Doctors in Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS)
Back Pain Treatment
Treatment of Pregnancy and related Disorder
Treatment of Joint Pain
Treatment of Leg Pain
Prevention & Treatment of Diabetes
Treatment of Depression
Treatment of Knee Pain
Treatment of Irregular Periods
Management of Sugar Disorders
Treatment of No Periods
Treatment of Thyroid Disorders
Treatment of Hand Pain
Treatment of Abdominal Pain
Treatment of Swelling
Treatment & Management of Stress
Treatment of Hemorrhoids
Management of Pregnancy
Treatment of Shoulder Pain
Treatment of Kidney Stones
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Patient Review Highlights
Dengue fever is a disease caused by viruses that are transmitted to people by mosquitoes. Sometimes, its symptoms are mild and can be mistaken for those of the flu or another viral infection.People with weakened immune systems as well as those with a second or subsequent dengue infection are believed to be at greater risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Schizophrenia has been recognized as a mental disorder that combines symptoms like hallucinations with distorted thinking and others like fright and severe paranoia. This condition is one that gets progressively worse over time and leads to delusional thinking. Oversleeping and complaining of fatigue are usually the earliest signs of this condition's onset. Eventually, it becomes a debilitating factor in the life of the patient, who will not be able to function in a normal way due to the severe symptoms.
- Genetic Causes: Schizophrenia may be caused due to genetic factors and it may be a learned or inherited disorder. It is known to affect patients who have a parent or a sibling who may have suffered from this condition. Yet, one must also remember that Schizophrenia can only be influenced by genetics, and not determined by the same.
- Environmental Causes: When there has been an exposure to a viral infection during the pre natal stage, the patient is susceptible to this condition. Also, it may affect children who have been subject to the loss of a parent or separation at an early age. Physical and emotional abuse in one's childhood may also bring on this condition. Low level of oxygen at the time of birth is one of the causes of this condition in many patients.
- Anomalies in Brain Structure: When the brain ventricles of the patient are enlarged, he or she may be prone to this condition. Also, anomalies in the temporal lobes and amygdala have links with the onset of this condition.
- Types: A wide variety of mental and medical conditions can manifest with psychotic symptoms that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder. These include psychotic disorder due to another medical condition or its treatment; delirium or major neurocognitive disorder; substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder or delirium; depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic features; schizoaffective disorder; other specified or unspecified bipolar and related disorder; depressive or bipolar disorder with catatonic features; schizophrenia; brief psychotic disorder; delusional disorder; other specified or unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder; schizotypal, schizoid, or paranoid personality disorders; autism spectrum disorder; disorders presenting in childhood with disorganized speech; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; posttraumatic stress disorder; and traumatic brain injury.
Since the diagnostic criteria for schizophreniform disorder and schizophrenia differ primarily in duration of illness, the discussion of the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia also applies to schizophreniform disorder.
Brief psychotic disorder. Schizophreniform disorder differs in duration from brief psychotic disorder, which has a duration of less than 1 month.
Residual Schizophrenia is a condition where the patient does not experience the various debilitating symptoms of the condition, and is on the road to recovery. Yet, even in this type of Schizophrenia, the patient will not really show any interest in life and the activities around him or her. Finally, the last type of Schizophrenia is Schizoaffective Disorder which is characterised by the symptoms of Schizophrenia as well as the symptoms of major mood disorders. When combined, this condition can lead to major complications and complex behavior.
A patient suffering from this condition will need to see a mental health specialist like a psychiatrist or a psychologist on an immediate basis. The treatment will be carried out on a long term basis for the results to start appearing.
Multimodal pain management has become an important part of the perioperative care of patients undergoing total joint replacement. The principle of multimodal therapy is to use interventions that target several different steps of the pain pathway, allowing more effective pain control with fewer side effects. Many different protocols have shown clinical benefit. The goal of this review is to provide a concise overview of the principles and results of multimodal pain management regimens as a practical guide for the management of joint arthroplasty patients.
Multimodal denotes administering two or more than two types of medications that work with different mechanisms. The following are the techniques used:
Pre-operative Femoral Nerve Block: Prior to the surgery, a catheter is placed beside the femoral nerve for blocking it. This nerve is located in the upper thigh. Medication is delivered through the catheter for the nerve to be numbed for 24 hours. Thus, pain signals to the brain are blocked. This method reduces the use of narcotics and the consequent side effects.
Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA): This method is also known as ‘Pain Pump’. An intravenous pump is used to administer pain relief medications, such as oxymorphone or morphine, after the surgery. The control button of the machine could be pressed, by the patient for 6 to 10 times per hour. The machine is used for two post-operative days.
Oral Medications: The oral medications include Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs or NSAID; such as Celebrex which is similar to aspirin, structurally. Alternatively, acetaminophen, such as Tylenol or its equivalent composition, can also be used.
Acetaminophen: It acts on the Central Prostaglandin Synthesis and relieves the patient of pain through multiple mechanisms.
Epidural Analgesia: It produces lower pain scores and involves less time for achieving physical therapy goals. However, this is subject to side effects such as dizziness, urinary retention and itchiness.
The objective of multimodal treatments is to provide quick relief to the patient and immediately so. Earlier the rehabilitation, more successful will be the knee replacement surgery.
Like any other surgery, cosmetic surgery has risks but if you choose the right surgeon, these risks can be effectively lowered. This decision can make all the difference between a surgery that enhances your confidence and one that brings complications and heartache. Your 'gut feeling' is not good enough to pick out a cosmetic surgeon. Being certified by the medical board is an absolute must.
Let's look at a few other things to keep in mind:
What is the doctor's specialty?
Plastic surgery is a vast field. While some surgeons specialize in facial reconstruction, others specialize in breast implants. When picking a surgeon, it is important that they have enough expertise in the procedure you want. Have a candid conversation with the doctor about the risks and benefits of the procedure you are about to undergo. No surgery is without risks and do not believe any doctor who tells you so. Avoid undergoing multiple procedures at once, and trying to find one doctor who can do it all.
What are the operating facilities like?
While some surgeries are performed in the doctor's office, others need a surgical facility. The success of your procedure depends not only on the surgeon but also on his staff and the operating facilities. Do not be afraid to ask about the anesthetist's qualifications and the certification of the operating facility. Ensure that they have key life support equipment on hand just in case.
Does the doctor's aesthetic sense match yours?
Plastic surgery is largely a matter of aesthetics. What one person considers pretty may not be quite that attractive to the other person. Thus it is essential for you and your plastic surgeon to share a common sense of aesthetics. Ask to see pictures of the results of surgeries similar to what you want performed by the doctor. Depending on the procedure you want and the body part affected, look for patients with similar concerns and facial structure or body shape etc. These photographs should give you an idea of how the surgeon will tailor the procedure to address your concern.
Do you feel an emotional connect with the doctor?
'Gut feeling' cannot be completely ignored when it comes to choosing a plastic surgeon. You are putting the way you look in this doctor's hands, and hence it is important for you to feel secure in his care and to trust him. Your doctor should encourage you to ask questions and you should feel comfortable talking about your complete medical history with him or her. Also consider the staff and how you feel about them.
This decision is not one that can be made hastily, so take your time and make sure that you are going for the best doctor before going under the knife.
What Is Adjustment Disorder
Adjustment disorders are considered to be a group of conditions which usually occur when a person experiences difficulty in coping with the stressful life events. These usually include relationship issues, job issues or the demise of a loved one. The incapacity to adjust to stressful events leads to psychological and sometimes physical symptoms.
Symptoms of Adjustment Disorder
The psychological and physical symptoms linked with adjustment disorder occur either during or instantly after a stressful event. The disorder only lasts for 6 months but the symptoms might continue if the stressor has not been removed. The symptoms might vary from person to person.
- The psychological symptoms are anxiety, crying, impulsivity, lack of concentration, low or loss of self esteem, feeling hopeless, sad or trapped, and withdrawn attitude along with suicidal tendencies.
- These physical symptoms can include trembling, twitching of the muscles, soreness, body pain, insomnia, indigestion and fatigue.
- Adjustment disorder might display psychological and physical symptoms separately or together.
There are 6 adjustment disorders and each one of them is associated with different symptoms:
1) Adjustment disorder with depressed mood: People diagnosed with this suffer from feelings of hopelessness and sadness and are often related with crying. Also, a person might not enjoy the activities which he earlier enjoyed.
2) Adjustment disorder with anxiety: Symptoms of this are anxiety along with being anxious, overwhelmed, and worried. People with this show less concentration and poor memory. When diagnosed in children it is usually due to the separation anxiety from loved ones and parents.
3) Adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood: In this both anxiety and depression is experienced.
4) Adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct: The symptoms of this disorder are more of the involvement of the behavioral issues like starting a quarrel, reckless driving, destructing property and stealing. Teens suffering from this might become absent from school.
5) Adjustment disorder with mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct: The symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavioral issues are observed.
6) Adjustment disorder unspecified: The people who are diagnosed with this type of disorder usually display symptoms those are not associated with other disorders. They exhibit more of physical symptoms and problems with family and friends or at school and workplace.
Treatment of Adjustment Disorder:
If diagnosed with an adjustment disorder, a person can definitely benefit from treatment. This is usually treated with therapy or medicines or a combination of both.
- Therapy is the first choice. A clinical psychologist with professional training in providing psychotherapy/counseling to adjustment disorders and other psychiatric conditions can be helpful.
- Medication like nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic, SSRI or SNRI and benzodiazepines might be prescribed for reducing the symptoms of anxiety.
Chlamydia is a STD, caused due to intercourse, or even sexual contact. This is often accompanied by vaginal discharge or genital pain. Chlamydia can affect both the sexes to any age group, though young sexually active women are mostly diagnosed with it. If left untreated, this STD can cause further complications, some of them, fatal.
Symptoms of Chlamydia in women
1. Abnormal odorous vaginal discharge
2. Bleeding resulting from intercourse or even between periods
3. Pain during menstruation or sexual intercourse
4. Soreness in the lower abdomen
5. A burning sensation or itching around the vagina
6. Painful urination
7. Green or yellow vaginal discharge
Infection can extend to the fallopian tubes, leading to a disease called Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). PID can bear symptoms such as nausea, severe pain in the pelvic region, fever and unusual bleeding during one’s periods. There are also high chances of contracting the chlamydia infection in the anus, the indications being pain, bleeding and discharge from the anus. Oral sex with a person diagnosed with this condition can also result in you contracting this infection in the throat, resulting in soreness, fever and cough.
Causes of Chlamydia in women
1. Chlamydia, being a sexually transmitted infection, primarily spreads through unprotected sex. However, sexual intercourse need not always be the reason behind this disorder. Sexual contact or even indulging in oral sex without using protection (in the form of dental dams) can result in this disease.
2. Newborn infants are also prone to acquiring this infection that is passed on to them by their mothers during birth. Therefore, pre-natal checkups are a must for detection.
3. Rarely, one can contract the infection in the eyes as well, through any form of oral or genital contact.
Your heart is the most important and vital organ of all and regulates the flow of heart to all parts of the body. Thus, the valves and the arteries which take the blood to your heart are also an important component in ensuring that the circulation is constant. Thus, any hindrance to this process will put a lot of pressure on your heart and lead to more serious problems in the long run. Coronary artery disease is one such problem and can seriously put the health of your heart at risk.
What is coronary heart disease?
Coronary arteries are very important blood vessels, which carry nutrients, blood and oxygen to your heart. If the level of bad cholesterol is high in your blood, it will start leaving deposits on the walls of the arteries which are commonly known as plaque. This plaque will start building up over time causing blockage of the arteries and disrupting proper blood flow. Excessive build up of the plaque may then rupture the lining of the plaque. This will then induce blood clotting and further prevent the normal flow of blood.
Primary symptoms may include
- Shortness of breath: This may occur while you are exercising or performing activities which are mildly exerting.
- Heart beats very hard and fast: Your heart may beat very hard and fast, especially when doing everyday activities such as climbing stairs or walking for a prolonged distance.
- Angina or chest pain: You may experience pain in your chest as if someone was pressing against it with a lot of force. Angina is also triggered due to stressful activities or even emotional stress. It usually occurs on the left or the middle of the chest and may even be felt in the back, arms, and neck.
- Heart attack: Heart attacks are the most common and the most serious complications of coronary heart disease. You would feel extreme pain, akin to crushing on your chest, shoulder, or arm. It may even be accompanied by jaw pain, and sweatiness.
Non invasive forms of treatment are always preferable rather than invasive surgeries or procedures to treat coronary heart disease, especially where the risk of serious complications such as heart attack are still on the lower side. Some of the treatments used for coronary heart disease are as follows:
- Making lifestyle changes: Quit smoking, reduce alcohol consumption along with consumption of regulated diet will automatically start cleaning plaque that has built up within the arteries. Losing weight also tends to help.
- Medications: Special medications can take care of cases wherein the deposits are still lesser and the plaque buildup can be removed without the requirement of extensive surgery. Anti-cholesterol medications are one example of this.
- Surgical procedures: These are usually employed when the blockage is severe and cannot be corrected by the conventional methods mentioned above. Some of the procedures are angioplasty, stent replacement, as well as coronary artery bypass surgery.
Neck pain is fairly common among adults. It results from the soft tissues such as ligaments, muscles and tendons. It can result from spasms and muscle strain from neck problems such as disc degeneration and spinal stenosis. Be it a chronic pain or a sudden one, addressing it is important to get on with the daily office life.
- Computer should be at eye level: While sitting at it you must ensure that the middle of the computer screen is parallel to the eye. If it is required that you bend your neck to view the screen, then you should adjust the screen, without bending your neck. This happens most often while working with a laptop. The chair length can be adjusted to fix this problem.
- Refrain from neck straining while typing: If typing requires straining the neck, it should be ensured that the same doesn’t happen. This is the case while texting in a mobile. A better solution is to fix this is to take the mobile at a level which does not require the neck bend down. It will ensure that the joints and discs of the neck are not stressed.
- Use headset: If the work demands longer time on the phone, instead of bending the neck it makes sense to use a headset. Practicing the chin tuck exercise can help in this case. This exercise can strengthen the soft muscles of the neck. It also maintains the alignment of the head and the shoulder.
- Stay hydrated: Enough hydration is necessary to ensure spinal alignment and disc height. Hydration also takes a eases the spine and relaxes the soft muscles. A practice of adequate hydration throughout the day can help stop the degeneration of the cervical disc. While drinking water is a matter of practice, keeping a water bottle serves as a constant reminder to drink it throughout the day. Keeping an alarm after 2 hours also serves as a constant reminder to drink water.
- Carrying weight: One common mistake committed by most people is to carry weight with one hand. Since the load doesn’t distribute evenly, it strains the neck muscles causing pain. It should be ensured that the office briefcase or the heavy purse is carried with equal stress on both the shoulders. This will ensure a painless day at the office.
- Maintaining a good posture: Poor sitting or walking posture is often the cause of neck pain. While sitting it should be ensured that the back is straight and rests in the chair once in awhile. The neck and head should fall in a line while working.
Babies go through a host of problems that we usually refer to as growing pains. This article is of special importance to most mothers who are going through myriad problems like colic, teeth and even diaper rash. Diaper rash is known as diaper dermatitis in medical terms. When the skin of the area within the diaper becomes red and goes through inflammation, it is known as diaper dermatitis. Read on to know more about the condition, and how it may be treated.
Symptoms: The most obvious and common symptom of diaper dermatitis is the signs on the skin which will bear a patchwork of red blotches that may look tender to touch. The baby will also seem more irritable and cranky as the discomfort and pain starts to grow every time the diaper rubs against the rashes. Bleeding, itching and oozing can also occur, in which cause it is imperative to see a doctor immediately. Also, if the rashes are accompanied by fever, one must get it checked as there may be chances of an infection. Diaper rashes can also cause pain during bowel movements and a burning sensation during urination.
Causes: There are a number of reasons for the occurrence of diaper rashes. Trying out a new product may sometimes give the baby a rash as the sensitive skin of the child may not take to some ingredient. Therefore, it may develop as an allergic reaction. This new product may be a cream, lotion or a new brand or type of diapers. Further, sometimes when we introduce new foods, the baby’s skin may erupt into rashes as a part of an allergic reaction. Also, chaffing or rubbing may cause such rashes, while prolonged use of the diaper without a change is known to be one of the most common causes of this condition. Bacterial or yeast infection can also cause diaper dermatitis. Also, antibiotics can cause rashes as a side effect.
Diagnosis: The diagnosis of the condition is usually done by a dermatologist or a paediatrician based on the symptoms that you list out as well as physical examination of the area. The doctor may also check the baby’s temperature in order to ascertain if there is any fever or any chance of an infection.
Treatment: One should keep the baby’s skin dry and absolutely clean at all times. Also, it would be recommended to use cloth diapers for a few hours a day so that the skin may get a chance to breathe. Further, the doctor will prescribe mild hydrocortisone ointments. Antifungal creams may also be used in case there is an infection. Oral antibiotics may also be prescribed in such cases.
The shoulder is one of the most important joints in the body that uses a ball and socket to join the arm to the rest of the body. Any pain can make it difficult to carry out motion in a comfortable manner. The shoulder consists of the long arm bone called the humerus, the collar bone or the clavicle, as well as the shoulder blade called the scapula.
A layer of cartilage provides essential padding to the bones in this area and its two main joints. There are a number of issues that can cause shoulder pain. Let us get to know the six most common ones.
* Rotator Cuff Injury: This is the most common cause of shoulder pain and it occurs when the four muscles or the tendons are injured. These muscles and tendons usually control the movement of the arm. This injury can involve strains and tears which may also be caused by constant lifting of heavy objects.
* Rotator Cuff Tendinitis: This condition affects the tendons and muscles that help in moving the arm freely. This usually happens due to inflammation in the tendons. It is commonly experienced by patients who are actively involved in sports and other heavy physical pursuits in their line of work.
* Frozen Shoulder: This is a debilitating condition that restricts the free movement of the arm and is also known as adhesive capsulitis. When the shoulder tissues become too thick, it leads to the growth of scar tissue that hinders proper movement and causes pain.
* Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a condition that comes as part of aging bones that also become hollow and brittle over the passage of time, which leads to joint and bone pains in various parts of the body. It is a degenerative disease that is caused due to prolonged wear and tear as well as other factors including family history and sports injury.
* Bursitis: This condition is known to affect the fluid filled sacs that lie in between the joints. These are known as bursae. When the bursae suffers from swelling, the effect usually shows up as pain in the joints.
* Tendon Sheath Inflammation: The fibrous tissue that connects the bones and the muscles is called a tendon. The presence of the tendon makes it possible to pursue activities like running, jumping, lifting, gripping and more. It is protected by a sheath known as synovium, which also lubricates the same. Any injury or tear to this sheath can cause shoulder pain.
Acute and persistent pain that does not abate and gets even worse should be treated with immediate medical intervention.