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Adolescent Problems Treatment
Limping Child Treatment
Management of New Born Care
Treatment of Newborn Jaundice
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Adolescent Disorders Treatment
Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Treatment of Childhood Diabetes
Cleft Lip Treatment
Management of Postnatal Care
Child Growth Management
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Management of Childhood Nutrition
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Quad Screening Treatment
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I found the answers provided by the Dr. Dhananjay K Mangal to be knowledgeable. Thank you so much..
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Dhananjay K Mangal to be very helpful. Appreciate
Dr. Dhananjay K Mangal provides answers that are very helpful. Thank you
Cleft lip and cleft palate are the two most common birth defects affecting children all over the world. What happens in the cleft lip is that the upper lip is incompletely formed and in cleft palate abnormalities, we see babies with an incompletely formed roof of the mouth. Both these can be found individually or can occur together. These conditions can be severe or mild and affect one or both sides of the face.
The fEtus undergoes the separation of the upper lip and the roof of the mouth pretty early. In certain cases, this separation does not happen or happens incompletely and certain parts of the upper lip and roof of the mouth fail to form properly leading to cleft lip and palate.
Repair through surgery
- Plastic surgery is the only way to repair a cleft lip and/or palate. Both of these impair vital functions like speaking, eating, breathing, and hearing properly.
- Surgery is done to restore function and to make the affected child look more normal.
- Most cleft lip and palate surgeries are done on very young children usually 3 months to a year old.
- Before the actual surgery, a team of specialist define a course of treatment, including repair of the cleft using surgery, which means plugging the hole in the lip or the palate; speech rehabilitation and dental restoration, as the child usually has no teeth in the affected parts of the upper palate.
The specialists required are:
- Plastic surgeon
- Pediatric dentist
- Ear, nose, and throat specialist
- Auditory or hearing specialist
What happens during surgery?
Usually, cleft lip surgery happens in children as young as 3-6 months old. It has to be carried out under general anaesthesia. If the condition is severe, and the cleft lip is wide, special procedures like lip adhesion or a moulding plate are used to bring the two parts of the lip closer and it is fully repaired.
Cleft palate repair surgery is done at the age of 9-12 months only.
What happens here is that plastic surgeons bring together the muscles of the upper soft palate and rearrange them to cover the gaping hole in the roof of the mouth. The surgery is usually done under general anaesthesia and requires a short hospital stay.
- Without a normal palate, the child can’t speak properly. So, surgery helps to improve and normalise speech.
- And that’s not all. The child may require more surgeries as he grows older to treat these two problems.
- This is because the child’s facial structure changes and he or she may require advanced surgeries like pharyngoplasty, which helps improve speech, or alveolar bone grafts to provide stability for permanent teeth.
- A bone graft is usually done when the child is 6-10 years old and it closes gaps in the bone or gums near the front teeth.
Child Aphasia is complex disorder that is caused by damage to parts of the brain that controls language and speech. This disorder affects the child's ability to express herself through words and understand the speech of other people. The severity of the problem depends on the extent of the damage as well as the location of the damage. Since this is not a birth disorder, therefore, you should be much more careful as so you notice that your kid is facing language disorder. A speech pathologist can diagnose language disorders and teach your child strategies to help.
What are the leading symptoms of aphasia in kids?
- Not understanding speech is one of the most common symptoms. Most patients cannot understand spoken or written language. Typically in these cases, the patient suffers from fluent Aphasia, which is caused by damage to the left temporal lobe of the brain. The patient's speech might seem meaningless and incoherent with lots of unnecessary words being used. The child usually becomes upset when people don't understand what he is saying.
- Patients suffering from this disorder also have trouble expressing their thoughts and understanding language and they often take more time to communicate. Only short sentences are used by these patients with words often left out, making the sentence sound incomplete. Such children suffer from non-fluent Aphasia where they understand what others are saying, but cannot communicate or speak well themselves. Their speech is almost similar to that of telegraphic languages that are usually followed by those toddlers who are just learning how to speak.
- Some children suffering from Aphasia might have trouble repeating words even though they don't have problem understanding what others are saying. These children suffer from conduction Aphasia and will be able to reproduce only parts of a sentence, if asked to repeat.
- Children affected with this disorder may see to be not listening to you or ignore you.
- Such kids might also have behavioral problems and may not be able to keep up with their friends and classmates. They will also suffer from forgetfulness.
Causes of Aphasia: The leading cause of Aphasia is brain injury, brain infection, brain tumour or abscess or bleeding in the brain.
Diagnosis of the disease: The disorder is diagnosed by a speech therapist who assesses the condition with a variety of tools to figure out the extent of damage. Its best to take your child to a paediatric speech pathologist who is an expert in treating children with brain injuries. The child will then be assessed on auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reading and writing ability and functional communication.
Treatment: There are many people who think that the speech trouble cannot be treated, but they are completely wrong. There are various ways to treat Aphasia. The younger the patient the better the chances of recovery since the brain is not that developed to handle specific functions in kids as in adults. The treatment will depend on the severity of the condition and the goal that is to be achieved. Factors behind this trouble need to be determined first otherwise the perfect treatment cannot be decided. Some of the most prominent factors are aphasia type, brain-injury cause, age, brain-lesion size and positioning and others.
Some of the leading tips that can be applied as per Association of National Stroke are as follows:
- Using props can be helpful in getting across messages.
- Speaking slowly and staying calm while speaking.
- Drawing pictures or words on paper for communication.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
The sugar found in milk and other dairy products such as yoghurt and cheese is called lactose. An enzyme in the small intestine called “lactase” breaks lactose into galactose and glucose. When the lactose is not digested properly by the small intestine, it passes unbroken into the colon. The bacteria in the colon break the lactose down into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. People who fail to digest lactose in their small intestines are diagnosed with lactose intolerance.
Usually lactose intolerance only affects adults, but sometimes children do suffer from it. For children, their symptoms can be mild or very severe (for example, cramps, diarrhoea in children, etc.)
Normally, parents can confuse milk allergy with lactose intolerance. They do share the same symptoms, but they are completely different medical conditions. Milk allergy is caused by the immune system while lactose intolerance is a problem with the digestive system.
The causes of lactose intolerance include:
1. Absence or deficiency of the lactase enzyme
2. Infections in the gastrointestinal tract that damage the lining inside the small intestine
3. Gluten intolerance (It affects lactase production)
4. Genetics (Lactose intolerance can run in the family)
When the lactose is broken down in the colon, certain gases are produced. These gases can cause symptoms such as:
1. Abdominal inflammation and pain
2. Excessive burping
3. Loud sounds in the bowel
4. Excessive diarrhoea and gas
5. Explosive and watery bowel movements
6. A feeling of urgency when it comes to bowel movements (In children, they might feel like they need to get to the bathroom as soon as possible or they might embarrass themselves)
How best to treat it?
Living with lactose intolerance usually involves dietary modifications and taking supplements such as over-the-counter lactase to aid in digestion. For instance, you can replace milk with soy milk, or take lactase before ingesting any dairy product. Or alternatively, you can consume lactose-reduced or lactose-free milk and dairy products.
Calcium deficiency is a serious side effect of lactose intolerance. So incorporate calcium-rich foods such as broccoli, kale, tofu, almond, dried fruits, soybeans, turnip greens, collard greens and fortified orange juice in your diet. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
Hi my baby is 4 months old and exclusively breastfed. I am getting suggestions from friends and family to feed cerelac to my baby from next month. Can you suggest me if it's the right tym to put her on cerelac.
Tuberculosis is a highly infectious and potentially fatal disease which primarily affects the lungs. It is highly contagious and can infect other people via the tiny water droplets released by an infected person while coughing or sneezing. Some strains of this disease have the potential to resist drugs, which are commonly used to cure tuberculosis.
Read more to find all about the different causes, symptoms, preventive measures and the treatment of tuberculosis:
- Symptoms: Tuberculosis, also known as TB, can be both latent and active. In latent condition TB is not contagious and it does not harm the infected person. But latent TB can change to an active form so treating it in its latent condition is highly advisable. Active TB can be diagnosed due to the prevalence of certain symptoms such as a cough, which lasts for more than 3 weeks, coughing up of blood, unintentional weight loss, chills, chest pain, loss of appetite and fever. Tuberculosis mainly affects the lungs, but can also affect your kidneys, brain and spinal cord.
- Causes: Tuberculosis in general is caused by infection. It spreads from person to person by ultra-small droplets, which an infected person releases while coughing or sneezing. Tuberculosis is highly contagious but it is not very easy to catch TB as the immune system of your body fights it off. Also if a patient of TB is under treatment, the person 's disease is no more contagious.
- Risk factors: Potentially everyone can be infected with TB but certain factors increase the chances of infection such as a weakened immune system, living in or travelling to certain areas and substance abuse. TB can also cause complications such as spinal and joint damage, liver or kidney problems and heart disorders.
- Treatment: Administering medical drugs is the most convenient way of treating TB. But TB is more persistent than normal bacterial infections and utmost care and caution must be taken to treat it. Completion of treatment is highly essential to fully cure TB. Some of the side effects of TB medication include loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, dark urine and jaundice. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pulmonologist.
My nephew is 11 months old. When he was born both kidneys are differing in size and doctors mentioned it is not a problem. But from 2 weeks he is suffering from fever irregularly. So we got blood and urine and found there is urine infection. We got the ultrasound of kidney again and there is still the difference. Is that causing this urine infection? Attached the new scan reports.
Hi my son 2.5 months only. Her Navel has extended/swollen since last 15-20 days. She also spit out milk many a times a day even after burping. Pls help.
When you have a newborn bundle of joy, no parent would be ready for constant crying bouts from the infant. However, for various reasons, even healthy, well-fed infants can be colicky.
What is it: Although a mystery, a baby is said to be colicky if it cries for more than 3 hours a day for more than 3 days a week for more than 3 weeks at a stretch. The baby is completely healthy, and the symptoms start about 2 to 3 weeks of life in both breast-fed and bottle-fed babies. The baby usually has a red face from crying and could be pulling its legs towards its chest due to the abdominal discomfort.
Causes: Though still not exactly established, some things that are believed to cause colic include:
- The baby's digestive system that is growing and goes through spasms
- Extreme sensitivity to noise and light in the surrounding environment
- Accumulation of gas in the belly that is ingested with the milk (breast or bottles)
- Hormones that are supposedly affecting the baby's moods
Treatment: As there is no specific cause identified, the treatment is also symptomatic and aims at soothing the baby's pain and discomfort.
- Altered feeding: Given that a baby's tummy is very small and is about the size of a fist, it makes sense to feed it small amounts at regular intervals than to give a full feed once in like 4 to 5 hours. The baby is sure to feel full with this and therefore the discomfort. Burping between the feed is also shown to help avoid feeling of fullness. If you are breast-feeding, try to not let the baby doze off when feeding.
- Anti-colic bottles: These bottles have a vent inside the bottle which will help reduce the accumulation of gas within the bottle. There are various brands available in the market, these could be a good solution if the baby is even partially bottle-fed.
- Simethicone: This is an anti-flatulent, which again helps eliminate gas bubbles in the stomach and thereby provides relief to the infant. It can be given either by a dropper or a syringe.
- Exercise: Try bending the legs at the knee and holding it towards the baby's stomach, this can help ease the pain.
Remember that this is a very transient thing and usually disappears on its own by the 4th month, and the above measures are only to help the baby and the mother. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.