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Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.
What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include
- Tumors that are malignant in nature.
- Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
- Peptic ulcers.
- Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
- Inflammatory bowel disorder.
- Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
- There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
- Anal fissures.
- Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
- Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
- There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include
- Weakness and fatigue.
- The stool appears black and tarry.
- A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
- The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
- Abdominal pain.
- The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).
Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.
Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by
- Physical examination.
- Liver function tests.
- Complete blood count.
- Endoscopy, colonoscopy, and sigmoidoscopy.
- Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
- To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
- Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
- There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
- In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).
I am 22 years old. I am suffering from gas and bloating problem. But these days I started to drink ajwain warm water. After drinking ajwsin water I feel good .I don't feel any gas and bloating and flatulence. But please tell me sir .ajwain water is good fo health .I drink 1cup daily .Please tell me how much ajwain should I consume .please sir.
What is piles and anal fissure? What is consequent of anal fissure? Chronic anal fissure causes or convert anal cancer? Please give me suggestion.
Dear doctor I have been suffering from anul fissure since 12 years. Now I face some problem such as constipation. When stool is hard then my anus finishing point occur swelling and pain and not smoothly delivered stool. I want to know better advice about anal fissure and piles.
I have a problem in bowel movement. Stools are hard and dry. Comes out in pieces. Difficult to eliminate. Feel uncomfortable full despite not eating for hours. Feel bloated and gassy. Feel like going again but can't. While elimination unpleasant sound bombards. Quite embarrassing. This constipation problem is since one month after I shifted to Aurangabad.
Hello doctor I don't know what happened to me I visited gynaecologist she said nothing to worried actually I had bleeding from my mouth while coughing nd as well as blood in stool in regular intervals. My bp is alws below 100 nd I feel very tried nd weak. Period blood count is also low my age ia 28 now please do help me out need to consult any other doctor.
I am getting too much of Flatulence in stomach with dear please suggest any medicines I am taking sompraz I but it is not ok.
She is suffering from anal fissure since few weeks. Please advice with proper medication. It is painful.
My anus linings get itchy at nights, after applying some coconut oil, it soothes, It sometimes happens at daytimes as well. Is it an initial symptoms of piles?
Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder, which generally affects the colon (large intestine). It usually show symptoms like abdominal pain, cramping, bloating, diarrhea, gas and constipation. IBS is a long term condition. It can result in sudden mood swings, depression and thus holds you back from living your life to the fullest. IBS can be controlled by managing lifestyle, stress and managing your diet. Medication and counseling could also be required to manage IBS.
Symptoms of IBS:
- Immense cramping and pain.
- A feeling that your belly is bloated all the time
- Severe gas
- Alternating and sudden bouts of constipation and diarrhea.
- Presence of mucus in the feces.
When should you consult a doctor for IBS?
IBS is not a chronic disorder and can be controlled by home remedies. It may also require medical treatment if the symptoms become acute and persist for too long. If you experience certain symptoms like rectal bleeding, weight loss and heavy abdominal pain that might increase at night, you may be at a risk for colon cancer. If such symptoms persist, you should visit a doctor as soon as possible.
Causes of IBS:
- Foods: Most people are susceptible to IBS if they consume foods like spices, fats, fruits, cabbage, beans, broccoli, cauliflower, carbonated beverage, milk or alcohol. These foods irritate the lining of the stomach and trigger IBS. However, the trigger may vary from person to person.
- Stress: Signs and symptoms of IBS can also increase if you are very stressed out. Stress makes your muscles too worked up and this may result in IBS. However, you should know that stress aggravates or triggers the symptoms but doesn’t cause IBS.
- Hormones: Women are more likely to develop IBS. Fluctuations in the hormonal cycle can trigger IBS. This usually occurs around or during menstruation.
- Other illnesses - Sometimes illness such as gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea) or bacterial overgrowth in the intestines can trigger symptoms of IBS.
- Age: You will be more likely to develop IBS if you are 45 years of age or above.
- Hereditary: People having a family history of IBS are more susceptible to develop IBS.
- Mental problems: Depression, personality disorder, anxiety and a history of sexual abuse can also trigger symptoms of IBS.
I have gastric problem .i suffer gastric ulcer 2 years ago then I treat it. Now I have problem to digest and pain and gastric.
I am 18 years old female. I am suffering from bloating since 1 month all the time in day and more at night. I reduced fat intake and spice but problem remained same.
Hello sir I am facing the liver problems I mean I am a fully addicted to alcohol 4 months back I am getting jaundice and now I am taking alcohol again from past 3 weeks now I am getting digesting problem and feeling like vomit and I am getting very tired and getting fever some times I can not sleep without alcohol now I am afraid of cirrhosis of liver I did not test anything yet pls what I do now I need some medicine suggest and I am a psychiatric problem psychiatric doctor said I have panic disorder problem and he suggest lonazep and walbeta la 25 and nexito 10 but after I am taking that medicine I am feeling very fast heart beet and sweating and body shivering but I am feeling very afraid of cirrhosis of liver but I can not sleep without alcohol pls suggest me sir.
I have mild fatty liver with gallstones of 9 mm and 7 mm. Should I get my gallbladder removed? How will this decision effect my future life please? Age: 27.
Hi, Sir My pancreas is not working at all, I take pancreatin 300 mg tab thrice a day. My PP sugar is 472. I have seen 2 doctors, One doctor suggested insulin twice (before breakfast & dinner). Other doctor suggested Glycomet GP 1 Forte (Glimepiride 1 mg + Metformin 1000 mg) in morning after food & insulin 12 unit after dinner. Which method should I follow?
This query is with regard to my wife Age 54 years. She is a patient of hypo-thyroid since her childhood for which she currently consumes 1 Tablet of Eltroxin 100 mg/day. She has issues with her bowel movements which are irregular, despite taking care to include fiber based diet, off and on. She is also allergic to nights and can only be prescribed other pain-killers like Paracetamol. She is a post-menopausal housewife and we do not have any children. For the last few days she has been complaining of severe pain in the forward part of her left heel which is sometimes felt upwards to her knee. This is impeding/obstructing her movements while walking and performing daily morning exercises. She also periodically complains of hot flushes in both her feet below her knees. She takes a Paracetamol tablet whenever the pain in her left-knee (which is an old health issue since 2013) is unbearable, may be 3-4 times a year. She regularly consumes Shelcal 500 mg or Supradyn tablet with breaks of about a month, which gave her relief from her left-knee pain. Kindly advice what could be the cause and remedy for these issues of my wife. Thanks and best regards.
Meri maa ko multiple stone gallbladder mai Hai Jo 3to5 mm ke multiple Hai operation mai abhi Kara nahi paauga next month mai try karuga ki mai operation Kara lu par tab Tak mai kyaa karu allopathic doctors ne medicine Mana kar diya Hai Meri maa. Ki age 50 Hai yadi Mai ak month ke baad Kara sakta hu operation par tab Tak koi treatment ho jisse ki Meri maa ko koi problem na ho present mai Meri maa ke Right armpit mai or right shoulder blade mai pain rahat Hai ye dard regular nahi par hota rahat hai.
Living with ulcerative colitis can be very challenging. Patients of this disease will have to deal with pain in the abdomen and several digestion related issues in their daily lives. It is known to adversely impact the digestive tract. There can be extreme discomfort at the time of flare-ups. A patient can find life extremely difficult while dealing with symptoms like abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, and chronic diarrhea.
What is Ulcerative colitis (UC)?
It is a serious inflammatory disease. It is caused due to inflammatory bowel movements in the digestive tract. It can affect your daily life adversely. The worst part about this disease is that it relapses in the individual. It is characterized by flare-ups. You need to know fist what is an UC flare-up. Well, it is a term to refer to an exaggerated condition in the disease. It refers to a state when things turn worse. These flare-ups can be caused due to a number of factors. Some of these include:
- Side-effect of certain medicines
- Hormonal imbalance, especially during pregnancy
- Sudden withdrawal from medication
- Any infection or other medical condition
How to deal with the UC flare-ups?
- Doctors often prescribe corticosteroids to deal with the flare-ups. Some of the most common drugs are Prednisone and budesonide.
- Doctors prescribe the intake of steroids, 5-Aminosalicylates, antibiotics, and biologics.
- Lifestyle changes are helpful in treating this disease. You can work towards detoxification and de-stressing yourself to get rid of the flare-ups. Take up some exercises, meditation and Yoga for best results.
- You can also control chronic diarrhea by keeping a check on what you eat. You should avoid eating fibrous diet. Fibres are tough to digest for patients with UC. You must maintain proper hygiene as well to stay away from diarrhea.
Surgical Management of Ulcerative Colitis
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the colon and rectum limited to the mucosa, and may vary in severity from a mild intermittent disease to an acute fulminant and potentially fatal disease requiring urgent surgery. Management of ulcerative colitis depends on severity, extent, and duration of the disease, response and tolerance to medication, patient age and comorbidity as well as patient preference.
Surgery plays an important role in the management of UC both because of the premalignant nature of the disease, and because of the periodic failure of medical management. The underlying rationale for surgical treatment of the disease is that the disease is confined to the colon and rectum, and therefore proctocolectomy is curative. The goal of surgical therapy for ulcerative colitis is to remove the disease with as little alteration of normal physiological functions and lifestyle as possible.
Four surgical options exist for patients with ulcerative colitis and each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The surgical choices are:
- Proctocolectomy and Brooke ileostomy.
- Abdominal colectomy and ilcorectal anastomosis.
- Proctocolectomy and Kock pouch.
- Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA).
The choice of operation requires consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of each option and must be tailored to an individual patient's needs and circumstances. Important factors to be considered in the choice of operation include the indication for surgery, age, associated medical conditions, body habitues, and quality of the anal sphincter. Extensive preoperative education is required which should include discussion with a specialized Gastroenterologist.