Doctors in Apollo Hospital
Treatment Of Acne/Pimples
Weight Loss Treatment
Treatment of Headaches
Treatment of Fever
Treatment of Hair Fall
Treatment of Red Eyes
Back Pain Treatment
Treatment of Masturbation Addiction
Treatment of Hair Loss
Treatment & Management of Cold
Treatment of Stomach Pain
Treatment of Body Weakness
Treatment of Joint Pain
Treatment of Female Hair Loss
Treatment of Dandruff
Treatment of Leg Pain
Prevention & Treatment of Diabetes
Treatment of Itching
Treatment of Greying Hair
Treatment of Sleeping Problems
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Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is characterized by periodic bouts of nausea and vomiting that happens at cyclical intervals. It affects all ages, but is more common in children. The condition is quite stereotypical in that there are paroxysms or bouts of vomiting that is recurrent and follows days of normal health.
Causes: There is no definite reason identified, but it is said to have a strong hereditary correlation. Studies have shown mitochondrial heteroplasmic (abnormal growth of mitochondria, which is a cellular component) to be one of the factors that can lead to CVS. The genetic correlation, however, is very difficult to establish, specifically because vomiting and nausea are common symptoms that occur with most conditions in children. And CVS is most commonly noted with conditions like infections and emotional excitement. Infection could be either tooth decay or sinusitis or anything else. Lack of sleep, anxiety, holidays, allergies, overeating, certain foods, menstruation - a host of factors have been shown to induce CVS. There is also a strong association with migraine and conditions that lead to excessive production of stress hormones.
Symptoms: The syndrome (a group of symptoms) usually has 4 phases:
- Symptom-free interval phase: The child is completely normal in this phase, which happens in between bouts.
- Prodromal phase: Prodrome is an indication that a disease or a condition is about to happen. In CVS, this is usually nausea and abdominal pain that can last from a few minutes to a few hours. Treatment in this phase can curb the disease. However, there could be some children in whom this may not manifest and the child may directly start with vomiting.
- Vomiting phase: Repeated bouts of paroxysmal vomiting happen associated with nausea, exertion, fatigue, and drowsiness.
- Recovery phase: As the nausea and vomiting begin to subside, which may take a couple of days, the child returns back to normal slowly. However, the lethargy and energy levels will take a couple of days to return to normal.
Treatment: Treatment again depends on the severity and the phase at which it is being recognized. If a child has repetitive bouts, then the parent and the doctor would have identified a pattern to it.
- If the causative agent has been identified, for instance, infection or migraine, then managing that takes care of the CVS also.
- If identified during the prodromal phase, again it can be managed with suitable anti-emetic medications.
- If identified after full onset, rest and sleep and medications to control nausea and vomiting are required. Adequate hydration with electrolyte replenishment and sedatives can provide additional support.
However, in most cases of childhood CSV, the pattern will be identified and that helps in better management, both the child/parent and the podiatrist.
Thyroid is a small butterfly shaped gland, which is present at the lower frontal region of the neck, right beneath the voice box. It produces hormones which regulate metabolism (the breakdown of food by the body to convert it into energy). It even plays a pivotal role in boosting organ functions as well as in helping the body to sustain heat. However, too much of hormone production by the thyroid gland might yield structural problems, for instance, growth of nodules (abnormal tissue growth) or cysts (non-cancerous sac-like structures containing fluid) and swelling. Hence, a thyroid surgery is a must once these problems occur. The surgery, administered with general anesthesia, eliminates the thyroid gland either wholly or partially.
Why do you need surgery?
- The presence of tumors or nodules on one’s thyroid gland is one of the reasons why one should go for the surgery. Although most of the nodules are benign, few can be pre-cancerous or cancerous too. Also, those benign nodules can spell trouble, if they expand in size, thus obstructing the throat. They can be problematic as well if they cause the thyroid gland to overproduce hormones, giving rise to a condition known as hyperthyroidism.
- Hyperthyroidism can be corrected through surgery. It is often an outcome of Grave’s disease, an autoimmune disorder wherein the body misidentifies the thyroid gland as a foreign body, thereby creating antibodies to combat it. The thyroid gland gets inflamed in the process, resulting in the overproduction of hormones.
- Another reason is the enlargement or swelling up of the thyroid gland, termed as goiter. Similar to large nodules, goiter too can clog the throat, thus interfering with one’s breathing, speaking and eating.
Types of Surgery
- Lobectomy: This procedure calls for partial removal of the lobes when a nodule or an inflammation affects just half of the thyroid gland.
- Subtotal Thyroidectomy: Here, a small proportion of the thyroid tissue is left behind even after the elimination of the thyroid gland.
- Total Thyroidectomy: Through this procedure, the entire thyroid gland is taken out along with the thyroid tissue.
The tube transporting urine from the bladder out of the body is known as the urethra. Under normal circumstances, this tube is wide enough for urine to flow freely but in some cases, one or more section can get narrowed and restrict the flow of urine. This may be diagnosed as a urethral stricture. This length of this stricture can range from 1 cm to affecting the entire length of the urethra.
This is caused by scar tissue or inflammation of tissue in the urethra. While this is a common condition that affects men, it is rarely seen to affect women. An enlarged prostate, exposure to STDs like gonorrhoea or chlamydia, suffering from an infection that causes urethral inflammation and irritation or having had a catheter recently inserted can increase the risk of suffering from a urethral stricture. An injury or tumour located near the urethra can also cause this condition. Hence, preventing this condition is not always a possibility.
Common symptoms to look out for include:
- Inability to urinate
- Reduction in the flow of urine
- Increased urge to urinate frequently
- Pain while urinating
- Urinary incontinence
- Abdominal pain
- Swelling of the penis
- Discharge from the urethra
- Blood in the urine or semen
- Dark urine
- The bladder feeling gull even after urinating
A physical examination and tests that measure the rate of urine flow and chemical composition of the urine can help a doctor determine a diagnosis of urethral strictures. You may also need to undergo STD tests and a cystoscopy. An X-ray may also help locate the stricture. The treatment for this condition depends on the severity of the symptoms.
Non-surgical treatment for this condition involves using a dilator to widen the urethra. However, there is no guarantee the blockage will not recur at a later date. Alternatively, a permanent catheter may also be inserted.
There are two forms of surgical treatment for a urethral stricture.
- Open urethroplasty: This involves removing the infected or scar tissue and restructuring the urethra. The results of this procedure depend on the size of the blockage. It is usually advised only in cases of long, severe strictures.
- Urine flow diversion: In the case of a severe blockage and damage to the bladder, the doctor may advise rerouting the flow of urine to an abdominal opening. This process involves connecting the ureters to an incision in the abdomen with the help of part of the intestines.
- Endoscopic cutting of stricture ( D.V.I.U.): A thin tube with a camera (endoscope) is inserted into the urethra to visualize the stricture. DVIU may be repeated if the stricture recurs, however, after the third treatment or recurrence of the stricture less than three months after the procedure, repeat DVIU offers no long-term success.
Acne is a very common problem that affects people, mostly teenagers worldwide. The problem of acne can be extremely annoying, making most of the people to opt for self medication. However, it is advisable to consult a dermatologist to avoid unwanted complications. The following common but serious mistakes should be avoided while self-treating acne:
- Fight acne the dermatologist way: During adolescence, hormonal imbalance is one of the major factors resulting in acne. However, factors like prolonged illness, pollution, dermatological problems cannot be sidelined either. It should be noted that acne is an inflammation which needs proper investigation. A dermatologist should be consulted at the very onset. Use of any medicated lotions or creams without proper recommendation can aggravate the problem.
- The lesser the better: Using too many products at a time will do you more harm than good. Use one product at a time. If you think a product can magically treat your acne in a day, then you are in for some disappointment. Optimism is good, but being realistic is better. Not all products show positive results in a day. One needs to have patience. Use the product diligently for a week before trying out a new product.
- Complete what you started: It is a crime to stop any medications mid way. Complete the full course of the medication, even if your acne is fully treated.
- Popping away to ugly spots and scars: Popping or picking only worsens the inflammation and acne. It will leave your face with some really ugly spots. When the acne head turns white, do not try to squeeze it out. Show some resilience. It is a very common mistake that should be strictly avoided.
- Exfoliants should be chosen carefully. Understand your skin type well. Micro-beads-enriched exfoliants are the best to use. Avoid scrubbing or over washing the face. Always use a sunscreen before stepping out in the sun. If you are into make-ups, remove them before retiring to bed. Use make-ups that suit your skin type. Minimal application of make-up is advisable in case of acne.
- Many well-wishers might suggest innumerable acne treatments. Listen to all, but choose what you feel and know is the best.
A flawless and acne-free face is very much achievable.