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Doctor my 13 year old daughter has developed slip disc in her L4 and L5 vertebrae. What should be her treatment?
Even though we have 206 bones in our bodies, breaking just one is enough to bring our daily lives to a standstill. A partial or complete break in a bone is termed as a fracture. While minor fractures can heal in as little as 6 weeks major fractures can take 3-4 months to heal properly. In cases of complex fractures, you may need physical therapy even after this time period to get back complete mobility. Hence patience is essential when a fracture is healing, but here are a few tips on how to speed up the process.
- Increase your protein intake: Proteins are essential for the healing and repairing of damage to bones and tissues. Proteins also give the bone structure its strength, Hence, depriving the body of adequate protein will result in the formation of soft bones rather than hard, strong bones. This prevents a bone from fracturing in the same place again.
- Have a diet rich in antioxidants: Inflammation is one of the first symptoms of a fracture. This inflammation can continue for many days after the incident and until the inflammation reduces, healing cannot take place properly. Antioxidants help rid toxins from the body and help reduce inflammation thereby initiating the healing process. Antioxidants can also help relieve pain.
- Exercise: While you must take care not to apply too much pressure on the affected area it is essential to move the limb as much as possible. Being active promotes blood flow and in this way speeds up the healing process.
- Avoid alcohol and caffeine: In most cases, a doctor will prescribe pain relievers to deal with the pain of a fracture. Under no circumstances should you consume alcohol when taking these medications. Even after the antibiotic course is over it is a good idea to abstain from alcohol as this can increase inflammation. Similarly, caffeine and all caffeinated products should also be avoided as they contain compounds that can prevent calcium from being absorbed.
- Have an alkaline diet: Having an alkaline diet with lots of fruits and vegetables helps stabilise the pH levels of the body and conserves minerals and proteins needed to build strong bones. In this way, it creates the optimal environment for healing. An alkaline diet also increases the production of growth hormones and other growth factors like IGF insulin in the body. These are crucial to speeding up the healing process and aid in new bone formation.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I am 42 year old female .After slip disc L1toL4 problem, pain in left heel and becomes severe at times. Is it spur in the foot ,slip disc or something else.
Noncancerous growths of the muscle tissue surrounding the uterus are known as uterine fibroids. This is a common disease which about 70 to 80% of women contract by the time they are 50 years of age. The uterine fibroids can sometimes be very big and cause heavy periods as well as severe abdominal pain while at other times, uterine fibroids give no signs or symptoms whatsoever and go away on their own. This is why it is crucial to know what type of uterine fibroids you have and how to diagnose them. Here are the types of uterine fibroids and how to diagnose them;
There are three main types of uterine fibroids. They are;
1. Intramural fibroids
The most common type of uterine fibroids are intramural fibroids. They typically appear in the endometrium and may grow larger which results in your womb getting stretched.
2. Subserosal fibroids
Subserosal fibroids are called so because they form on the serosa. The serosa is the outside of your uterus. Sometimes, Subserosal fibroids may grow so large that your uterus appears bigger on one side.
3. Pedunculated fibroids
Pedunculated fibroids tumors are basically Subserosal fibroids with a stem. A base which supports the tumor is called the stem.
There are a number of tests done to diagnose uterine fibroids. They are;
1. Pelvic exam
A pelvic exam is a thorough inspection of a woman pelvic area. The organs which are in the pelvic area include the cervix, ovaries, uterus and vagina. Normally, this and the next test in this article are enough to diagnose uterine fibroids.
2. Medical history
The history of your periods as well as the other symptoms you have will often be enough to diagnose the uterine fibroids. If your medical history is not enough, then you might need to undergo a pelvic exam.
3. Pelvic ultrasound
An ultrasound is when high-intensity sound waves are used to produce images of the pelvic area. This is only done when a pelvic exam and your medical history are not enough to diagnose uterine fibroids. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Breast cancer is a very common form of cancer that develops in the cells of your breast. The cancer typically forms in either the ducts of your breast (the pathway through which milk reaches the nipples from the glands) or the lobules (the glands which produce milk).
Breast cancer can affect both males and females. However, it is more commonly observed in women aged between 45-55 years.
Look out for these symptoms!
Signs and symptoms of breast cancer include the following-
- Discharge of blood from the nipples
- A lump near the breast or the armpit
- Scaling or peeling of skin around the breasts
- Sore nipple
- Breast pain
- Swelling of lymph nodes in the armpit or on the neck
- Change in the shape and size of the nipple or the breast
- An inverted nipple
What are the risk factors?
- Age- Breast cancer usually strikes at an older age. Women aged over 55 years are most often diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.
- Family history- If you have someone in your family who’ve had a history of breast cancer, then you too may develop this disease later in life.
- Inherited genes- Mutation of certain genes- BRCA1 and BRCA2- can put you at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Obesity- People with Body Mass Index (BMI) higher than or equal to 30 are at risk of developing breast cancer.
- Alcohol consumption- Aggressive or frequent alcohol consumption can make you prone to breast cancer.
- Early menstruation- Those who’ve had their first menstrual cycle before the age of 12, are more likely to get affected by breast cancer in the later stage.
- Postmenopausal therapy- Women undergoing hormonal therapy or medications combining progesterone and estrogen to treat menopause have greater risk of having breast cancer.
What is the treatment for breast cancer?
After a thorough evaluation of your overall health condition, your doctor will determine the options to treat your breast cancer depending on the type, size and stage of the cancer. The usual methods of curing breast cancer are-
- Lumpectomy- This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure whereby smaller tumors are removed from the lumps of your breast. Your doctor will only remove a portion of the cancerous lump, leaving the remaining portion of the breast intact. This allows for better symmetry of your breast. However, you may need to undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy following a lumpectomy to make sure that all the cancer cells are destroyed.
- Mastectomy- This surgical procedure is performed to remove all of the breast tissues including the ducts, lobules, nipples and areola.
- Sentinel Node Biopsy- In order to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized to other body parts including the lymph nodes, your doctor will first discuss with you the importance of removing the lymph nodes which are likely to be in the receipt of the lymph drainage from the tumor.
- Breast removal- In certain cases where people have a greater risk of developing breast cancer due to family history or a genetic susceptibility, removal of both the breasts are prescribed by doctors.
The rate of survival for breast cancer has increased in recent times owing to modern treatment techniques. Nearly 90% of breast cancer patients survive for at least 5 years after the treatment is done.
I am 52 yrs. Old. I want to knw dt I hv to pap test nd mammography. As I hv not done dt tests yet. I font hv any problem I hv only thyroid nd spondylities problem. Nf I am minor thalassemia present.
Uterine fibroids are benign growths, which originate in the walls of the uterus. They are also known as 'myomas' or 'fibromyomas' and their sizes tend to vary. You may not realize that you have a fibroid as they do not cause many problems.
The causes of uterine fibroids are:
- Hormones: Hormones that stimulate the uterine lining to prepare it for the menstrual cycle are known to aid in the development of uterine fibroids.
- Genetic changes: Genetic changes in the cells of the uterus may lead to this disorder.
Ayurveda is a natural method of treatment that focuses on using various herbal remedies to cure a disorder. The ayurvedic remedies for uterine fibroids aim to boost the immune system and balance the hormones in the body. This allows the ovaries to function properly and thus allows the uterus to remain healthy.
The various ayurvedic remedies for uterine fibroids are:
- Curcumin: This remedy helps the body get rid of the free radicals due to its high antioxidant content. It helps in reducing the inflammation in the uterus and thus treat uterine fibroids.
- Ashwagandha: Ashwagandha has medicinal properties that boost your overall wellbeing in addition to boosting your immune system. It is also known to improve the functioning of the brain and treat impotency.
- Diet: The diet should consist mostly of fiber and whole grains. Alcohol and saturated fats should be limited. You should eat foods, which are pungent, bitter and astringent so that the metabolism is smooth; this prevents formation of uterine fibroids.
- Lifestyle changes: You should restrict smoking and alcohol consumption as they tend to aggravate free radical damage in the body. You should also follow a regimen that incorporates regular exercise and a balanced diet. This will enhance your wellbeing and allow you to remain healthy.
- Panchakarma: Panchakarma is an Ayurvedic remedy that helps in correcting hormonal imbalances in the body. Correction of hormonal imbalances helps in preventing uterine fibroids.
Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the breast. Mainly it occurs in females but less than 1% of all the breast cancer cases develop in males. The majority of breast cancers start in the milk ducts. A small number start in the milk sacs or lobules. It can spread to the lymph nodes and to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs and to the brain.
With more reliable early detection methods as well as the trend towards less invasive surgery, there is hope that even more women with breast cancer will be treated successfully and will go on to resume their normal lives.
Signs & Symptoms
It is painless, especially, during the early stage. Watch out for the following changes in the breast:
- A persistent lump or thickening in the breast or in the axilla.
- A change in the size or shape of the breast.
- A change in the colour or appearance of the skin of the breast such as redness, puckering or dimpling.
- Bloody discharge from the nipple.
- A change in the nipple or areola such as scaliness, persistent rash or nipple retraction (nipple pulled into the breast).
Consult a doctor immediately if you notice any of these changes.
Being a woman puts you at risk of getting breast cancer. There are certain factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Some of them have been listed below:
- The risk increases with age; most cases of breast cancer develop after the age of 50
- Genetic alterations in certain genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2
- Family history of breast cancer
- Being overweight
- Early menarche (onset of menstruation before the age of 12)
- Late menopause (after the age of 55)
- Never had children
- Late childbearing
- No breast feeding
- Excessive consumption of alcohol
- Use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) for a long period of time
However, most women who have breast cancer have none of the above risk factors. Likewise, not having any of these risk factors does not mean that you will not get breast cancer.
Early Detection and Screening
More treatment options are available when breast cancer is diagnosed at an early stage and hence the chances of recovery is also higher. So regular breast screening is important for early detection even if there are no symptoms. Following are the ways of screening:
- Breast Self-Examination (BSE): Perform BSE once a month about a week after your menses are over. If you no longer menstruate, choose a date each month which is easy to remember e.g. your date of birth or anniversary.
- Clinical Breast Examination: Get a breast specialist to examine your breast once a year if you are 40 years and above.
- Mammogram: Go for a screening mammogram once a year if you are 40 to 49 years old and once every two years if you are 50 years and above even if you do not have any symptom. It is not recommended for younger women (less than 40 years of age) as they have dense breasts, making it difficult for small changes to be detected on a mammogram. So ultrasonography of the breasts is advisable to them.
Types of Breast cancer
- Non-Invasive Breast cancer: These are confined to the ducts within the breasts. They are known as Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS).
- Invasive Breast cancer: It occurs when cancer cells spread beyond the ducts or lobules. Cancer cells first spread to the surrounding breast tissue and subsequently to the lymph nodes in the armpit (Axillary lymph nodes). These cells can also travel to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs or brain and hence known as metastatic breast cancer.
Making A Diagnosis
If you notice any unusual changes in your breasts, you should see a doctor immediately. He will examine you clinically and may ask you to undergo some tests so that a definitive diagnosis can be made. Further, the staging work up is done to find out the stage of the disease and management accordingly.
Treatment of breast cancer may include various methods such as surgery with or without breast reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy. Treatment options offered, depend upon the number of factors such as the stage of cancer and likelihood of cure, your general health and your preference.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!