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Caesarean Section Procedure
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Vitamin D and pregnancy go hand in hand. Expecting mothers need to ensure they get the recommended amounts of vitamin D during pregnancy for the healthy development of the baby as well as their own well-being.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin obtained mostly from consuming fortified milk or juice, fish oils and dietary supplements. It also is produced in the skin by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D, which is ingested or produced in the skin must undergo hydroxylation in the liver and kidney to promote absorption of calcium from the gut to enable normal bone mineralization and growth. Severe maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with congenital rickets and disordered skeletal homeostasis coupled with fractures in the newborn during pregnancy. Vitamin D is necessary for the metabolism and absorption of phosphorus and calcium. Many studies are finding a connection between low serum vitamin D levels and an increased risk of certain types of autoimmune disease, cancers, insulin resistance, neurological disease and cardiovascular disease.
Latest studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy especially among women residing in northern latitudes, living in cold climates or wear sun and winter protective clothing and ethnic minorities, especially those with darker skin. As the vitamin D level of newborn is largely dependent on maternal vitamin D status, the infants of mothers with vitamin D deficiency are also at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Inadequate level of vitamin D can lead to abnormal bone growth, fractures, or rickets in newborns. Deficiency of vitamin D leads to a higher risk of pregnancy complications like gestational diabetes, premature birth and low birth weight.
The symptoms of a vitamin D deficiency include aching muscles, bone pain, and softened bones leading to fractures. Fish liver oil, fatty fish, and eggs are excellent food source for Vitamin D. It is difficult to get sufficient vitamin D from food, which makes it necessary to have vitamin D supplements. Since the skin uses the sun's rays to produce vitamin D, limited sun exposure is recommended. Exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays intensifies the pigment changes causing skin darkening in pregnant women. Thus, most doctors endorse that pregnant women protect themselves from the sun and get their vitamin D from supplements. The average prenatal vitamin contains 400 IU of vitamin D, which makes it imperative that additional supplements should be taken. The significant compounds for human development are D2 and D3. The best way to really ensure adequate vitamin D is through simple supplementation. Ergocalciferol is the vegetarian form of vitamin D, whereas cholecalciferol is the animal-sourced form, derived from fish liver oil or lanolin from sheep. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Heavy or prolonged bleeding during menses is medically known as 'menorrhagia'. It is more common as you approach menopause but can occur at any age. The bleeding has to be severe enough to interfere with your daily activities.
The cause could be hormonal, pregnancy complications, bleeding disorder or a structural lesion like a fibroid, polyp, endometriosis or adenomyosis.
In advanced age cancer of the uterus or cervix has to be ruled out.
Symptoms of heavy periods
- soaking a pad or tampon every 2-3 hrs or less in a day
- passage large blood clots during menstruation
- your period lasts more than seven days
- you become anemic due to excessive blood loss
How to manage excessive bleeding
1. Maintain a record of the no of days and pattern of heavy bleeding.
2. Increase your intake of fluids and salt
You should increase your intake of fluids and especially salty fluids during heavy menstruation. You can have vegetable juices like tomato juice as well as salty broths during such times. This will help you especially when your blood volume goes down (which is characterized by dizziness or pounding of heart) when you get up after lying down. Your body would need more than four to six cups on such a day.
3. Increase the intake of iron
Increase your iron intake through natural sources like green vegetables, egg yolks, red meat, liver and dried fruits like raisins and prunes. You can also start an iron tablet once a day for faster recovery from anemia
4. Visit your gynecologist
A good history, few blood tests, and a simple ultrasound generally leads to the diagnosis. Sometimes a biopsy is required to rule out cancer. Multiple new drugs have been added in the last few years which have avoided the need for surgery
An early diagnosis ends up with better results. Hence, it is important to act early. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Hi doctor. We are married before 6 months we are trying for baby but am not getting pregnant please help any suggestions how can conceive fast.
Can PCOS cure. I was diagnosed with pcos but after delivery both the ovaries are normal. How this happened and what steps should be taken to prevent cysts in ovaries.
I am 27 years old pregnant lady diagnosed fundo posterior and grade 3 placenta at my 37 weeks of pregnancy with ultrasound. USG also reveals that everything is fine with my baby. I read on internet that grade 3 placenta causes diminished nutrient and oxygen supply to child. So what should I do at this situation? Is everything is Right or there is any problem with grade 3 placenta at this week. I want to deliver my baby without C-section. And USG shows cephalic position of baby. So please give me advice and tips for normal delivery.
Can a girl get pregnant if man with precum on his finger, may be dried precum, inserted into her vagina just a bit inside.?
Hi doctor My center of the bikini line is paining constantly. What is the reason for bikini line is paining. My LMP was 25th April. To day I get some amount of bleeding. I think it is period. So due to My periods I get center of bikini line is pain? Generally I am got pain at lower abdomen. To day I am get first time pain at bikini line. What is the reason for bikini line pain. Please tell me.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition related to a woman’s endocrine system. Generally, this disorder is characterised by an imbalance of the sex hormones (oestrogen and progesterone), which leads to the development of multiple small cysts in the ovaries. Symptoms of PCOS include acne, irregular menstrual cycle and depression to name a few.
The causes of PCOS have not been accurately identified so far, but researchers suggest that the following factors might contribute to the onset of the condition.
1. Increased amount of insulin secretion - Women suffering from insulin resistance may get PCOS as their body is not able to effectively use this insulin, which results in increased insulin secretion by the pancreas. This, in turn, triggers more androgen (male sex hormone) production in the ovaries, making it difficult for the ovaries to ovulate.
2. Lower inflammation levels - The white blood cells present in your body form resistance against infections through a response termed as inflammation. Women with lower inflammation levels are likelier to get PCOS as the decreased levels stimulate polycystic ovaries, thereby producing more androgens.
3. Genetic factor - If you have a family history of PCOS, it’s highly probable that you may also get it as the disease is linked with your genes.
How to Live with PCOS?
PCOS comes with numerous side effects like acne, obesity, infertility, excessive facial or body hair among others. There are certain lifestyle changes, which you may consider to manage PCOS and minimise its side effects.
1. Change your diet - Opt for a low carbohydrate, low sugar diet to keep your insulin levels in control, as insulin is responsible for increasing the severity of PCOS symptoms.
2. Try to maintain an ideal body weight - Obesity is known for worsening insulin resistance, and you can prevent this by regularly keeping your weight in check. You can practice some easy at-home exercise to reduce weight besides having a balanced diet.
3. Get yourself checked regularly - Visit a doctor and get yourself checked regularly for potential health risks as PCOS is often associated with increased chances of diabetes, heart diseases, certain forms of cancer, hypertension, and high LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.
4. Join a support group - Joining a PCOS support group will help you cope with your emotional difficulties, while helping you to live a better life by cultivating an optimistic outlook. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
What is Labour?
Labour and delivery are demarcated by the end of the pregnancy when a woman delivers the child or more than one child and it leaves the uterus. Normally, the gestation period for humans is somewhere around 37 weeks to 42 weeks. In most developed countries, the deliveries happen in hospitals, where as in developing as well as under developed countries, births happen at home under the supervision of traditional birth attendant, called the midwife.
Stages of Labour:
Vaginal delivery is the most common form of childbirth. Labour consists of three stages
- The opening and shortening of the cervix: Lasts from 12 to 19 hours
- Coming down of the baby and its birth: 20 minutes to 2 hours
- Expulsion of the placenta: Varies from 5 to 30 minutes
In the first stage, your abdominal muscles will begin to cramp associated with back pain. These cramps can be of durations of half a minute, about 10 minutes apart. These contractions start coming closer and become more intense as the second stage starts closing in. During the second stage, you may have to push along with the contractions to help give birth to your baby. Most babies are born head-first, although there are cases, when the baby is born buttocks first or legs first. This is commonly called “breeching”. In the third stage, it recommended to cut the umbilical cord and ensure that the placenta is entirely removed from the uterus or it may cause complications later.
The onset of labour is marked by the expulsion of the amniotic fluid and then the contractions begin to set in. Most women can walk around and eat food during labour, but when the contractions start to get too painful, it is suggested to get help and have someone around during that time. It is not recommended to push during the first phase, but then it becomes essential to push from the second stage onwards. Your gynaecologist will be able to tell you which stage of labour you are in by looking at the dilation of your cervix. As soon as you start to feel your contractions kicking in, you must contact a gynaecologist or your birthing attendant.