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I have a big ball like structure on by right breast with black color I am 16 years old buy. What it could be. Thank you.
Hi my FIL is diagnosed with multiple myeloma and as a part of the diagnosis of has been identified that the bone near to spinal cord is fractured and is been removed under the supervision of a neurosurgeon. During the surgery blood transfusion has been done because he was anemic. He has A+ blood group. After 24 hrs of surgery he started to vomit black colour liquid which is really blood. And the doctor said that an internal bleeding is there and blood is being transferred whole night. Why is this happening? Is this very serious?
Knowing This Can Help You Prevent Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is the most common cancer to affect the female reproductive system. The exact cause of ovarian cancer is not yet known and the risk factors involved are numerous, the most prevalent of which are genetic defects and hereditary problems.
The symptoms of ovarian cancer are not always clear and range from pelvic and abdominal pains to irregularities in the menstrual cycle. Women beyond the age of 50 are most at risk of developing this type of cancer and the risk factor increases in case of family history.
Prevention of Ovarian Cancer
There is no sure shot way of preventing ovarian cancer. Some factors such as genetics cannot be controlled at all. There are, however, ways to take precaution against it through some simple lifestyle choices. A few of those ways are as follows:
• Eat a healthy balanced diet which is rich in all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals that the body requires for boosting and maintaining immunity.
• Exercise regularly and stay active. Maintaining fitness is an important aspect of preventing the onset of all sorts of diseases and disorders.
• Go for frequent health checkups and make regular consultations with your gynaecologist so as to ensure early detection of the problem.
Another notable way of avoiding ovarian cancer is taking birth control pills which are known to reduce the risk levels. However, studies have shown that there are other health risks associated with taking birth control pills and hence you should always consult a gynaecologist for a proper prescription.
Colposcopy is a procedure that is used to get a closer view of a women’s cervix, vagina and vulva. It is a procedure carried on to detect the presence of any abnormal cells on the cervix and nearby areas.
Why is Colposcopy done?
This procedure is carried out to see the problems in the vagina and cervix which may otherwise be not visible with a naked eye. A colposcopy is done when the Pap test results are abnormal. These abnormalities could be due to several reasons like viral infections namely human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or any other fungal (yeast), bacterial or protozoan (Trichomonas) infection. Atrophic vaginitis or natural cervical changes due to menopause can also lead to abnormal Pap test results. However one needs to be careful because these untreated cervical cell changes that lead to abnormal Pap tests can at times develop into precancerous or cancerous changes.
In case during colposcopy, an abnormal tissue is found in the problem areas, the doctor will remove a tiny sample of it and send it to the lab. This is normally known as a biopsy or cervical biopsy which is done from inside the opening of the cervix or endocervical canal.
Procedure for a colposcopy and biopsy
A colposcopy is normally a pain free procedure where at times some women might feel a slight tingling or burning sensation when the solution is applied. Biopsy might lead to a little discomfort like that of a sharp pinch or a menstrual cramp. During colposcopy a speculum or a small instrument is inserted into the vagina to spread apart the vaginal walls. In order to see the area more clearly the doctor dabs the cervix or vagina with a cotton swab dipped in vinegar (acetic acid) or Iodine (Lugol's solution). The solution is used to remove any kind of mucus and also makes the abnormal cells turn white in order to be clearly visible.
The doctor then uses a colposcope, a light magnifying device that looks like binoculars and has a bright light mounted to it. It also has a camera attached to it to take the videos or pictures of the cervix and vagina.
Biopsies are normally done by scraping away abnormal cells with a small brush or a small curette.
Results of colposcopy or cervical Biopsy
In case of Normal results the vinegar or iodine will not show the presence of any abnormal cells and the vagina and cervix look normal. But in case of abnormal results, there are abnormal tissues seen in the problem areas. It could also be a sore or a genital wart or infection in and around the vagina. The biopsy report would clarify whether it is cervical cancer or is likely to develop. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.