. Nicotine Replacement Therapy - There are a few nicotine replacement tools in the form of nicotine nasal sprays and nicotine inhaler, which you can use to quit smoking.
2. Chew on something - You should try to chew on some candy, or a gum, or anything crunchy and satisfying once you start getting restless for a cigarette or any other form of nicotine. That usually helps.
3. Relaxation techniques - If you are resisting tobacco strongly, it can be very stressful indeed. Take a break from whatever you are doing and go out for a walk, practice muscle relaxation, yoga or deep breathing to keep the craving out of the way.
4. Get involved in some physical work - Getting involved in some work will surely go a long way in reducing your craving. You can also try out physical exercises like squats, running, or jogging. Otherwise, you can also indulge in some needlework, or anything, which involves concentration or physical work.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Roadside accidents are common and they lead to many health problems in which some may require amputation for removal of one of the limbs to save the life of a person.
Amputation is a life-saving procedure by which a part of the body that has suffered irreversible damage is surgically removed. Amputation is only carried out as a last resort when the infection/ decay spread to the other parts of the body.
Why is this procedure needed?
The most common cause of amputation is blockage of blood circulation. Without blood, the tissues do not get oxygen and begin to decay, and an amputation is carried out to stop the damage from spreading to other tissues. As stated above, an amputation is carried out only as a last resort. The surgeon checks the infected part for the following to make sure that an amputation is required:
- Checking for a pulse close to the region where the cut is to be performed
- Comparing skin temperatures with the affected limb
The surgeon tries to bypass arterial blood from the nearest artery to the affected region to rejuvenate the cells. Some reasons of amputation are:
- Severe injury (extreme burns/ vehicular accidents)
- Cancerous tumor in the bone or muscle
- Serious infection, which has stopped responding to antibiotics
- Thickening of nerve tissue called neuroma
Risks and complications of amputation
Risk of complication is lower in planned amputations than in emergency amputations. In the case of a planned amputation, the surgeon will shape individual muscles for future prosthetic limbs, smooth out rough bones and bone fragments and take care of all the loose ends of the procedure. In emergency amputations, however, the limb is amputated very fast and bleeding is stopped as soon as possible. The following complications may arise as a result of amputation procedures:
- Heart complications
- Venous blood clots
- Slow wound healing or infection of the wound
- Stump or "phantom limb" pain
- Psychological problems
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Any surgery that requires an incision will involve sutures or staples as the last step of the procedure. This helps close the incision and keep out infections. Taking care of your stitches can help limit scarring and discomfort and speed up the healing process.
Here are a few things to keep in mind.
- Keep it clean and dry: For the first few days, use a washed wet cloth to clean the incision site. After a few days, you may start washing the area with soap and water unless advised else wise by your doctor. Ensure that you dry the skin thoroughly after washing it. Avoid baths that involve soaking the area in water. Also, avoid swimming. Do not use any powders, lotions, creams, deodorants etc on the wound site.
- Look out for signs of infections: Avoid activities that may involve exposing your wound to dirty water, chemicals, dust etc. This increases your risk of infections. Also look out for signs f infections such as redness, swelling, pus or bleeding, fever or increased pain from the wound. In case you notice such signs, consult your doctor at the earliest.
- Do not scratch: As it heals, your skin is likely to turn itchy. However, refrain from scratching so as to reduce chances of infections. Do not try and pull away from the scab but let it fall off on its own. This will also help limit scarring.
- Limit contact: Avoid wearing tight clothes or anything that sticks to the skin while your wound is healing. Instead have plenty of loose, comfortable clothes easily accessible. Also, do not take part in close contact sports such as football etc until the stitches have healed completely.
- Change your dressing regularly: A dressing should be changed as soon as it gets wet or soaked with blood or other body fluids. Wear clean medical gloves while changing a dressing. When putting on a new dressing do not touch the inside of the dressing or apply any creams on the stitches unless advised so by your doctor. In the case of removable stitches, the doctor will usually remove the stitches after a few days. DO not attempt to pull the stitches out on your own.
- Avoid exposing the wound to sunlight: New skin that forms as the incision heals is very sensitive to sunlight and gets sunburnt very easily. Limiting your exposure to sunlight can help reduce the effects of scarring. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Colorectal surgery is a specialized branch of medicine used to treat patients suffering from colon, rectum, and anus ailments (damage, obstruction, injury, ischemia, inflammation, or any other medical condition). The colorectal surgery involves varied procedures that, at times, require the assistance of many specialized and experienced surgeons, consultants, and nurses (colorectal nurses).
Colorectal surgery help patients with:
- Crohn's disease: In this disease, there is weight loss, extreme fatigue, malnutrition, severe diarrhea, abdominal pain. Crohn's disease is mainly an inflammatory bowel disorder where the digestive tract (lining) gets inflamed.
- Ulcerative colitis: In ulcerative colitis, there is inflammation and ulcer formation in the rectum and the colon.
- Diverticulitis: In diverticulitis, there is inflammation of the diverticula or pouches (formed on the walls of the colon).
- Colorectal Cancer: Also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer.
Colorectal surgery is also helpful in case of:
- Anal fissures: In anal fissures, there is a tear in the anal canal (lining of the lower rectum). As a result, a person may experience extreme pain and discomfort in passing the stool.
- Bowel or fecal incontinence: In bowel incontinence, there is an uncontrolled bowel movement, resulting in a sudden (unexpected and uncontrolled) passing of stool.
- Hemorrhoids or Piles: It is a condition whereby the muscles and veins of the rectum and the anus (lower part) get swollen and inflamed. Piles are often accompanied by pain, bleeding, and itching. There is difficulty in sitting and in bowel movements.
- Rectal prolapse: In rectal prolapse, the entire rectal wall or the rectal mucosa protrudes out (loses its attachment).
Anal fistula and Anal abscess
Colorectal surgery can be of different types:
- Colostomy: It is a surgical procedure that links the colon to the abdominal surface through an opening called the stroma. This creates an alternative pathway for the removal of the feces. Colostomy comes in handy when the colon fails to function normally (due to a disease or an injury). A colostomy can be temporary or permanent:
- In a temporary colostomy, the damaged part of the colon is removed temporarily. Once the condition improves, the colon (part removed) can be reattached through a colostomy reversal surgery.
- In a permanent colostomy, the colon (damaged part) is removed permanently through surgery.
- Hemorrhoidectomy: As the name suggests, Hemorrhoidectomy is used to treat hemorrhoids or piles. In this procedure, the hemorrhoids are surgically removed through an incision (around the anus).
In PPH (Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids), the hemorrhoidal tissue is repositioned back into its original position (in the anus). Once repositioned, the surgeon trims the tissue causing pain and discomfort--
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Surgery: The surgery is an effective treatment for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Here, the surgeon removes the colon to treat the condition.
- Rectopexy: Rectopexy is beneficial for patients with rectal prolapse.
- Internal Sphincterotomy: This is helpful in case of anal fissures. To reduce the pressure, the surgeon makes a small cut is made in the internal anal sphincter. In Internal Sphincterotomy, the patient is normally given a local anesthesia.
- Colectomy: To treat diseases that may affect the colon, a surgeon may remove the entire colon (Total Colectomy) or just a part of it (Partial Colectomy). Colectomy may further be:
- Proctocolectomy: Both colon and rectum are removed.
- Hemicolectomy: The left or right portion of the colon is removed. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Surgeon.
A fistula is an abnormal, tube-like connection, a passage or hole that forms between two organs or an organ in your body and your skin. There are various types of fistulas that can develop in different parts of your body but the most common types are-
1. Obstetric Fistulas: This is the name given to a hole between the vagina and rectum or bladder. A vaginal fistula that opens into the urinary tract is called a vesicovaginal fistula and one that opens into the rectum is called a rectovaginal fistula.
A woman with obstructed labour or labour that is not attended by a doctor or a midwife, can suffer labor pain for up to six or seven days. And as the labour produces contractions that push the baby’s head against the mother’s pelvic, the soft tissues between the baby’s head and the pelvic bone are compressed and do not receive adequate blood flow between the mother’s bladder and vagina and/or between the rectum and vagina.
This means that a hole forms on the vaginal wall between the urinary tract and her rectum. The urine and faeces thus start to leak from the vaginal opening causing soiling and foul smell.
Apart from labour, hysterectomies that damage the vaginal wall can also cause such types of fistulas.
Enterovaginal – A woman may have gas and foul smelling fluids leaking out of her vagina due to an enterovaginal fistula which is a hole between the vagina and the digestive tract. It’s usually caused due to inflammatory bowel disease or IBD and ulcerative colitis.
2. Anal fistula
These are fistulas that form between the end of the bowel and skin near the anus.
An anal fistula usually develops due to a previous or current anal abscess. An anal abscess is an infected cavity filled with pus found near the anus due to an acute infection in the internal glands of the anus.
Common symptoms are:
- Pain in the anorectal area
- Rectal bleeding
- Urinary symptoms, such as trouble initiating urination or painful urination
- Inflammatory bowel disease – a chronic condition of the GI track which causes inflammation
- Diverticulitis – An infection in the large intestine
- Tuberculosis, HIV
- Surgery near the anus
Anal abscess and likewise anal fistula are treated by surgical drainage in which an incision is made in the skin near the anus to drain the infection causing an anal abscess. Hospitalization may be required for patients who have impaired immunity like diabetics.
Anal fistula though has no medical treatment and surgery is almost always necessary to cure it.
- If the fistula is straightforward which means one that involves minimal sphincter muscle, a fistulotomy may be performed. This involves cutting open the whole length of the fistula so it heals.
- Seton is another procedure in which a surgical thread called a seton is placed in the fistula and left there to help it heal. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
An anal fissure can affect people of all ages, and it’s often seen in infants and young children. Constipation is a common problem in this age group and it is a major cause of this problem.
An anal fissure usually isn’t a serious condition. In most cases, the tear heals on its own within four to six weeks. In cases where the fissure persists beyond eight weeks, it’s considered chronic, or long term.
- A visible tear in the skin around the anus
- A small lump of skin just next to the tear
- A sharp pain in the anal area during bowel movements
- Streaks of blood on stools or on wiping
- Burning or itching around the anus
- Straining during childbirth
- Straining during bowel movements as a result of constipation
- Chronic constipation
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Overly tight anal sphincter muscles
In rare cases, an anal fissure may develop due to:
- Anal cancer which occurs due mostly to ano-receptive sex without barrier protection
- HIV infection
Let’s take a closer look at these risk factors.
- Anal fissures are common in infants and young kids. Older adults also become prone to anal fissures as the blood flow to the anorectal region decreases.
- Women also become prone to these fissures due to straining during childbirth.
- The inflammation that occurs in the intestinal lining in people with IBD makes the tissue around the anus more prone to tearing, further causing fissures.
- People who frequently experience constipation are at an increased risk for fissures. Also, one can suffer from fissures due to straining and passing large, hard stools. In both these cases, one may experience tears in the anal lining.
- Frequent diarrhea can also tear the skin around the anus and so can ano-receptive sex without protection. This can lead to sexually transmitted diseases like genital herpes, HIV/AIDS and infection with HPV virus which causes anal cancer.
Treatment usually helps control anal fissures and the discomfort it causes. Your doctor will prescribe stool softeners and topical pain relievers to stem discomfort. However, if these do not make your anal fissure go away then surgery may be required. And in addition to this, your doctor will also need to look for other underlying causes that can cause anal fissures like for example anal cancer.
- An anal fissure can be diagnosed by simple physical exam. The doctor looks at the area around your anus and follows it up with a rectal exam to confirm the diagnosis.
- This can mean the use of an anoscope. In this, the doctor inserts an anoscope into your rectum to be able to see the anal tear.
- An anoscope is a thin tube and it allows doctors to inspect the anal canal. An anoscope is also used to diagnose other causes of anal or rectal pain such as hemorrhoids or piles. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Surgeon.