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Dr. Syam Rao

Pediatrician, Hyderabad

170 at clinic
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Dr. Syam Rao Pediatrician, Hyderabad
170 at clinic
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I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family....more
I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family.
More about Dr. Syam Rao
Dr. Syam Rao is a trusted Pediatrician in Musheerabad, Hyderabad. He is currently practising at Sagar Lal Hospital in Musheerabad, Hyderabad. Save your time and book an appointment online with Dr. Syam Rao on Lybrate.com.

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Sagar Lal Hospital

1-5-551, Musheerabad, Landmark: Near Raja Deluxe Cinema, HyderabadHyderabad Get Directions
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Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

What is ADHD?

ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).

The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.

What are the different types of ADHD?

Three major types of ADHD include the following:

  • ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.

  • ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.

  • ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.

What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.

Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.

Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.

What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:

  • Inattention:

    • Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)

    • Difficulty listening to others

    • Difficulty attending to details

    • Easily distracted

    • Forgetfulness

    • Poor organizational skills for age

    • Poor study skills for age

  • Impulsivity:

    • Often interrupts others

    • Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games

    • Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon

    • Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting

  • Hyperactivity:

    • Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion

    • Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected

    • Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively

    • Talks excessively

    • Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities

    • Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often

    • Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion

The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.

How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?

ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.

Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:

  • Your child's age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of your child's symptoms

  • Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Your opinion or preference

Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.

Treatment may include:

  • Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
    Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:

    • Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)

    • Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)

    • A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)

    • Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms. 

    • Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)

    Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • Insomnia

    • Decreased appetite

    • Stomach aches

    • Headaches

    • Jitteriness

    • Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)

    Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.

    Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.

  • Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:

    • Point systems

    • Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)

    Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.

    Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.

Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.

1 person found this helpful

Hello Doc. Is tht is gud to start giving cerelac or nanpro to my 5 months old baby? Whch one is gud?

MD - Paediatrics
Pediatrician,
Hello Doc. Is tht is gud to start giving cerelac or nanpro to my 5 months old baby? Whch one is gud?
You can start complementary feeding if your kid is 150 days old. You can start with cerelac rice, home available semi solid food, fruit juice, baked apple etc.
9 people found this helpful
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Cystic Fibrosis: All You Need to Know

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Cystic Fibrosis: All You Need to Know

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition, which primarily affects the lungs and persistence of this condition might lead to severe breathing problems and loss of lung function. If you have inherited two copies of the defective gene from your parents, you are likely to suffer from this disease. Cystic Fibrosis causes a buildup of thick mucus in your lungs and affects other organs such as the kidneys, pancreas and the intestines in your body.

It isn't very uncommon as one out of fifty people in Asia is a carrier of this disease. The disease gets its name from the cysts formed in the pancreas of the sufferer. However, this disease can be detected by testing the quantity of salt present in your sweat. Prenatal testing for Fibrosis is another method to test if your newborn is likely to contract a lung infection.

Complications faced due to cystic fibrosis include:

  1. Serious sinus infections
  2. Serious damage in lungs due to inflammation and incessant infection
  3. Malnutrition
  4. Complication in breaking down protein
  5. Respiratory tract contamination

If you observe one or more of the following symptoms, you might be suffering from Cystic Fibrosis:

  1. Salty-tasting skin
  2. Bowel obstruction caused due to meconium ileus (obstruction of the bowels)
  3. Mucus amiss in your alveoli
  4. Persistent coughing with phlegm discharge
  5. Shortness of breath while engaging in a physical task
  6. Stunted or measly growth despite healthy lifestyle habits
  7. Infertility in males

If you're suffering from cystic fibrosis, there isn't any particular treatment which is recommended due to the varying degrees of it found in people. However, consultation with a medical practitioner and an individualised treatment plan can help you minimise the risks and lead a better life.

Some therapies you can opt for are:

  • Airway clearance: This therapy helps sift the thick layer of mucus around your organs. Some people have also chosen to use the inflatable vest which vibrates around your chest, thereby, thinning and loosening the layer of mucus.
  • Inhaled medicines: Another breakthrough in the field of respiratory medicine, this method requires the patient to sniff a liquid consisting of mist, which is inhaled with the aid of a nebuliser. This method is known to be beneficial for opening airways.
  • Pancreatic enzyme supplements: Along with multivitamins, these specially designed supplements are known to cater to your pancreas with the much-needed nutrients and they need to be consumed with every meal. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pulmonologist.
5148 people found this helpful

My 9 month baby boy suffering from UTI since last 3 months detected with bacteria. Antibiotic inj. Killed those bacteria. Now, latest urine culture report says aerobic culture shows no growth and pus cell 1-2/hpf. What does it mean and when it will be cured?

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Tumkur
My 9 month baby boy suffering from UTI since last 3 months detected with bacteria. Antibiotic inj. Killed those bacte...
That means that urine is now free from infection. But if it was a proven infection needs evaluation as the baby's age is less than 1 year and a male.
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My son is 4 years old he has been having a cough and cold continuously since 8 months. Docs say he has childhood asthma and allergy. I give him his medicines but he is not getting better. Please suggest alternatives.

Diploma In Child Health (DCH)
Pediatrician, Faridabad
Hi, if your son is having asthama then instead of oral medicine he should be put on asthalin inhalers and if required steroid inhaler.
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My son is 4 months completed and 15 days running. His weight is 5 kgs and 516 grams. He has been taking less breast feeding for few days. Does he has normal weight? What should I do to increase his feeding? He has been habituated to suck fingers. Give me thorough information regarding this. Please suggest me to get rid off from this query.

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), F.I.A.M.S. (Pediatrics)
Pediatrician, Muzaffarnagar
My son is 4 months completed and 15 days running. His weight is 5 kgs and 516 grams. He has been taking less breast f...
His wt is less than expected wt 6.6 kg. Increase number of feed or put him on breast for longer time to his satisfaction that may be helpful in reducing his fingers sucking habit too.
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My daughter is 5 months old. She is fed with nan pro1. Is she low immune as she is not breastfed?

MBBS, Diploma in Child Health (DCH)
Pediatrician, Kanpur
My daughter is 5 months old. She is fed with nan pro1. Is she low immune as she is not breastfed?
Top fed child needs extra care and cleanliness for feeding a baby. Always give freshly prepared milk and follow the instructions printed on container.
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Hi mam My baby is 6 months now for her breast milk is not sufficient now a days can I take LACTARE Tablets.

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Tumkur
Hi mam
My baby is 6 months now for her breast milk is not sufficient now a days can I take LACTARE Tablets.
Naturally the production of breast milk comes down after 6 months. No medication is going to help. If you gradually introduce semisolids the amount secreted is enough to the baby.
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