Book Clinic Appointment
Treatment of Thyroid Disorders
Treatment of Hypertension
Management of Obesity and related Disorders
Diabetic Diet Counseling
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Treatment of Bone Disorder
Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
Treatment Of Foot Infection
Treatment Of Childhood Diabetes
Gestational Diabetes Management
Treatment of Hyperlipidaemia
Submit a review for Dr. Sunita SayammagaruYour feedback matters!
Patient Review Highlights
Due to my diabetes my daily activities were suffering. She is very courteous and behaves very aptly with elder patients. Over the period of time I noticed a number of changes in myself. I searched therSunita Sayammagaru online and saw herreviews. Even in case of long queues, the staff was managing people in a very positive manner. I was amazed that otherdoctors before him were not able to even diagnose my problem, but Sunita Sayammagaru did it immediately and started the diabetes treatment for it. Thanks to the expert care and guidance, I feel much better than before. With great ease Sunita Sayammagaru explained us the problem and how the treatment will be carried out.
So many doctors I consulted, but Dr Sunita Sayammagaru treatment was the best. I thought it was something very normal, but then I realised the body weakness is something else. My previous experiences were not so good, but Dr Sunita Sayammagaru has completely changed my opinion as she is very helpful and humble. I had lost hope, but the body weakness treatment given by her has helped me regain my confidence. Even in case of long queues, the staff was managing people in a very positive manner. the best thing about Sunita Sayammagaru is that she prescribes limited no. of medicines. Finally with her treatment, I am completely cured from the disease.
I was diagnosed with fatigue. Dr Suinta Sayammagaru's advice and counselling has helped me immensely. The overall atmosphere in the New Leaf Clinic is very soothing. I saw her clinic's advertisement in newspaper and that is how we referred her. I was quite depressed due to my condition, but Dr Sunita Sayammagaru guided me to change my attitude. I found the New Leaf Clinic itself quite pleasant. She is not just friendly, but also is very motivating. I consulted a number of specialists but the way she treated me was the best. She is quite knowledgeable.
I was panicked, because I never thought I will suffer from sugar like this. I am so thankful to Dr Sunita for giving me the best advice and I am now finally able to get back to my normal self. I have consulted so many doctors but nobody till now was able to understand my concern properly, until i consulted her. She ensures that she listens to her patients. I am glad that I chose to consult her and I am quite benefitted with her treatment.
Thanks to Dr Sunita for the perfect advice as I was not able to conceive. I was quite depressed due to this problm. The doctor gave me perfect guidance and prescription which helped me deal with my situation. The complete process of the treatment was so painless and quick, and i am so relieved that I chose to consult her.
The symptoms were severe and unmanageable, as I was suffering from high sugar, but Dr Sunita Sayammagaru was able to handle it. She is not just friendly, but also is very motivating. So many doctors I consulted, but her treatment was the best. She is well aware about innovative techniques to treat problems.
I consulted Dr Sunita as I was suffering from sudden weight gain and was feeling lethargic. She prescribed me some blood tests in order to know the problem. And I was shocked to know that I am suffering from underactive thyroid. I thank Dr Sunita for treating me so well. I am perfectly fine post treatment.
I saw Dr Sunita clinic's advertisement in newspaper and that is how we referred her. Her advice and counselling has helped me immensely. In the very first sitting, she clearly told us the problem and the what the lose weight treatment procedure will be in future.
Sajid Abdul Majid Khot
Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru provides answers that are very helpful, knowledgeable, thorough, caring and professional. Hello madam....thank u soooo much 4 ur valuable answer....i really appreciate ur sincere hardwork....warm regards n good day.....Sajid
My condition was bad due to thyroid. Also I was facing number of issues due to this. I consulted number of doctor but the way Dr Ravi treated me was teh best. He has specialised in this field. I owe him a big thanks for treating me so well.
I am so happy with the results of my thyroid treatment, that I will surely recommend Dr Sunita to anyone gladly. She has a broad knowledge in this field. I am glad that I chose to consult her as I am perfectly fine after the treatment.
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru to be very helpful, knowledgeable, well-reasoned, caring and inspiring. Thanks Dr sunita mam. It's really helpful for me. Thanks a lot man...
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru to be prompt, practical, thorough and very helpful. thanks for the advice
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru to be very helpful, professional and caring. Thank you dr.
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru to be very helpful and saved my life. Thanks for info
Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru provides answers that are nurturing and helped me improve my health. Thanks Good info
Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru provides answers that are knowledgeable and very helpful. Thanks for your feedback
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru to be very helpful. Thank you so much :)
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru to be very helpful. thanks
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru to be knowledgeable.
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru to be very helpful.
Dr. Sunita Sayammagaru provides answers that are knowledgeable. Good
Diabetes is a state where the body suffers from lack of energy due to poor metabolic state. This is construed as depression in many patients as they already feel lethargic and subdued. The fatigued state of body in diabetes can be alleviated by exercise which raises endorphins - substances which are released in the body especially by exercise - providing us the necessary elation so much necessary for our recovery
Managing diabetes may make a person feel alone and set apart from their friends and family due to the number of dietary restrictions they need to follow. Additionally, if the person has trouble controlling their blood sugar level, it may make him frustrated and anxious. Over time, these negative emotions can build up into depression.
Depression can make a person lose his sense of purpose and can make regular tasks feel like too much to handle. Thus, a depressed person may stop taking care of himself. The lack of energy can lead to a loss of appetite or unhealthy snacking. This can trigger fluctuations in blood sugar levels that worsen diabetes.
Thus, depression and diabetes have a cyclic relationship. The good news is that these two diseases can be treated together and managing one of these diseases can have a positive effect on the other as well.
Here are a few ways to treat diabetes and depression:
Regular exercise is very beneficial towards treating, both depression and diabetes. Exercise helps regulate blood sugar levels and hence can help control diabetes. It also helps in reducing excess weight, which can enhance your self image and make you feel happier. Simultaneously, it also releases endorphins or the 'feel good' brain chemical. This can help alleviate depression symptoms.
A Balanced Diet
A balanced diet is essential for good health and can help manage, both these disorders. Along with a balanced diet, there is also a need to abstain from snacking between meals. Reducing the amount of sugar in your meals helps stabilize blood sugar level and control fluctuations. Stable blood sugar level keep a person from becoming increasingly anxious and can thus prevent depression.
A good night's sleep can treat, both diabetes and depression. If you have proper sleep, you will awake feeling refreshed and energetic. This positive energy balances the negativity of depression, lowers the urge to snack and helps in stabilizing blood sugar level.
Psychotherapy or in particular cognitive behavioral therapy has been proven beneficial towards treating depression. This in turn gives a person the motivation needed to manage his diabetes as well. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.
One of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to major heart problems. It is thus pertinent to take timely actions to control the insulin-related issues and save ourselves from CVD.
It is important to understand how diabetic patients are more prone to CVD than others to take pre-emptive actions to control it.
- Atrial Fibrillation: Atrial Fibrillation means an irregular and rapid heart rate which can increase the risk of stroke, heart failure and other cardiac issues. Individuals with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation. This risk is higher among patients with a longer duration of treated diabetes and poorer glycemic control.
- Hyperglycemia: Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes, when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin.
- Hypertension: Hypertension in diabetes is considered a major contributor to the increase in mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic patients, especially those with Type 2, need to always have their blood pressure checked every visit to the doctor. Self-monitoring at home is also a must to maintain and control the rise of blood pressure. The American Diabetes Association recommends a target blood pressure of not more than 130/85 mm Hg to maintain a good level of blood pressure.
- Smoking: Smoking has been determined dangerous to our health. Studies show that smoking indeed increase risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
Glucose is the primary ingredient within the body, which is turned into an energy source. This is what we use when we move, walk or make the slightest movements. To metabolize glucose into energy, our body needs insulin, which is a hormone produced within the pancreas. However, if the body doesn't react to the insulin or the pancreas is unable to produce enough, glucose cannot be converted into energy and thus results in type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:
- Sudden or gradual weight loss despite increased hunger - Many people complain that they feel hungry and eat more, but despite this the tend to lose weight. This occurs as the body cannot metabolize glucose and uses energy reserves from fat or muscles leading to weight loss.
- Frequent infections and slow healing - If you are afflicted with type 2 diabetes, then it might affect your immune system and you may be prone to infections. Also, any cuts or bruises on your body will take much longer to heal than normal.
- Irritability and fatigue - Another common symptom of type 2 diabetes along with the other symptoms mentioned here is quick irritability and fatigue. This is because most of the body is deprived of sugar and thus lacks the energy needed to function normally.
- Constant thirst and increased urination - If you feel constantly thirsty despite drinking ample water and urinating frequently, this may be a tell tale sign of type 2 diabetes.
- Skin darkening in folds and creases of the body - Also known as acanthosis nigricans; this is known darkening of the skin where it also becomes velvety to the touch. It usually develops in the folds of skin in areas, such as the neck and armpits and is a direct result of insulin resistance.
Causes of type 2 diabetes:
Some of the most common causes of type 2 diabetes could be:
- Being overweight
- Lack of physical activity
- Genetic predisposition or family history
- If you are more than 45 years of age
- Hormonal problems such as Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Treatment or management of type 2 diabetes:
In most cases, major lifestyle changes can easily keep the symptoms of type 2 diabetes in check although, in certain cases medications may also be required. Some of the steps necessary are as follows:
- Change in diet and healthy eating
- Physical activity and exercising
- Regular blood sugar monitoring and
- Blood sugar medication along with insulin therapy, if necessary
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.
I got my blood sugar level 206 in fasting. I or my family members do not have diabetes. I have cold from 3 days. Did cold increase my sugar level or I have diabetes.
The adrenal glands are present above the kidneys (hence the name) and produces an important hormone known as cortisol. Cortisol is responsible for regulating multiple body functions, including controlling the blood pressure, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and anti-inflammatory response, and stress management.
Under natural circumstances, the body produces excessive cortisol in the following situations:
Physically stressing situations like illness, surgery, injury, pregnancy, etc.
- Emotionally stressed situations
- Athletic training
- Panic disorders
Causes: Cushing’s syndrome is a group of symptoms that manifest when there is too much cortisol in the body. It is more common in women than men, in the age group of 25 to 40. Some of the common causes for Cushing’s syndrome are listed below:
- Consuming too much of prednisone (and other steroids) or for prolonged periods can cause Cushing’s syndrome. These are strong anti-inflammatory medications and are used in asthma, arthritis, lupus, transplants, etc., to control the body’s inflammation reaction. It is therefore advisable to use topical steroids than oral steroids or injections as their effects are more noticeable and severe.
- Adrenal gland tumours can cause excessive production of cortisol.
- Pituitary gland tumours or adenomas also can also cause excessive production of cortisol, leading to Cushing’s syndrome.
The first type is known as exogenous Cushing’s disease and the others are known as endogenous Cushing’s disease.
Signs and symptoms: Cushing’s disease produces characteristic features which are referred to as the Cushingoid appearance. These features include the following:
- A rounded, plump face with a pinkish hue
- A moon face, with fat deposits on the face
- A buffalo hump with fat deposits between the shoulders
- Stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, and arms
- Weak muscles, especially in the hips and shoulder
- Significant weight gain
- Skin that gets thin and bruises easily
- Extreme tiredness
- High blood pressure
- High blood sugar
- Thin arms and legs
- Delayed healing of cuts and injuries
- Increased facial hair in women
- Menstrual disorders
- Reduced libido, infertility, and erectile dysfunction in men
- Emotional issues like depression, anxiety, irritability
- Increased thirst and urination
- Bone loss, and eventually fractures
- Affected bone growth in the developing years
- Increased susceptibility to infections
Complications: Untreated Cushing’s disease can lead to bone fractures, hypertension, full-blown infections, kidney stones, etc.
Treatment: This would depend on the cause. If you are on long-term steroids, the dose would need to be adjusted. This should always be done under medical supervision, as it requires constant adjustment. Underlying tumours (pituitary or adrenal) need to be diagnosed and treated. There are other hormones too which come into the picture and need to be monitored. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist..
Diabetes is not an isolated disease but a syndrome. It brings with it a host of issues, affecting almost all organs, and that is the reason it is a dreaded issue. Diabetes is the result of chronic inflammation and this inflammation gradually spreads to all other organs. One of the main organs adversely affected is the kidneys. The kidneys are essential filtration agents, and impaired kidney function can have a series of bad effects on the body.
The good news is that not everybody with diabetes will have diabetic nephropathy. However, risk factors for developing diabetic nephropathy are:
- Severe, uncontrolled diabetes
- Family history
- Prior kidney disease, even chronic infection
- Race or ethnicity (native Americans, African Americans, etc.)
- Preexisting hypertension or high cholesterol levels
If you have these risk factors, then all efforts should be aimed at keeping blood sugar at highly optimal level. Once it reaches beyond a certain level, it is very difficult to get it under control.
There would be no symptoms in the initial stages
- If you suspect that increased sugar levels could be damaging the kidneys, it is imperative to do renal functions annually to test for onset of kidney malfunction
- There could be swelling of the feet and ankles
- Urine tests may indicate increased levels of protein in the body (serum albumin in particular)
The idea is to arrest or stop damage to the kidneys.
- Reduce and maintain blood pressure within the recommended levels. This will depend on the age and overall health status. Using angiotensin converting enzymes or angiotensin receptor blockers is the most effective way to control hypertension and related kidney damage
- Keeping blood sugar within the recommended levels helps reduce or stop damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys and thereby, prevent progression
- Maintain optimal levels of cholesterol, as this only adds to hypertension, which further worsens kidney function.
- Eat a heart-healthy diet and exercise regularly. It is a vicious cycle with components including hypertension, high sugar levels, increased heart disease, which all only continues in a circle nonstop. Breaking this cyclical trend is very important.
- Diet should not be too rich in protein, as the kidney function is impaired and may not be able to handle too much protein. Talk to a nutritionist as to how much protein is required and follow it strictly.
- Reduce salt levels in the diet, and strictly do not add extra salt onto your plate
- If you are a smoker, this is a great reason to quit, as it affects all the above conditions.
- Maintain weight under optimal levels.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist..
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is not producing the thyroid hormones adequately. This is a fairly common condition.
What is thyroid gland?
The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland located just below Adam’s apple. It encircles the windpipe or the trachea. It is about 4 cms in height and weighs about 18 gms. This gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Hormones are chemicals produced by special glands like thyroid, adrenals, ovaries etc. They act as messengers and are carried by the blood to the various target organs.
What are the hormones produced by thyroid gland and what do they do?
The thyroid hormones are of two types – T3 (Tri iodo thyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine). These hormones are mainly responsible for the body’s metabolism - a process in which food is converted into energy in the cells. They influence growth and development and regulate various bodily functions which are mentioned below:
- Body temperature
- Body weight
- Metabolism of fat
- Menstrual cycles in females
- Functioning of Nervous system
- Burning calories etc.
What is Hypothyroidism?
Inadequate production of hormones by the thyroid gland is termed as hypothyroidism. This is also called Underactive thyroid state. Hypothyroidism can make the body’s development to slow down and reduces metabolism rates.
What are the causes of Hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors:
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis: This is the commonest cause. This is an autoimmune disorder (normally body’s defence system fight against external infections. In autoimmune disorder the defence system attacks the healthy cells of the body by mistake). In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis the immune system/defence system produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it.
- Iodine deficiency in diet. For the production of thyroid hormones iodine is very important. The body does not produce iodine normally, so it needs to be supplemented from outside. Iodine is mainly present in the food we eat. It is mainly present in shellfish, salt-water fish, eggs, dairy products. If a person does not eat iodine rich foods, he may end up with iodine deficiency leading to hypothyroidism. Currently, this causative factor is on the decline due to government initiative of table salt with iodine.
- Surgery: Surgery to remove thyroid gland (for e.g. thyroid cancer treatment, overactive thyroid etc.)
- Radiation to the neck (to treat cancer in the neck area): The thyroid gland cells are damaged due to the radiation.
- Treatment with radioactive iodine: This treatment is used for managing hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid, where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormones. One of the treatment modalities is by radioactive iodine. Sometimes this radiotherapy destroys normal functioning cells which lead to hypothyroidism.
- Certain medicines: Certain medicines used to treat heart conditions, cancer, psychiatric conditions etc. – for e.g. amiodarone, lithium, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha.
- Pregnancy: Pregnancy (the reason is unclear but it has been noticed that the thyroid may get inflamed after delivery – this is called Postpartum thyroiditis.
- Damage to the pituitary gland: Pituitary gland is a gland which is present in the brain. It produces a hormone called TSH (Thyroxine-Stimulating hormone).The TSH tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone it should make. If the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, then the TSH will stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more Thyroid hormone.
- Hypothalamus disorders: This is an organ in the brain. This produces a hormone called TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) which acts on the Pituitary gland to secrete TSH. So any disorder of Pituitary gland will indirectly effect the production and secretion of Thyroid hormones. These are very rare disorders.
- Congenital thyroid defects: Some babies are born with thyroid problems. This is due to the thyroid not being developed normally during pregnancy. Sometimes the thyroid gland does not function normal. This can be identified by screening for thyroid disorders in the first week after delivery. This is usually by a blood test using a small drop of blood from the baby’s heel.
What are the different types of hypothyroidism?
One classification is based on whether the defect is with the thyroid gland or not:
- Primary hypothyroidism: The problem is in the thyroid gland itself and thus there is reduced production /secretion of thyroid hormones.
- Secondary hypothyroidism: Here the problem is with the Pituitary gland or the Hypothalamus. This results in abnormal production of TSH or TRH, which indirectly leads to less production and secretion of thyroid hormones.
Another classification is based on the symptoms and levels of the thyroid hormones and TSH:
- Overt hypothyroidism: Here the patient is having the symptoms. Further the T3/T4 are low and TSH is high
- Subclinical hypothyroidism: Here patient may or may not have symptoms. The T3/T4 levels are normal but TSH is high. In this situation the patient is at an increased risk of developing overt hypothyroidism in the future especially if he has Thyroid peroxidase antibodies on testing.
Who are at risk of developing Hypothyroidism?
- Women have a higher risk of suffering from hypothyroidism than men.
- Older people are at increased risk.
- People suffering from other autoimmune diseases like Coeliac disease, Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitiligo, Pernicious anemia, Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease etc.
- People with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder
- People with Chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome, Turners syndrome also have a high risk of suffering from hypothyroidism.
What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?
Symptoms vary from person to person. They may also mimic other conditions and hence be difficult to diagnose. Symptoms may also develop very slowly over a span of moths-years. Some of the characteristic symptoms of this disease are:
- Hair loss
- Dry hair
- Dryness of the skin
- Body pains
- Fluid retention in the body
- Irregular menstrual cycles
- Increased sensitivity to cold
- Reduced heart rate
- Increase in size of the thyroid gland – called Goitre. This is due to constant stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH.
- Weight gain
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Hoarse voice
- Loss of libido/sex drive
- Confusion or memory problems especially in the elderly
What are the symptoms to look for in a baby if you suspect hypothyroidism?
Infants suffering from congenital hypothyroidism may show no symptoms or exhibit signs of excessive drowsiness, cold hands, cold feet, constipation, hoarse cry, poor growth or absent growth, poor appetite, bloating of abdomen, puffiness of face, swollen tongue, persistent jaundice.
How to diagnose hypothyroidism?
- TSH: This hormone is made in the pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. If the thyroxine levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland produces and secretes more TSH into the blood to act on the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. A raised TSH level indicates hypothyroidism. Other tests are not usually necessary unless a rare cause of hypothyroidism.
- T4: A low level of thyroxine indicates hypothyroidism.
- T3: these levels are generally not needed to diagnose hypothyroidism
- Anti-Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) or Anti- thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 90-95% of patient with autoimmune thyroiditis.
- Other blood tests include Creatinine Kinase, Serum Lipids, Complete blood picture etc.
- Ultrasound of the neck is done if the patient presents with a thyroid swelling.
What is the treatment of hypothyroidism?
Overt hypothyroidism is treated by synthetic Thyroxin hormone which should be taken every day on an empty stomach at least 30 – 45 minutes before breakfast. The treatment is continued for the rest of the patient’s life. Regular thyroid function tests are done once every 8 weeks-12 weeks to adjust the dose of the thyroxine in the initial period of diagnosis. Once the thyroxine dose is stabilised, the tests can be done even once a year. This treatment is quite effective.
Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is only treated if the patient is a woman and is contemplating pregnancy, in patients with symptoms or if the TSH is quite high.
What are the side-effects of thyroxine medication?
There are few side effects if any. Most people tolerate these medications quite well. An important consideration before starting medication is to check if the patient has chest pain/angina. These people are started on the least available dose. If these patients are started on a higher dose they notice a worsening of their angina pains.
Side effects mainly occur if the thyroxine dose is high which leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of this could be palpitations 9increased heart beat), weight loss, profuse sweating, anxiety, irritability etc.
There are some tablets which increase with thyroxine tablets. These include carbamazepine, iron supplements, calcium supplements, rifampicin, phenytoin, warfarin etc.
What are the complications of hypothyroidism?
If untreated hypothyroidism can lead to:
- Heart problems like heart attack due to increased levels of bad cholesterol like LDL, or heart failure due to fluid retention
- Joint pains
- A pregnant woman with hypothyroidism is at increased risk of giving birth to a baby with congenital hypothyroidism, also known as cretinism. Further, the woman may have pregnancy related complications like pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight baby, anemia, post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery) etc.
- Myxoedema is another complication where the patient has extremely low levels of thyroid hormone. The body temperature drops drastically making the person lose consciousness or go into a coma. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.