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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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My first day of period was on 4th Dec 2016. I had an unprotected sex on 15th and I took an ipill on 15th itself. Again on 17th, it was unprotected and I took an ipill but after sometimes I had vomited. I am not sure if the second ipill that I took stayed or not or will the first one have its effect till 17th. Please help.
Acute pyelonephritis is a suppurative inflammation of the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. It is a potentially life threatening condition caused by bacterial infection. It can occur suddenly and causes the kidneys to swell, which may damage them permanently too. If the condition occurs repeatedly, it is termed as chronic pyelonephritis.
The most common bacteria involved in causing pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Other causative bacteria are Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Infection starts in the lower urinary tract as a urinary tract infection. Urethra provides an entry for the bacteria, which enter the tract and begin to multiply and spread up to the bladder. They further travel through the ureters to the kidneys. Any septic infection in the bloodstream can also spread to the kidneys and cause acute pyelonephritis.
How it spreads - Pyelonephritis spreads through two routes, homogenous or from the lower ascending tract (ascending infection).
Risk factors - Urinary obstruction, vesicoureteral reflex, catheterization, pregnancy, Diabetes Mellitus, age over 65.
Symptoms - The symptoms are observed within two days of infection. Common symptoms include:
- High fever of a temperature greater than 102 degree F
- Pain in the pelvic region
- Burning sensation during urination
- Flank pain
- Presence of pus discharge or blood in the urine, fishy odor in urine and vomiting.
The symptoms observed can vary in children and older adults than they are in other people. Mental confusion is common in older adults and it often is their only symptom. In chronic pyelonephritis, people experience only mild symptoms or may even lack noticeable symptoms altogether, which is the major reason of negligence by the patient towards treatment. Flank pain in the abdomen and signs of infection can be observed.
Diagnosis - Uncentrifused urine is analyzed for the presence of pus cells. The leucocyte esterase dipstick method is used to check for Pyuria. However, it is less sensitive than microscopy. In the urine culture, significant bacteriuria is detected on presence of more than 105 colonies/ml of the sample. Imaging studies can be done to check for the presence of kidney stones. Amongst the inflammatory markers, the values of C-reactive protein (CRP), ESR, and plasma viscosity may be raised. An elevated white cell count with neutrophilia is seen on blood culture.
Complications - Abscess formation in either the kidney parenchyma or the surrounding retroperitoneal spaces is a common complication. Other complications include the development of a xantho-granulomatous or emphysematous pyelonephritis. In severe cases, there can be chronic renal failure too.
Treatment - The duration of treatment depends on spread of infection. Empirical antibiotic treatment can be started until the confirmatory tests reports of culture and sensitivity are observed. Antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Cefixime can be given. Medications for acute pyelonephritis are continued for up to 3 weeks, whereas for chronic conditions medicines should be given for 6 months.
Chronic pyelonephritis - It is a morphologic entity which is associated with a predominant interstitial inflammation and scarring of the renal parenchyma. There is a grossly visible scarring and deformation of the pelvic-calyceal system. Chronic pyelonephritis further leads to chronic renal failure.
The two forms of chronic pyelo-nephritis are
- Chronic obstructive pyelonephritis, where obstructive lesions lead to recurrent bouts of renal inflammation
- Reflux nephropathy.
Management includes controlling blood pressure to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, long term antibiotic coverage for urinary tract infection, removal of calculi and antibiotic prophylaxis for vesico-ureteral reflex.
Her delivery date 23rd march 2016. And LMP Date 16.06. 2015. Now we consulting with gynaecology doctor in our nearest. Taking tablets too as suggested by doctors. Now she feels morning time white discharge like water (not smell and also we check weather it is curd like its not like that) what should she do for that please suggest.
Hello gynagogist mam, My preg confirmed on sep 11th 2015 (6weeks) with heart beat 117 n fetal pole imaged Oct 16th 2015 (11weeks) Dec 18 2015 (20 weeks) Mar 7 (33 weeks) April. 9, th (36 to 37 weeks) duration I delivered a baby. Please let me answer for my question On sep 4 th 2015 that is prior 7 days of my 6 weeks report one guy missed me for sex. But on the full month of august I. Was with my husband. I wants to know either my baby have my husbands dna or new guy who used me once on sep 4th his dna? So that I can tell the truth to my husband. I'm in full of confusion who will be the father can you clarify me? Because of this confusion full of stress.
My amh is low 0.68.is there any medicine to increase amh level. And improve egg quality. .married life 4 years. Not even conceived once in 4 year married life. Very worried about that.
I am having period of 26th August of this month I want to get pregnant my question is that after period what is the exact time to conceive a baby.
Is there any symptoms of getting pregnant before missed periods? Kindly give examples of symptoms, if any.
Infertility has significant social impact on india. Evaluation of male should occur simultaneously with female partner when there is no pregnancy after one year of regular unprotected intercourse. Semen ananysis is not a test of fertility. Fertility is couple related phenonmenon. The patient can not considered fertile only on the basis of normal semen analysis. It was shown that 30% of patients with normal semen analysis have abnormal sperm function. Semen anaysis should be performed according to 2010 who guidelines.
Male fertility problems ranges from decreased production of sperm (oligospemia) motility defect (asthaenospermia) morphology defect (teratospermia) or non-measurable level of sperm (azoospermia) which is diagnosed in 2% of general population. Azoospermia is one of the major reproductive disorders which causes male infertility in humans. Genetic factors are responsible for 1/3 rd case of azoospermia. There are two types of azoospermia obstructive and non-obstructive.
Obstructive azoospermia is defined as absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate despite normal spermatogenesis and affects 6%-13.6% of infertile male while non-obstructive azoospermia is most severe form of azoospermia which affects 10% of infertile male.
Sperm retrived can be achieved in case of azoospermia through pesa (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration) mesa (microscopic epididymal sperm aspiration) tesa (testicular sperm aspiration or micro tese (microscopic testicular sperm extraction).
The appearance of 5 th edition of who manual (2010) is radical shift in understanding fertility in men. The 5 th edition of the who manual for semen analysis includes for first time reference values for human semen characteristics. Sperm counts >15 m are considered normal which means fertility is possible although it is imp to remember that higher values up to >140 m are known to increase fertility probability, values between 15-140 m represents a category of male subfertility.
Introduction of icsi (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) or testtube baby has brought hope for men when severe male factor infertility and provide them chance to become biological fathers.