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I am 66 CBAG plus colon cancer surgery patient. On doing routine following results obtained: ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE PHOTOMETRY 124 U/l 53 - 128 BILIRUBIN -DIRECT PHOTOMETRY 0.1 mg/dl < 0.3 BILIRUBIN - TOTAL PHOTOMETRY 0.32 mg/dl 0.3-1.2 BILIRUBIN (INDIRECT) CALCULATED 0.22 mg/dl 0-0.9 GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) PHOTOMETRY 29 U/l < 55 ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (SGOT) PHOTOMETRY 27 U/l < 37 ALANINE TRANSAMINASE (SGPT) PHOTOMETRY 31 U/l 13-40 PROTEIN - TOTAL PHOTOMETRY 8.2 gm/dl 5.7-8.2 ALBUMIN - SERUM PHOTOMETRY 4.6 gm/dl 3.2-4.8 SERUM GLOBULIN PHOTOMETRY 3.6 gm/dL 2.5-3.4 SERUM ALB/GLOBULIN RATIO CALCULATED 1.28 Ratio 0.9 - 2 I wish to know that serum globulin is little out of range ie 3.6 against range of 2.5-3.4. What should I do for treatment.
Iam suffering from prostatomegaly grade ll with an app. Volume of 44cc. Whether I should go for operation or take medicine and which medicine I should take & how long? please advice.
Elbow pain may be caused due to a variety of reasons from injuries to fractures and ligament pulls or tears. This is most commonly experienced by people who are into sports, including those who play tennis, golf and other such sports that require intense arm movements.
So, let us look at the six most common reasons behind elbow pain:
- Medial Epicondylitis: This condition creates pain in the inner tendon within the elbow and is usually termed as 'golfer's elbow'. It basically occurs due to the constant swinging and throwing motion that a sports person may indulge in. When these movements are repeated on a constant basis, there is wear and tear as well as acute pain in the area. Also, an injury to the wrist can cause this pain in the elbow.
- Lateral Epicondylitis: This condition is commonly known as 'tennis elbow'. The affected area under this condition includes the outside tendons of the elbow. This is caused due to swinging, hitting, hammering and punching motions that are repeated too often. It is commonly experienced by cooks, artists, carpenters, automobile workers, and plumbers and people who use heavy tools.
- Olecranon Bursitis: This condition is also known as 'student's elbow' and usually occurs due to constant writing and gripping motion which affects the bursae. These are small fluid filled sacs that lubricate the joints even as the protection happens. The symptoms include swelling and pain. There is also risk of infection and redness in this condition.
- Osteoarthritis: The cartilage of the joints gets affected in this condition which is the connective tissue that exists in the joints. This condition causes wear and tear of the joints and bones which leads to pain in the various areas including the elbow. Medication and physiotherapy are good measures for treatment.
- Fracture: Sometimes, dislocation or fracture may lead to pain in the outstretched arm or elbow. Dislocation may take place when a bone moves from its aligned spot. The symptoms will include obvious swelling and acute pain in the elbow.
- Ligament Damage: Strains and sprains in the ligaments within the elbow joint can lead to this damaging condition. Torn or stretched ligaments are the most common outcomes in this kind of injury and damage.
To find out which reason may be the culprit behind your elbow pain, you will need to see a general physician or an orthopaedic specialist who will run you through a series of tests and examinations including X rays, MRI scans and others in order to ascertain the cause and treatment. A sports injury specialist can also help in diagnosis and treatment. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Post uterus removal uneasiness feverish, feeling swelling of breasts from inside. Occasionally body pain and back ache. Please advise
Ovarian cancer is a broad term used to describe cluster of different types of cancers occurring in a single organ i.e. ovary. It can occur at any age- from infancy till old age , even though ovarian carcinoma in younger/childhood comprises only 20% of all ovarian cancers. Majority of ovarian cancers are epithelial - arising from the covering from ovary or from the fallopian tube or the lining of the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity.
The Silent Killer:
Ovarian cancer is called a silent killer as majority of patients report any symptoms when the disease is in the advance stage. Hardly 2-3% of all ovarian cancers cause bleeding or hirsutism, thereby seeking prompt treatment. Majority of ovarian cancer occurs in peri/postmenopausal women which reflect change in interior milieu in terms of hormones.
Since the symptoms are non-specific, women tend to ignore them due to growing age/menopause. Also, mostly women normally don't consult physicians for such non-gynecological complaints, thereby further delaying the diagnosis. It is recommended that women remain involved in their overall health and keep themselves updated to report any abnormality immediately to a specialist.
The main symptoms associated with Ovarian Cancer are:
Bloating sensation especially after heavy meals.
Increasing abdominal girth (especially if no change in diet or if regularly exercising).
Increasing heaviness (fullness) in lower abdomen.
Persistent Gastritis, if previously absent.
Inability to eat proper meal.
Increased frequency of urination.
Further, if there is family history of breast/uterine/ovarian cancer in first and second degree relatives, this increases the risk of developing ovarian and breast cancer. Such females should remain vigilant for above-mentioned symptoms and should report promptly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
Before 1 week my uncle was admitted in hospital because of brain tumour and it was cancerous he had the operation there and it was successful but the doctor was saying that he can't live anymore only 3-4 months he is having and he is going for chemotherapy, is there any way to save his life ,so that he can live more.
I am 38 years ,I have a lump in my left breast since last 12 years. Sometimes it's paining also. I have two daughters also and breastfeed them also, then also lump is as it is. So please advise treatment or any test.
1. Don't smoke. If you've never smoked, don't start. Talk to your children about not smoking so that they can understand how to avoid this major risk factor for lung cancer. Begin conversations about the dangers of smoking with your children early so that they know how to react to peer pressure.
2. Stop smoking. Stop smoking now. Quitting reduces your risk of lung cancer, even if you've smoked for years. Talk to your doctor about strategies and stop-smoking aids that can help you quit. Options include nicotine replacement products, medications and support groups.
3. Avoid secondhand smoke. If you live or work with a smoker, urge him or her to quit. At the very least, ask him or her to smoke outside. Avoid areas where people smoke, such as bars and restaurants, and seek out smoke-free options.
4. Avoid carcinogens at work. Take precautions to protect yourself from exposure to toxic chemicals at work. Follow your employer's precautions. For instance, if you're given a face mask for protection, always wear it. Ask your doctor what more you can do to protect yourself at work. Your risk of lung damage from workplace carcinogens increases if you smoke.
5. Eat a diet full of fruits and vegetables. Choose a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables. Food sources of vitamins and nutrients are best. Avoid taking large doses of vitamins in pill form, as they may be harmful. For instance, researchers hoping to reduce the risk of lung cancer in heavy smokers gave them beta carotene supplements. Results showed the supplements actually increased the risk of cancer in smokers.
6. Exercise most days of the week. If you don't exercise regularly, start out slowly. Try to exercise most days of the week.
More and more cancer types are being linked to air pollution. While the linkage is quite easily understandable between air pollution and lung cancer, the damage does not stop there. It is far more harmful, and whether or not it is part of the respiratory system, most cancers are linked to air pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified air pollution as carcinogenic to humans.
The amount of particulate matter in the air, especially in developing countries like China and India, are loaded with carcinogenic material. This is due to increased transport overload, power generation, industrial emissions, residential heating etc. The exact composition of the air can vary depending on the time of the year, the location, weather, etc. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) also is spending a lot of time and money to find out the connection between these two. Establishing the link can help in preventing cancer.
Read on to understand the correlation between factors affecting air pollution and cancer incidence.
- Air pollution is not uniform and varies across the globe, depending on how some of the above mentioned factors are affected.
- Developing countries have more pollution levels, especially from vehicular fuel exhaust, metals, dust, and chemical solvents. These contaminate the air, making it carcinogenic.
- There is also lead, which is another “probable human carcinogen,” causing cancer of the liver, brain, and kidney.
- The other chemicals in polluted air include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and ozone.
- Also there are various compounds like volatile organic compounds, outdoor air pollutants, and other particulate matter, which are present in greater numbers in polluted areas.
- Paint thinners, dry cleaning agents, and other metals also contribute to increased air pollution. This, when inhaled, induces chronic inflammation in the tissues, making them react to the inflammation.
- Both outdoor and indoor agents cause pollution, and increases risk of developing cancer.
- Second hand smoke is a lot more dangerous than imaginable in inducing cancer.
Mechanism: Cancer is a result of chronic inflammation, which induces uncontrolled proliferation of the cells. A combination of the above mentioned compounds along with a strong predisposition (family history, for instance) puts the person at a very high risk to develop cancer. The symptoms may takes years, sometimes decades, to develop, but the onset starts off with continued exposure to these agents. So, if you are predisposed to developing cancer, ensure your exposure to the above pollutants is reduced, even if it cannot be completely avoided. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Oncologist.