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My rt. Breast surgery for breast cancer had done and presently from last 3-4 months rt. Hand and full arm are swelling.
I have back pain L4. L5 problem fast in 5 years. I want to reduce pain with out operation is possible. Please Inform
Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body part. With continued growth, pieces of this tissue travel through the blood to different body parts and continue to grow in the new area. This is known as metastases. Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and affects about 1 in 8 women in the USA. Read on to know more details of breast cancer – breast anatomy, causes, symptoms, risk factors, detection, prevention, and of course treatment.
Anatomy: The main function of the breast is lactation through its milk-producing tissue that are connected to the nipple by narrow ducts. In addition, there is surrounding connective tissue, fibrous material, fat, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic channels which complete the structure. This is essential to know as most breast cancers develop as small calcifications (hardened particles) in the ducts or as small lumps in the breast tissue which then continues to grow into cancer. The spread can happen through lymphatic or blood flow to other organs.
Warning signs/symptoms: The following are some symptoms that need to be watched out for if you have a predisposition to breast cancer.
- A lump in either of the breasts or armpits
- Change in size, shape, or contour of either breast
- Redness of your breast or nipple
- Discharge of clear or bloody fluid
- Thickening of breast tissue or skin that lasts through a period
- Altered look or feel of the skin on the breast or the nipple (dimpled, inflamed, scaly, or puckered)
- One area on the breast that looks very different from the other areas
- Hardened area under the breast skin
Either one or a combination of these should be an indication to get a detailed checkup done. Early diagnosis results in controlling the disease with minimal treatment and reduced complications.
Causes and risk factors: The exact cause for breast cancer is yet to be pinned down. However, risk factors are clearly identified, and women with risk factors need to watch out for warning signs.
- Family history: Of all the risk factors, the family history is the most important. Breast cancer runs in families, and if there is a first-degree relative with the breast cancer, the chances of developing it are almost double. Two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the carriers of the disease, and this testing can be done in women to identify if they are at risk.
- Family history of other cancers: Even if there is no breast cancer, if there are other cancers that run in the family, watch out.
- Age: Women over 50 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Race: Caucasian and Jewish women are at higher risk of breast cancer than African-American women.
- Hormones: Greater exposure to the female hormone estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Women who use birth control pills for contraception and hormone replacement after menopause are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones need to watch out. These include those who attain menarche before 12 years of age, get pregnant after 30, attain menopause after 55, and have menstrual cycles shorter than 26 days or longer than 29 days.
- Obesity and alcohol abuse are also likely to increase a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer.
Stages: Starting from stage 0, higher stages indicate advanced disease.
- Stage 0: The growth which has begun in the milk-producing tissue or the ducts has remained there (in situ) and not spread to any other area, including the rest of the breast.
- Stage I: The tissue slowly becomes invasive and has begun to affect the surrounding healthy tissue. It could have spread to the fatty breast tissue and some breast tissue may be found in the nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage II: The cancer at this stage grows considerably or spreads to other parts. There are chances that cancer may grow and also spread.
- Stage III: It may have spread to the bones or other organs but small amounts are present in up to 9 to 10 of the lymph nodes in the armpits and collar bones which makes it is difficult to fight.
- Stage IV: The cancer is widespread to far-flung areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and even the brain.
Screening: This is one of the most effective ways to identify the disease in its early stages. This will help in controlling cancer from spreading with minimal treatment.
- Self-examination: A thorough self-examination to look for changes in terms of shape, size, colour, contour, and firmness should be learned by all women. Watch for any discharge, sores, rashes, or swelling in the breasts, surrounding skin, and nipple. Examine them while standing and when lying down.
- In most women, annual screening mammograms are advised after the age of 40. However, in women who have a strong family history or genetic makeup, it is advisable to have screening mammograms starting at age 20 every 3 years and then annually from the age of 40.
- Women in high-risk categories should have screening mammograms every year and typically start at an earlier age.
- Ultrasound screening can also be given in addition to mammograms.
- Breast MRI is another way to screen for breast cancer if the risk is greater.
Breast Cancer Prevention: Now that there is so much awareness about causes and risk factors, there are definitely ways to prevent or delay the onset of the disease.
- Exercise and a healthy diet with reduced amount of alcohol are definitely effective in minimising the chances of developing cancer.
- Tamoxifen is used in women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
- Evista (raloxifene) which is used to treat osteoporosis after menopause. It is also widely used in preventing breast cancer.
- In high-risk women, breasts are surgically removed to prevent the development of cancer (preventive mastectomy).
Treatment: As with all cancers, treatment would depend on the stage at which it is identified and include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. As noted earlier, if you are at risk, look out for warning signs as early diagnosis is the key to maximum recovery.
Uterine fibroids are referred to as benign, abnormal growths which tend to develop in the uterine walls of a woman. The size of such growths can range from a few centimeters to even excess of a few inches. As such, they can cause the uterus to increase to the size of a five month pregnancy. Although, the symptoms of fibroids are not always apparent, they often cause heavy bleeding and pain in women. A recent research concluded that around 60 to 75 percent women contract such fibroids by the age of 50, at least once in their life.
Depending on the site of formation, uterine fibroids are distinguished into different types. Intramural fibroids in the lining of the uterus and subserosal fibroids which develop outside the uterus are the most commonly observed fibroids.
What causes Uterine Fibroids?
Although, the exact reason for the formation of fibroids are obscure, medical professionals have determined certain factors that may affect their formation. Some of them are:
1) Hormones: Progesterone and estrogen, produced by the ovaries regenerate the uterine lining during each menstrual cycle and trigger the growth of fibroids.
2) Family history: If you have had a family history of uterine fibroids, then you are likely to develop the condition yourself as well.
3) Pregnancy: The production of progesterone and estrogen increases during pregnancy which increases the likelihood of fibroids.
What are the signs of this condition?
Depending on the location and size of the tumors, symptoms of such fibroids include:
1) Heavy bleeding and blood clots during periods
2) Pain in the pelvis
3) Frequent menstrual cramps
4) Pressure and pain in the lower abdomen
5) Swelling in the abdomen
6) Pain while intercourse
What is the procedure of treatment?
Ultrasound and pelvic MRI are common diagnostic procedures to check for uterine fibroids. After diagnosis, depending on your age, size of the fibroid and your comprehensive health, the doctor would prescribe you with appropriate medications. Only after medications prove futile, doctors opt for minimally invasive surgeries.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cancer of the kidneys is amongst the ten most common types of Cancer. There are many types of renal cancer with Renal cell carcinoma being the most common amongst them. Renal cancer is said to be triggered by a genetic mutation but the cause for this mutation is yet unknown. While kidney cancer appears suddenly in some cases, in others it is inherited from the parents. Here are 4 things you should know about cancer of the kidneys.
Along with a mutation of the genes which is beyond our control, some lifestyle factors can also increase a person’s risk of suffering from renal cancer. Some of these factors are:
An early diagnosis can make the treatment of renal cancer much easier than if it is left undiagnosed. Hence, it becomes important to recognise the symptoms of this disease. Common renal cancer symptoms include:
- Blood in the urine
- A lump on either side of the abdomen
- Persistent pain on one side of the abdomen
- Unexplained weight loss
These symptoms are common to a number of other diseases as well and hence if you experience them, it is best to get yourself checked out by a doctor. In order to confirm a diagnosis, your doctor is likely to ask for blood tests, urine tests, an ultrasound and a CT scan or an MRI. In most cases, your doctor will also schedule a biopsy to check for cancer cells in the kidney tissue.
Stages of kidney cancer
Once cancer has been diagnosed, your doctor will need to determine the extent of damage caused in order to find the best form of treatment for the disease. Stages of kidney cancer are determined by the size of the tumour and on how much it has spread from the original location. There are four stages of kidney cancer.
Stage I – When the cancer cells are restricted to the kidneys and the tumour is no bigger than 3” in diameter
Stage II – The tumour has grown bigger in size but is still restricted to the kidney
Stage III – The tumour may be big or small but has spread to at least one lymph node or has affected the blood vessels
Stage IV – The cancerous cells have spread to nearby lymph nodes or other organs or the tumour has grown through the fatty layer and outer fibrous layer of the kidney.
Kidney cancer can be cured easily if detected in the early stages by removing the tumour and adjacent tissue or the entire kidney if need be. Removing one kidney is not fatal as a person can live a healthy life with a single kidney.
I am 30 years old. Diagnosed with 11 % of vitamin D. Calcium and phosphate levels are also down. Besides cervical 6-7 disc have chronic black bulge. Pain in neck shoulder upper back. Also lumbar spine 4-5 also bulge. It is sending pain down till sole of feet. What is the treatment ways?
Due to night fall my nerve system is very week and now I am suffering from disk in my back please suggest me some medicine fr improvement of nerves.
The uterus is an organ situated in the pelvis of a female. It is hollow and is usually called the womb where child conception takes place. The uterus functions to help in developing the foetus until birth. Abnormal cell growth that consists of uterine tissues causes uterine cancer.
Although the exact reason for uterine cancer is not known, the risk factors usually can be seen in women with hyperplasia, obese women, and women who have never had kids. Common signs and indications of uterine cancer are unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain while urinating and having sex, and pelvic pains.
Bases upon the sort and phase of cancer, and also your concerns about fertility, there are a number of uterine cancer surgical methods, including the following:
Hysterectomy: The primary focus is an operation to remove the uterus and cervix. At the point when the uterus is removed through a cut in the abdomen, it is known as a total abdominal hysterectomy. In case that the uterus is removed through the vagina, it is known as a vaginal hysterectomy.
Radical Hysterectomy: A radical hysterectomy will be necessary for only a small percentage of women since several better surgical options exist already. This kind of uterine cancer surgery includes removing the uterus, cervix and ovaries and the majority of the encompassing tissue (the parametria) and the upper part of the vagina.
Lymphadenectomy: The lymph nodes in the pelvis may likewise be removed. Your specialist may evacuate the lymph nodes as a component of a hysterectomy to deal with cancer and build up a more focused approach for the uterine cancer treatment plan.
Pelvic Exenteration: For women with repetitive or advanced uterine cancer, pelvic exenteration might be an alternative. During this kind of cancer surgery, the uterus, cervix, vagina, ovaries, bladder, rectum and surrounding lymph nodes are removed. Tissue from somewhere else in the body is used to recreate the vagina and urine and stools are passed into external packs.
Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping: Sentinel lymph node mapping (SLN) might be utilised as a part of early-stage cancer if your specialist can see from the X-ray results that there has been no undeniable spread of cancer to the lymph nodes in your pelvis. In this surgery, a blue dye is infused into the zone with cancer, which is usually close to the cervix. The lymph nodes that turn blue are removed during surgery.
- Omentectomy: The omentum is a layer of greasy tissue that covers the stomach contents like an apron. Cancer at times tends to spread to this tissue. At the point when this tissue is removed, it is called an omentectomy. This might be done during a hysterectomy if cancer has spread there or to check for possible cancer spread.
After surgery if the stage comes beyond stage 1 then patients need Radiotherapy by an oncologist.
I am suffering from slip disc. Its been more than 4 months now. I have sciatica nerve pain as well. Taking homeopathic treatment from last one month. I still have pain. I can notice swelling on my left hip. Please suggest.
The thought of going under the knife to treat your spine problem may give rise to a range of emotions; make you ponder over a number of things such as the recovery period, procedure and techniques involved and so on. Nonetheless, before opting for the surgery, there are certain points that you should go over and these are:
- Be well aware of the cause of your pain - Identifying the cause that is behind your pain is vital in order to decide whether the surgery is going to prove beneficial in the long run or not. If the cause is not identified as the right one, the surgery may prove futile and you may not get the pain relief that you're looking for.
- Gather detailed information about your spine surgeon - Before visiting the spine surgeon, you should collect detailed information about the specialist so as to be able to come up with appropriate questions concerning the surgery. From questions concerning about the surgeon's success and complication rates, numbers of surgeries performed to qualifications of the surgeon, these and much more should be part of your evaluation process.
- Prepare yourself before a consultation - It's good to prepare yourself before a medical consultation. Whether it's researching about the surgery and your condition or being well aware of your family's medical history, or details about the pain that you experience, or your expectations from the surgery, every aspect should be covered so that you derive the maximum benefit from your meeting.
- Carry out your own research - Carrying out your own research on the alternatives before opting for the surgery can put you on a better footing. It's imperative to compare the opinion put forward by the surgeon from genuine sources so that you're better able to understand the merits and demerits of the treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.