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Management of Pregnancy Query
Avoiding Pregnancy Procedures
Treatment of Delayed Periods
Management of Fertile Period
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Management of Ectopic Pregnancy
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
I was having very bad thoughts regarding my delay periods. She is one of the best physicians in city. I was in a very uncomfortable sitiuation because of delay periods, but even after consulting a number of doctors, I was not getting any relief. A friend of mine referred to Dr.Shaivalini Kamarapu. All the staff members were very helpful. The lab in the Government maternity hospital was very clean and well managed. Iam almost on the path to recovery, Thanks to my Shaivalini Kamarapu perfect advice. In order to diagnose my problem completely she asked me a number of questions.
So many doctors I consulted, but her treatment was the best. Even though I was fit and fine, it was shocked when I got to know that I have polycystic ovary synDrome. The overall atmosphere in the Government maternity hospital is very soothing. My previous experiences were not so good, but Shaivalini Kamarapu has completely changed my opinion as she is very helpful and humble. Shaivalini Kamarapu has so much knowledge that for everything my family takes her reference. The Government maternity hospital is designed in such a way that every patient feels at ease.
Due to finding no good doctor for caring for children my daily activities were suffering. Dr. Shaivalini Kamarapu is very courteous and behaves very aptly . As someone I knew, consulted the Shaivalini Kamarapu and they referred us. Even in case of long queues, the staff was managing people in a very positive manner. the Government maternity hospital is designed in such a way that every patient feels at ease. Shaivalini Kamarapu has so much knowledge that for everything my family takes her reference.
I was experiencing lactation problems during breast feeding my son. i consulted her. She is not just friendly, but also is very motivating. I saw Dr Shaivalini clinic's advertisement in newspaper and that is how we referred her. They took very nice care of me, i never felt that I am in a Government maternity hospital. Even though my problem was very big, the entire experience of undergoing lactation problems treatment was very relaxing.
I Got Quick Replies From Dr. Shaivalini. And Her Counseling Is Really Great. She Answered All Of My Questions With Lot Of Patience. My Consultation Experience With Dr. Shaivalini Is Far Better Than Other Doctors I Visited Before. Thank You Librate For Providing Me An Opportunity To Meet With Dr. Shaivalini. I Would Recommend This App And Ofcourse De. Shaivalini To All Of My Friends And Family
I was quite depressed due to my condition, but Dr Shaivalini guided me to change my attitude. Due to my no periods i was feeling very depressed and had no hope. Even in case of emergency, the staff is always willing to help. She ensures that she gives enough time to each patient. One of my colleague referred her. The best thing about her is that she prescribes limited no. of medicines.
I am almost my normal self post the treatment for irregular periods and for that my Dr Kamarapu is the reason. They took very nice care of me, i never felt that I am in Government maternity hospital. shewith great ease handled my serious case. She is very professional and is a really patient listener.
I feel so great after the completion of the infertility treatment. Whatever tests Dr Shaivalini prescribed, were very correct and the gave they gave us an exact idea about my condition. She is one of the best physicians in city. I am so much benefitted with her treatment.
I needed a Fertile period treatment for which I chose to consult Dr Shaivalini Kamarapu. Her complete process of fertile period treatment was so painless and quick, andI am very much relieved with that. I owe her a big thank for the beneficial suggestion.
Dr Shaivalini Was Very Friendly And Professional And Made Every Visit Very Comfortable.Didn't Rush Anything,made Sure To Explain Everything Thoroughly And Answered Every Step Of The Way,
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Shaivalini Kamarapu to be knowledgeable and caring. Its Very Helpful..
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Shaivalini Kamarapu to be very helpful. Very helpful, thanks
Dr. Shaivalini Kamarapu provides answers that are very helpful. Thanks DOCTOR
Dr. Shaivalini Kamarapu provides answers that are very helpful. Thanks!
A urinary tract infection can be painful and annoying. Most urinary tract infections affect the bladder and urethra, but it can also affect the kidneys and ureter. Women have a higher risk of suffering from this infection as compared to men. This is because women have a shorter urethra than men and hence the bacteria needs to travel a shorter distance to reach the bladder. Urinary tract infections can usually be treated easily with a course of antibiotics as long as they are detected in time. If not detected in time, it can affect the kidneys which make it a more serious problem. Hence, it becomes important to be able to recognise the signs of this infection.
Some of the symptoms to watch out for are:
- A persistent urge to urinate but low volume of urine produced
- A burning sensation while urinating
- Cloudy urine
- Blood in the urine which makes the urine appear red, pink or blackish
- Strong smell of the urine
- Pelvic pain
A urinary tract infection that affects the urethra is also known as urethritis. A burning sensation when urinating and discharge along with urine are the most prominent symptoms of this type of infection. When this infection affects the bladder it comes to be known as cystitis. Cystitis patients typically suffer from frequent and painful urination along with discomfort in the lower abdomen and pressure in the pelvic area. They may also notice blood in the urine.
Acute pyelonephritis refers to a urinary infection that affects the kidneys. In such cases, along with the typical symptoms, the patient may also experience high fever, nausea, shivering and pain in the upper back and sides of the abdomen.
This infection can affect a person at any age. Most women suffer from at least one bout of urinary tract infections in their lifetime. Some of the factors that increase the risk of suffering from this infection are:
Certain types of birth control such as diaphragms and spermicidal agents
- New sexual partners
- Urinary tract abnormalities
- Kidney stones or other blockages in the urinary tract
- Weakened immune system
- Use of catheters
- Recent urinary procedures that involve the use of medical instruments
Urinary tract infection can be easily prevented by living a healthy lifestyle. Drink plenty of fluids to flush bacteria and other toxins from your body. Bacteria multiplies in the bladder if urine stays for too long. Hence, urinate frequently and do not try to control your bladder. Avoid synthetic underwear and wear cotton underwear with loose fitting clothes that keep the area around the urethra dry.
How to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections
A urinary tract infection or UTI can be quite painful and uncomfortable. This infection can be described as an infection that affects the ureter, urethra, bladder or kidneys. Women have a shorter urethra than men which makes this more vulnerable to this kind of infection. It is said that most women suffer from at least one bout of this infection in a lifetime. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria and may often recur after treatment. However, in most cases, this can easily be prevented. Here are a few tips to help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections.
- Drink plenty of fluids: Ideally, we should drink 8-10 glasses of water a day at regular intervals. This keeps the body hydrated and flushes toxins and bacteria from the body. Water also prevents the formation of kidney stones that could increase your risk of suffering from a urinary tract infection.
- Urinate frequently: If you drink the required amount of water, you will typically need to urinate frequently. Do not try to control your bladder. Holding your urine in your bladder allows bacteria to multiply inside the bladder. This is an easy way for a UTI to begin.
- Follow healthy bathroom habits: Cleanliness is the first step to preventing any infection. When using public restrooms, flush the toilet before and after urinating. In the case of women, it becomes important to ensure that the seat of the toilet is clean as well. After urinating wipe the residual urine with toilet paper in a motion that goes from front to back. Since the urethra is situated very close to the rectum, this step is very important. For uncircumcised men, it is important to wash the foreskin after urination.
- Wear loose clothes: Tight fitting clothes trap moisture and aid in the multiplication of bacteria. Hence, always wear loose fitting clothes that keep the area around the urethra dry. Also, avoid synthetic underwear and only wear cotton underwear.
- Urinate after intercourse: The relative closeness of the vagina to the urethra makes it easy for bacteria to enter the urethra during intercourse. Hence, make it a habit of washing your pubic region after urinating. This helps flush out any possible bacteria that may have entered your body.
- Choose the correct method of birth control: Certain types of birth control such as diaphragms and spermicidal agents can promote a urinary tract infection. Hence, it is best to avoid these types of birth control and pick alternatives.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
An in vitro fertilisation procedure carried out to counter the problem of male infertility is Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Male infertility factors include poor quality of sperm, low sperm counts, poor sperm movement or the disability to penetrate an egg. Azoospermia is one such rare condition wherein there is no sperm in the semen. Through this injection, a single sperm can be injected into the egg directly. The fertilised egg is placed into the woman’s uterus or the fallopian tubes. The first successful birth using this procedure was on January 1992 after the conception took place in April 1991.
Sperm can be collected from the male through masturbation. If this procedure somehow fails then sperm can be removed through a surgery. Using a small incision, sperm can be withdrawn from the testicle and is used in the procedure. If the ejaculation of sperm is prevented due to a blockage or if the problem arises in the development of the sperm, surgery method is used.
Injecting the sperm
This is performed through the following steps. A specialised pipette or a glass tube is used to hold the egg, a single sperm is picked with the help of a sharp and delicate needle, the needle is then inserted carefully into the cytoplasm of the egg through the egg shell, then the sperm gets injected into the cytoplasm and the eggs are checked to see whether they have been adequately fertilized.
After this process is done, eggs which are fertilised successfully are selected and placed into the uterus with the help of a catheter. The number of embryos an individual needs to transfer is determined depending on the age of the person and other health issues. For this purpose, a thorough full body check-up is carried out and the medical history is checked during the preliminary consultations.
Expectations from the treatment
The treatment of fertilisation using an Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be demanding, both physically and mentally for the woman (mother). An individual has to go through regular shots and monitoring including blood tests. There are moments when the shots can be painful for the woman undergoing the procedure.
The reason behind the procedure
When a male is having severe infertility issues, the method of ICSI is helpful. There are times when very little sperm or no sperm ejaculation, the eggs can be fertilised through this procedure. Testing of an embryo for genetic problems is also accomplished through this procedure. When in vitro fertilisation or IVF does not work even after trying repeatedly, then couples can undergo the treatment using ICSI.
When ICSI is used along with better quality eggs, it is seen to be successful on many occasions. Especially for men who have sperm ejaculation issues.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
The thyroid gland within the body plays an important role in regulating your metabolism among many other functions. This is a butterfly-shaped gland located in your neck and plays an important role within your body. However, a common condition that may afflict it is hypothyroidism or an underactive thyroid gland. It is even more of a problem if you are pregnant as it may affect your baby’s development in the womb. It has also been noticed that pregnancy in itself may cause hypothyroidism.
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism-
Pregnant women may also exhibit symptoms common to other patients who are suffering from hypothyroidism. These may include:
Fatigue along with lethargy.
Mild to significant weight gain.
Feeling cold with severe chills
The thyroid gland produces the T4 hormone responsible for regulating many mechanisms within the body such as metabolism. With hypothyroidism, the production of this hormone decreases or stops altogether. This is important as disruption in the production of the hormone may disrupt the normal development of your baby.
Effects of Hypothyroidism on your baby-
Hypothyroidism during pregnancy can affect your child’s developmental abilities. Many studies in this field have shown that such children tend to have learning difficulties and may even display lower IQ scores during tests. It was noticed that sometimes, hypothyroidism during pregnancy wasn’t diagnosed correctly as the pregnant mother did not show much apparent symptoms. This is also a major issue in the early diagnosis of the problem. Hence, it is absolutely imperative to test for thyroid problems early during pregnancy.
Prevention is the Best Cure-
It is thus very important that mothers be screened properly for thyroid issues even before they are pregnant and while they are pregnant. Some of the medically recommended steps that should be taken are –
Screening before pregnancy as this can help to devise a solution for this condition.
Women with goiter or enlarged thyroid should most certainly be screened.
Women with a family history of hypothyroidism should be screened.
Treatments for Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy-
The doctors may suggest thyroid hormone replacement therapy wherein artificial T4 hormone is introduced into the body. This helps to maintain a constant rate of the thyroid hormone within the body. This can be done even before pregnancy as the developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for its thyroid hormone until at least 12 weeks when the baby’s body can start producing it on its own. Also, the levels of this hormone should be regularly checked within the body through the TSH or the thyroid stimulating hormone tests to ensure that the levels are at a safe minimum.
Any kind of bleeding from the uterus, which is not normal, can be termed as abnormal uterine bleeding. This refers to bleeding between periods or before periods, bleeding after having sex, spotting, abnormally heavy bleeding or bleeding after attaining menopause. If you are suffering from any of these issues, you need to check with the doctor.
It is very important to diagnose abnormal uterine bleeding. There are several examinations and tests that have to be carried out, depending on age. For irregular spotting, a pregnancy test can be undertaken in case you think you could be pregnant. If your uterine bleeding is very heavy, a test has to be performed to check blood count. This is done to observe whether you have anemia. An ultrasound test of the pelvic region will also be advised by your doctor to know the cause of the bleeding. Several hormonal tests and thyroid function tests are required as well.
Other diagnostic tests include:
- Sonohysterography: When fluid is placed within the uterus and ultrasound images of the uterus are taken. An image of the pelvic organs is obtained.
- Hysteroscopy: It can be carried out when a device is inserted via the vagina and enables the doctor to examine the uterus internally.
- Magnetic resonance imaging: This is also used to get images of the organs.
- Endometrial biopsy: It involves insertion of a catheter to take out a tissue which is microscopically observed.
There are different types of treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding depending upon factors such as the cause of bleeding and the age of the patient.
- Medications: Several medicines are used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding. Sometimes hormonal medicines are used. Birth control pills are also used to improve the regularity of periods. Hormonal infections, vaginal creams and an IUD device releasing hormone can be used. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also used to control bleeding. Several antibiotics may also be prescribed.
- Surgery: In some cases of abnormal uterine bleeding, a woman has to undergo a surgery for the removal of growth such as polyps and fibroids, which results in bleeding. While some fibroids can be removed via hysteroscopy, others require different techniques for treatment.
- Endometrial ablation: It can be undertaken to control bleeding. This mode of treatment aims at reducing the bleeding permanently. In case all treatment methods fail, hysterectomy has to be carried out. This is a serious surgery and after it is performed, a woman does not have periods anymore and will not be able to conceive a child.
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a serious health condition, which may lead to severe complications. Immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment methods should be undertaken in case of any abnormal uterine bleeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
A collection of symptoms typically occurring between ovulation and menses (discharge of blood and from the uterus) is defined as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Premenstrual syndrome symptoms can either be physical or emotional.
Physical symptoms and signs include:
- Muscle or joint pain
- Weight gain due to fluid retention
- Bloated abdomen
- Breast tenderness
- Acne breakouts
- Diarrhoea or constipation
While other behavioural and emotional symptoms include:
- Anxiety or tension
- Depressed mood
- Crying spells
- Anger or irritability and mood swings
- Food cravings and appetite changes
- Social withdrawal
- Poor concentration
Causes: The exact cause of PMS is unknown. But there are several contributing factors, such as:
- Cyclic hormonal changes: The hormones oestrogen and progesterone fluctuate a lot while preparing for a normal menstrual cycle. This fluctuation causes some of the symptoms of PMS.
- Chemical changes: The fluctuation of serotonin, a kind of neurotransmitter (brain chemical), affects the mood, which causes some of the emotional symptoms of PMS. For instance, insufficient serotonin triggers premenstrual depression, insomnia, food cravings and fatigue.
- Depression: If the PMS symptoms are severe, depression could be the underlying cause, though it doesn't usually trigger all of the symptoms.
Treatment: There is no permanent cure for PMS, but a few lifestyle changes and home remedies can work very well for you. Some treatment options include:
- To ease abdominal bloating, drink lots of fluids
- Eat a balanced diet comprised of plenty of vegetables and fruits. Reduce your alcohol, caffeine, salt and sugar intake.
- You can take supplements such as magnesium, calcium, vitamin B-6 and folic acid to reduce mood swings and cramps.
- Take vitamin D supplements to relieve symptoms
- Sleep for at least eight hours in the night to counter fatigue
- Exercise to improve your emotional health and reduce bloating
- Try to reduce your stress as much as you can; read a book or walk to relieve some stress.
Besides, these lifestyle changes, you can take over-the-counter medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen to reduce stomach cramps, muscles aches and headaches. Diuretics (drugs that increase urination) are excellent treatments for bloating and fluid retention.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cervical cancer occurs in the cervical cells which are present in the lower part of the uterus. It is usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually. However, in some cases, the virus may survive for a few years, causing some cells of the cervix to become cancerous.
Cervical cancer is usually classified into two types:
- Adenocarcinoma: This type of cancer starts in the column shaped glandular cells along the lining of the cervix.
- Squamous cell carcinoma: Most cases of cervical cancer are of this type. Here, the cancer occurs in the flat and thin cells that are present in the outer region of the cervix.
Symptoms: Usually, very few symptoms show up in the initial stages. However, the latter stages tell a different story. The symptoms at an advanced stage are:
- You may experience pain during sexual intercourse
- Foul smelling discharge from the vagina
- Bleeding from the vagina during sexual intercourse
Causes: Cervical cancer develops due to the mutation of healthy cells which makes turns them into malignant (cancerous) cells. The cancerous cells tend to grow at a fast pace, thus accumulating and forming a tumor. The cancerous cells may also spread to the adjoining areas of the body.
There are certain factors which increase your chances of being affected by cervical cancer:
- Too many sexual partners: The chances of cervical cancer increase significantly if you have multiple sexual partners.
- A weak immune system: A weak immune system makes you highly susceptible to cervical cancer.
- Lifestyle factors: Various lifestyle factors such as smoking can increase your risk of cervical cancer.
The treatment for cervical cancer involves the following:
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves injecting chemicals into the vein to destroy the cancer cells.
- Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy consists of using x-rays to destroy the cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be used alongside chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells.
- Surgery: Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that is used in the treatment of cervical cancer. It involves removal of the uterus to treat this disorder. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
While you cannot cure breast diseases, family history and maturing, but there are some hazards or risks that you can control. Keeping in mind the fact that there is no certain approach to forestall breast cancer, there are things you can do that may bring down the hazard. Here are five approaches to ensure your breast's well-being:
- Watch your weight: Being overweight or hefty expands breast cancer chances. This is particularly true after menopause and for women who have put on weight as grown-ups. After menopause, the vast majority of your estrogen originates from fat tissue. Having more fat tissue can heighten your chances of getting breast cancer by raising the estrogen levels. Additionally, women who are overweight have a tendency to have more elevated amounts of insulin, than other hormones. Higher insulin levels have been associated with a few tumors, including breast cancer.
- Exercise routinely: Many reviews have found that exercise is the sign of having a healthy breast. Studies show that one to two hours of energetic walking each week, lessened a woman’s cancer risk by eighteen percent. Walking ten hours seven days decreased the hazard all the more.
- Constrain liquor: Women who have two to five mixed beverages every day have a higher danger of breast cancer than women who have just one drink a day or none . As much as three to six glasses of wine seven days have been found to somewhat increase breast cancer chances. It is not clear how or why liquor raises the hazard. In any case, constraining liquor is particularly essential for women who have other hazard variables for breast cancer, like, breast cancer running in their families.
- Restrain time spent sitting: Research has shown that sitting time, regardless of how much exercise you get when you are not sitting, increases the probability of growing cancer, particularly for women. Women who sit six hours or more a day outside of work have a ten percent more serious risk for breast cancer compared to the ladies who sit under three hours a day, and an increased hazard for other cancer types as well.
- Stay away from or confine hormone substitution treatment: Hormone Replacement Treatment (HRT) was utilized frequently in the past to control night sweats, hot flashes, and other troublesome manifestations of menopause. In any case, specialists now realize that postmenopausal ladies who take a blend of estrogen and progestin might probably create breast tumors or cancer. Breast cancer disease seems to come back within five years in the wake of ceasing the blend of hormones. Therefore, get a breast cancer test even if you feel a small lump.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Colposcopy is a procedure that is used to get a closer view of a women’s cervix, vagina and vulva. It is a procedure carried on to detect the presence of any abnormal cells on the cervix and nearby areas.
Why is Colposcopy done?
This procedure is carried out to see the problems in the vagina and cervix which may otherwise be not visible with a naked eye. A colposcopy is done when the Pap test results are abnormal. These abnormalities could be due to several reasons like viral infections namely human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or any other fungal (yeast), bacterial or protozoan (Trichomonas) infection. Atrophic vaginitis or natural cervical changes due to menopause can also lead to abnormal Pap test results. However one needs to be careful because these untreated cervical cell changes that lead to abnormal Pap tests can at times develop into precancerous or cancerous changes.
In case during colposcopy, an abnormal tissue is found in the problem areas, the doctor will remove a tiny sample of it and send it to the lab. This is normally known as a biopsy or cervical biopsy which is done from inside the opening of the cervix or endocervical canal.
Procedure for a colposcopy and biopsy
A colposcopy is normally a pain free procedure where at times some women might feel a slight tingling or burning sensation when the solution is applied. Biopsy might lead to a little discomfort like that of a sharp pinch or a menstrual cramp. During colposcopy a speculum or a small instrument is inserted into the vagina to spread apart the vaginal walls. In order to see the area more clearly the doctor dabs the cervix or vagina with a cotton swab dipped in vinegar (acetic acid) or Iodine (Lugol's solution). The solution is used to remove any kind of mucus and also makes the abnormal cells turn white in order to be clearly visible.
The doctor then uses a colposcope, a light magnifying device that looks like binoculars and has a bright light mounted to it. It also has a camera attached to it to take the videos or pictures of the cervix and vagina.
Biopsies are normally done by scraping away abnormal cells with a small brush or a small curette.
Results of colposcopy or cervical Biopsy
In case of Normal results the vinegar or iodine will not show the presence of any abnormal cells and the vagina and cervix look normal. But in case of abnormal results, there are abnormal tissues seen in the problem areas. It could also be a sore or a genital wart or infection in and around the vagina. The biopsy report would clarify whether it is cervical cancer or is likely to develop. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Water birth, as revolutionary as it might sound, is not a bad idea. Common in the European countries like Australia and New Zealand, many birth centres in the United States have also started installing water birth tubs. It is the process of giving birth in a warm water tub, which is said to ease the process. The logic behind this goes that since the baby stays in the mother's womb for nine months in a water sac, therefore, birthing in a similar environment is better for the baby and less complex. Many obstetricians believe that this also prevents any kind of foetal complications.
There are both benefits and risk of water birth. They are as follows:
Benefits of water birth:
Water labour and water birth has the following advantages for the mother and the baby.
For the mother:
- The warm water provides mobility and comfort to the mother. The mother is also at a spontaneous position in water to change her location and deliver the baby.
- Pressure on the abdomen is decreased. Buoyancy helps in the efficient contraction of the uterine walls and it improves blood circulation, which again gives better supply of oxygen to the uterine muscles. The baby is provided with sufficient amount of oxygen while the mother endures lesser pain.
- Birthing in water helps in conservation of energy on part of the mother. The immersion helps to reduce collision with gravity and gives support to the mother's weight. This energy produced helps in coping with the uterine muscle contractions.
- The process of labour becomes more productive as it gives relaxation to the mother. While the mother calms down in the water, her hormones start working better and in turn the process is accelerated. The water also helps in soothing the pelvic muscles.
- The immersion helps in lowering the level of blood pressure and in reducing anxiety.
- Stress is hugely reduced as the mother is at ease and this helps in producing endorphins that serve as pain inhibitors.
For the baby:
- The baby gets a similar environment as the amniotic sac which helps in the birthing process gets added support.
- The stress of birth is greatly reduced.
Risks of water birth:
- There remains a risk of water embolism that is when the water enters into the mother's bloodstream.
- If the mother has herpes, this practice should not be followed as herpes spreads in water faster.
- This should be avoided in case of excessive bleeding and any kind of maternal infection. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.