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Dr. Ramakanth Reddy  - Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy

94 (97 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health

Pediatrician, Hyderabad

23 Years Experience  ·  300 at clinic  ·  ₹200 online
Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (97 ratings) MBBS, Diploma In Child Health Pediatrician, Hyderabad
23 Years Experience  ·  300 at clinic  ·  ₹200 online
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Problems faced by Adolescents and their treatment

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Personal Statement

I want all my patients to be informed and knowledgeable about their health care, from treatment plans and services, to insurance coverage....more
I want all my patients to be informed and knowledgeable about their health care, from treatment plans and services, to insurance coverage.
More about Dr. Ramakanth Reddy
Dr. Ramakanth Reddy is a Pediatrician with an experience of over 21 years. He completed his MBBS from Siddhartha Medical College in 1995 and Diploma in Child Health (DCH) from Gulbarga University in 1999. He is available for consultation in Sri Jaabilli Children?s Clinic, Hyderabad, Telengana. Dr. Reddy is a professional member of the Indian Medical Association (IMA), Indian Academy of Pediatrics, Fellow of the Royal Society of Health and NHCPS. Apart from being a pediatrician, Dr. Ramakanth Reddy also works as an Infectious Diseases Physician and Emergency Medicine related problems Some of the services provided by Dr. Reddy are Vaccinations, New Born Care, Thyroid Disease in children, Thyroid disorder treatment among others. He is completely dedicated to his profession and believes in providing optimal care to his patients as per their convenience. A well-revered name in his field, Dr. reddy worked as a chief administrator and director at Mayflower Hospital for women and children where he had many happily satisfied patients throughout his career.


MBBS - Siddhartha Medical College - 1995
Diploma In Child Health - Gulbarga University - 1999
Past Experience
Consultant Pediatrician at Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic
Director at May Flower Hospital For Women & Children
Chief Administrator at May Flower Hospital For Women & Children
Languages spoken
Professional Memberships
Indian Medical Association (IMA)
Indian Academy of Paediatrics
Fellow of The Royal Society of Health (FRSH)


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Sri Jaabilli Children's Clinic

Shop No.4, Lorven House Apartments, Behind Radhika Movieplex, ECIL, AnupuramHyderabad Get Directions
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May Flower Hospital For Women And Children

Opposite Bharat Petrol Pump, SainikpuriHyderabad Get Directions
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MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Kidney Stones in Children


What is nephrolithiasis?

Nephrolithiasis, commonly known as kidney stones or renal calculi, typically occurs in adults, but it can happen in children as well. Some doctors say there is anecdotal evidence that more children are getting this condition, probably because of consuming too much salt. Kidney stones can occur even in babies. A renal stone is a crystal. Kidney stones form when high amounts of certain substances accumulate in the kidneys, forming a stone. Certain stones are caused by other diseases but many are related to diet and nutrition.

Types of Kidney Stones

  • Calcium stones are the most common type, usually caused by high intake of certain substances, such as salt.
  • Cystine stones can form in people who have cystinuria, an inherited disorder, marked by increased formation of stones in the bladder, kidney and ureter.
  • Struvite stones most often occur in women who have UTI
  • Urica acid stones can occur with gout or after chemotherapy.


  • Intense pain in the lower back and/or in the sides
  • Frequent, painful urination,Nausia,vomittig,
  • Blood in the urine and/or cloudy urine
  • Urinary tract infections secondary to kidney stones accompanied by fever

Diarrhea in Children

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
Diarrhea in Children

What is diarrhea?

Diarrhea is when stools (bowel movements) are loose and watery. Your child may also need to go to the bathroom more often.

Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.

Diarrhea may be either:

  • Short-term (acute). Diarrhea that lasts 1 or 2 days and goes away. This may be caused by food or water that was contaminated by bacteria (bacterial infection). Or it may happen if your child gets sick from a virus.

  • Long-term (chronic). Diarrhea that lasts for a few weeks. This may be caused by another health problem such as irritable bowel syndrome. It can also be caused by an intestinal disease. This includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, or celiac disease. Giardia may also cause chronic diarrhea.

What causes diarrhea?

Diarrhea may be caused by many things, including:

  • Bacterial infection

  • Viral infection

  • Trouble digesting certain things (food intolerance)

  • An immune system response to certain foods (food allergy)

  • Parasites that enter the body through food or water

  • Reaction to medicines

  • An intestinal disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease

  • A problem with how the stomach and bowels work (functional bowel disorder), such as irritable bowel syndrome

  • Surgery on the stomach or gallbladder

Children who visit some foreign countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea. This is caused by having food or water that is not safe because of bacteria, viruses, or parasites.

Severe diarrhea may mean a child has a serious disease. Talk with your child's healthcare provider if symptoms don’t go away. Also talk with the provider if symptoms stop your child from doing daily activities. It may be hard to find out what is causing your child’s diarrhea.Imbalances of salt and water in the body can lead to problems ranging from cystic fibrosis to diarrhea to kidney failure. Dr. Guggino and his team study the channels that move salt and water– and what goes wrong with them in disease.


What are the symptoms of diarrhea?

Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They can include:

  • Cramping

  • Belly (abdominal) pain

  • Swelling (bloating)

  • Upset stomach (nausea)

  • Urgent need to use the bathroom

  • Fever

  • Bloody stools

  • Loss of body fluids (dehydration)

  • Incontinence

The symptoms of diarrhea may look like other health problems. Severe diarrhea may be a sign of a serious disease. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is diarrhea diagnosed?

The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. Your child may have lab tests to check blood and urine.

Other tests may include:

  • A stool culture to check for abnormal bacteria or parasites in your child’s digestive tract. A small stool sample is taken and sent to a lab.

  • A stool evaluation to check the stool for blood or fat

  • Blood tests to rule out certain diseases

  • Imaging tests to rule out structural problems

  • Tests to check for food intolerance or allergies

  • A sigmoidoscopy. This test lets the healthcare provider check the inside of part of your child’s large intestine. It helps to tell what is causing diarrhea, stomach pain, constipation, abnormal growths, and bleeding. It uses a short, flexible, lighted tube (sigmoidoscope). The tube is put into your child’s intestine through the rectum. This tube blows air into the intestine to make it swell. This makes it easier to see inside.

How is diarrhea treated?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

Dehydration is the major concern with diarrhea. In most cases, treatment includes replacing lost fluids. Antibiotics may be prescribed when bacterial infections are the cause.

Children should drink lots of fluids. This helps replace the lost body fluids. If your child is dehydrated, be sure to:

  • Offer drinks called glucose-electrolyte solutions. These fluids have the right balance of water, sugar, and salts. Some are available as popsicles.

  • Avoid juice or soda. They may make diarrhea worse.

  • Not give plain water to your baby

  • Not give too much plain water to kids of any age. It can be dangerous.

  • Keep breastfeeding your baby. Breastfed babies often have less diarrhea.

  • Keep feeding your baby formula, if you were already doing so

What are the complications of diarrhea?

The greatest complication of diarrhea is dehydration. This is more likely with young children and those with a weakened immune system. Dehydration can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild dehydration is the loss of fluid. Moderate or severe dehydration puts stress on the heart and lungs. In the worst cases it can lead to shock, which is life-threatening.

What can I do to prevent diarrhea?

Proper handwashing can reduce the spread of bacteria that may cause diarrhea.

A rotavirus vaccine can prevent diarrhea caused by rotaviruses. Ask your child's healthcare provider which vaccines are right for your child.

When you travel, make sure anything your child eats and drinks is safe. This is even more important if you travel to developing countries.

Travel safety tips for drinking and eating include:

  • Not drinking tap water or using it to brush teeth

  • Not using ice made from tap water

  • Not drinking unpasteurized milk (milk that has not gone through a process to kill certain bacteria)

  • Not eating raw fruits and vegetables unless you wash and peel them yourself

  • Not eating raw or undercooked meat or fish

  • Not eating food from street vendors or food trucks

Talk with your child's healthcare provider before traveling.

When should I call my child's healthcare provider?

Call your child's provider if your child is less than 6 months old or has any of the following symptoms:

  • Belly pain

  • Blood in the stool

  • Frequent vomiting

  • Doesn’t want to drink liquids

  • High fever

  • Dry, sticky mouth

  • Weight loss

  • Urinates less frequently (wets fewer than 6 diapers per day)

  • Frequent diarrhea

  • Extreme thirst

  • No tears when crying

  • Sunken soft spot (fontanelle) on baby’s head

Key points about diarrhea

  • Diarrhea is loose, watery stool. Your child may also have to go to the bathroom more often.

  • It may be caused by many things, including bacterial infection or viral infection.

  • Dehydration is the major concern with diarrhea.

  • In most cases, treatment involves replacing lost fluids.

  • The rotavirus vaccine can prevent diarrhea caused by that virus.

  • Proper handwashing can help prevent diarrhea.

  • When you travel, make sure anything your child eats and drinks is safe.

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MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What is scabies?

Scabies is an infestation of mites (tiny insects) characterized by small, red bumps and intense itching. This highly contagious infection often spreads from person to person while they are sleeping together in the same bed, or during close, personal contact. The itching is caused by the mites burrowing into the skin where they lay eggs that hatch a few days later. Scabies can affect people of all ages and social classes. It is common all over the world. Scabies happens mostly in children and young adults.

What are the symptoms of scabies?

It may take between 4 to 6 weeks for a person to develop symptoms of scabies after coming in contact with an infected person.

In children younger than 2 years of age, the lesions caused by the mites tend to happen on the head, neck, palms, and soles. In older children and adults, the lesions are usually on the hands, between the fingers, wrists, belt line, thighs, belly button, in the groin area, around the breasts, and in the armpits. The following are the most common symptoms of scabies. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Itching, usually severe

  • Rash, with small pimples or red bumps

  • Scaly or crusty skin (with advanced conditions)

The symptoms of scabies may resemble other skin conditions. Always talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is scabies diagnosed?

In diagnosing scabies, the skin and skin crevices are examined by your healthcare provider. A sample of skin, obtained by scraping the skin, may be examined under a microscope to confirm the presence of mites.

Treatment for scabies

Specific treatment for scabies will be determined by your healthcare provider based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the infestation

  • Your tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the infestation

  • Your opinion or preference

Scabies is treatable and usually all members in a family are treated at the same time. Treatment may include:

  • Applications of prescription creams and lotions, such as permethrin and lindane solutions

  • An oral medicine called ivermectin may be used for severe cases 

  • Oral antihistamine medicine (to help relieve itching)

  • In some cases, other topical ointments are recommended

In addition, it is important to wash all clothes and bedding in hot water and dry in a hot dryer. Clothing and other objects that cannot be washed (for example, pillows, stuffed animals) should be placed in a plastic bag for at least 1 week. This will kill any mites on or in these objects. The itching may continue for many weeks after the initial treatment of the scabies.

GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) in Children

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What is GERD?

GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a long-term (chronic) digestive disorder. It happens when stomach contents flow back up (reflux) into the food pipe (esophagus).

GERD is a more serious and long-lasting form of gastroesophageal reflux (GER).

GER is common in babies under 2 years old. Most babies spit up a few times a day during their first 3 months. GER does not cause any problems in babies. In most cases, babies outgrow this by the time they are 12 to 14 months old.

It is also common for children and teens ages 2 to 19 to have GER from time to time. This doesn’t always mean they have GERD.

When GER becomes GERD

Your baby, child, or teen may have GERD if:

  • Your baby’s symptoms prevent him or her from feeding. These symptoms may include vomiting, gagging, coughing, and trouble breathing.
  • Your baby has GER for more than 12 to 14 months
  • Your child or teen has GER more than 2 times a week, for a few months 

What causes GERD?

GERD is often caused by something that affects the LES, the lower esophageal sphincter. The LES is a muscle at the bottom of the food pipe (esophagus). The LES opens to let food into the stomach. It closes to keep food in the stomach. When the LES relaxes too often or for too long, stomach acid flows back into the esophagus. This causes vomiting or heartburn.

Everyone has reflux from time to time. If you have ever burped and had an acid taste in your mouth, you have had reflux. Sometimes the LES relaxes at the wrong times. Often your child will just have a bad taste in his or her mouth. Or your child may have a short, mild feeling of heartburn.

Babies are more likely to have a weak LES. This makes the LES relax when it should stay shut. As food or milk is digesting, the LES opens. It lets the stomach contents go back up to the esophagus. Sometimes the stomach contents go all the way up the esophagus. Then the baby or child vomits. In other cases, the stomach contents only go part of the way up the esophagus. This causes heartburn or breathing problems. In some cases there are no symptoms at all.

Some foods seem to affect the muscle tone of the LES. They let the LES stay open longer than normal. These foods include:

  • Chocolate
  • Peppermint
  • High-fat foods

Other foods cause the stomach to make more acid. These foods include:

  • Citrus foods
  • Tomatoes and tomato sauces

Other things that may lead to GERD include:

  • Being obese
  • Medicines, including some antihistamines, antidepressants, and pain medicines
  • Being around secondhand smoke

What are the risk factors for GERD?

GERD is very common during a baby’s first year of life. It often goes away on its own. Your child is more at risk for GERD if he or she has:

  • Down syndrome
  • Neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy

What are the symptoms of GERD?

Heartburn, or acid indigestion, is the most common symptom of GERD. Heartburn is described as a burning chest pain. It begins behind the breastbone and moves up to the neck and throat. It can last as long as 2 hours. It is often worse after eating. Lying down or bending over after a meal can also lead to heartburn.

Children younger than age 12 will often have different GERD symptoms. They will have a dry cough, asthma symptoms, or trouble swallowing. They won’t have classic heartburn.

Each child may have different symptoms. Common symptoms of GERD include:

  • Burping or belching
  • Not eating
  • Having stomach pain
  • Being fussy around mealtimes
  • Vomiting often
  • Having hiccups
  • Gagging
  • Choking
  • Coughing often
  • Having coughing fits at night

Other symptoms may include:

  • Wheezing
  • Getting colds often
  • Getting ear infections often
  • Having a rattling in the chest
  • Having a sore throat in the morning
  • Having a sour taste in the mouth
  • Having bad breath
  • Loss or decay of tooth enamel

GERD symptoms may seem like other health problems. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a digestive disorder that causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, gas or a combination of the above. IBS occurs in people of all ages, including children. Some children may have diarrhea as a dominant symptom, while others may have constipation as a dominant symptom. Certain children have symptoms that alternate between diarrhea and constipation. Stress has been implicated as a trigger in IBS, but stress alone does not cause IBS.


  • Diarrhea 

  • Constipation 

  • Diarrhea alternating with constipation

  • Flatulence

  • Bloating

  • Mucus in the stool

  • Vomiting 

  • Nausea 

  • Weight loss in some children

  • Urgency with bowel movement

  • Sensation of incomplete emptying after bowel movement


To diagnose IBS, the doctor will ask questions about symptoms and examine the child to rule out more serious problems or diseases. IBS is not a disease — it is a syndrome, or group of symptoms that occur together. It does not damage the intestine, so if the physical exam and other tests show no sign of disease or damage, the doctor may diagnose IBS.


IBS is usually treated by introducing more fiber into the child’s diet. Bowel-training to empty the bowels at regular, specific times during the day may help. In children with constipation, laxatives should be used with caution because they may lead to addiction and compound the problem. When used, laxatives are taken usually short term and parents must follow the doctor’s instructions precisely.

1 person found this helpful

What is Delayed Puberty?

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
What is Delayed Puberty?

What is Delayed Puberty?

Delayed puberty is a condition where the sexual development starts later than usual, typically later than 14 years of age. Medical conditions, including diabetescystic fibrosis or kidney disease, can cause delayed puberty, but sometimes no cause can be identified. Disorders of the thyroid or pituitary glands may cause delayed puberty. Malnutrition can also delay puberty. 


  • No breast development in girls by age 13 

  • No menstruation for five or more years after the first appearance of breast tissue 

  • No testicles development by age 14 in boys 

  • Incompletely developed male organs by five years after the first start to develop 


  • Complete physical exam and medical history 

  • Blood tests to determine hormone levels 

  • X-rays of the hand to determine bone age 

When to Call for Help

If your child exhibits no signs or few signs of sexual development by age 13 for girls, or by age 14 for boys, see a doctor. 


Treatment depends on the individual case and the specific cause. For example, if insufficient hormones are the cause, delayed puberty can be treated by the use of supplemental hormones.

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What is Impetigo in Children?

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

What is impetigo in children?

Impetigo is an infection of the skin. When it affects just the surface, it’s called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can also affect deeper parts of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may occur on healthy skin. Or it may occur where the skin was injured by a cut, scrape, or insect bite.

Impetigo is most common in children from ages 2 to 5. It is contagious. This means it’s easily passed from one person to another. It can be spread around a household. Children can infect other family members, and can reinfect themselves.

What causes impetigo in a child?

Impetigo is caused by bacteria. The bacteria that can cause it include:

  • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

  • Staphylococcus aureus

Who is at risk for impetigo in a child?

Impetigo is more common in children, but adults may also have the infection. A child is more likely to get impetigo if he or she:

  • Has close contact with to others with impetigo

  • Does not keep clean (poor hygiene)

  • Is in warm, moist (humid) air

  • Has other skin conditions, such as scabies or eczema

What are the symptoms of impetigo in a child?

Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each child. They also vary depending on which bacteria caused it. Symptoms can include:

  • Red bumps

  • Sores that are filled with fluid, draining fluid, or crusted over

  • Areas that are red, swollen, and may itch

  • Swelling of nearby lymph glands (nodes)

The bumps or sores can occur anywhere on the body. But they are most common on the face, arms, and legs.

The symptoms of impetigo can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is impetigo diagnosed in a child?

The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will give your child a physical exam. A sample of the pus from the sores may be sent to a lab. This is called a culture. It’s done to see what type of bacteria caused the infection. It can help the doctor decide the best antibiotic for treatment.

How is impetigo treated in a child?

Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. Treatment may include:

  • Prescription antibiotic cream or ointment. This is most often done for mild impetigo. Over-the-counter antibiotic cream or ointment is usually not advised.

  • Antibiotic pills or liquid by mouth (oral). This is most often advised if your child has several areas of impetigo or ecthyma. It may also be advised if more than one person in a household has impetigo.

  • Cleaning and bandaging. You will need to gently washing affected areas of your child’s skin with mild soap and water. Cover areas that are draining fluid. Make sure to wash your hands before and after caring for your child’s impetigo.

What are possible complications of impetigo in a child?

Possible complications of impetigo can include:

  • Worsening or spreading of the infection

  • Scarring, which is more common with ecthyma

Impetigo caused by beta-hemolytic strep bacteria can cause:

  • Kidney damage (poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis)

  • Fever, joint, and other problems (rheumatic fever)

What can I do to prevent impetigo in my child?

You can help to prevent impetigo and prevent it from spreading to others. The following may help:

  • Keep your child out of daycare or school for 24 hours after starting antibiotic treatment. Your child can return after 24 hours. Cover any draining sores with bandages.

  • Make sure your child and everyone else in your household washes his or her hands well. This means using soap and water and scrubbing well.

  • Have everyone in the household use their own towels for drying hands and for after bathing. Do not share towels.

  • Keep your child's fingernails short. This can help prevent your child scratching and spreading the infection.

When should I call my child's healthcare provider?

Call the healthcare provider if your child has a skin infection after being in contact with anyone who has impetigo.

1 person found this helpful

What Causes Childhood Asthma?

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
What Causes Childhood Asthma?

What causes childhood asthma?

Researchers continue to learn what causes asthma. It is not entirely understood. The following things play a part:

  • Genetics. Asthma runs in families.

  • Allergies. Some allergies are more common in people with asthma. And, allergies also tend to run in families.

  • Respiratory infections. Infants and young children who have some respiratory infections are more likely to have long-term lung problems.

  • Environmental factors. Irritants, like pollution and allergens, are known to cause asthma.

What causes asthma symptoms to worsen (flare-ups)? 

Those things that cause asthma symptoms to get worse or asthma flare-ups. Each child has different triggers. A very important part of asthma management is identifying and then trying to avoid triggers. Asthma triggers include:

  • Allergens, such as pollen, dust, and pets

  • Upper respiratory infections, such as colds or the flu.

  • Inhaled irritants, such as secondhand smoke.

  • Certain weather conditions, such as cold air.

  • Exercise or physical activity.

  • Physical expressions of emotion, such as crying, laughing, or yelling.

Do children outgrow asthma?

How asthma will affect a child throughout his or her lifetime varies.

  • Many infants and toddlers may wheeze when sick with a viral illness, such as cold or flu. However, most of these children don't get asthma later in life.

  • Some children with persistent wheezing and asthma get better during the teenage years.

  • About half of the children who have asthma at a young age appear to "outgrow" it, although asthma symptoms may reappear later in life.

If my child has asthma, can he or she participate in sports and activities?

Exercise, such as long-distance running, may trigger a flare-up in many children with asthma. However, with proper management, a child with asthma can fully participate in most sports. Aerobic exercise actually improves airway function by strengthening breathing muscles. Some tips for exercising with asthma include the following:

  • Teach your child to breathe through the nose and not the mouth to warm and humidify the air before it enters the airways.

  • During cold weather, have your child wear a scarf over his or her mouth and nose to warm inhaled air.

  • Give your child asthma medication before exercising, as recommended by your child's health care provider. If your child is not already on controller medication and he or she exercises daily, the provider may recommend daily controller medication.

  • Have your child carry his or her quick-relief inhaler medication.

Asthma and school

Some children with asthma may need to take their medications during school hours. It's important that you and your child work with his or her health care provider and school staff to meet the child's asthma treatment goals. For the best asthma care for your child at school, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology recommends the following:

  • Meet with teachers and other relevant school staff to inform them about your child's condition, special needs, and asthma management plan.

  • Educate school personnel on your child's asthma medications and how to assist during an asthma flare-up.

  • Ask school staff to treat your child as normal as possible when the asthma is under control.

  • Before starting a physical education class or a team sport, make sure the teacher or coach understands that exercise can trigger asthma symptoms.

  • Talk with teachers and school administrators about indoor air quality, allergens, and irritants in the school.

  • Ensure your child's emotional well-being by reassuring that asthma doesn't have to slow him or her down or make him or her different from other children.

Control of asthma through the years

Be honest with your child about asthma. Remember, as your child grows, that independence is an important goal. Children with asthma don't want to be different, yet they need guidance and supervision.

  • Toddlers. This age group relies completely on the parents. These children understand little about asthma. The most important factor with this age group is to try to make medication time a fun one, while stressing the importance of taking the medications. Let the children assist in any way possible.

  • School-age. These children have an increased ability to understand asthma. They should be taught about their medications and how to avoid their triggers. They should begin to monitor their own symptoms.

  • Adolescents. Often, adolescents resist taking chronic medications, don't like restrictions, and don't want to be different. Involve adolescents in every aspect of asthma management. They should help with goal setting and help decide which medications work best. An asthma care "contract" can be used. It should allow for self-care while allowing overall parental supervision.

    Having asthma doesn't mean having less fun than other adolescents. It is important for your adolescent to tell his or her friends about his or her triggers.

Always consult your child's provider if you or your child has questions or concerns.

1 person found this helpful

Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis

MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis

What are pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections that cause inflammation. If the tonsils are affected, it is called tonsillitis. If the throat is affected, it is called pharyngitis. If you have both, it’s called pharyngotonsillitis. These infections are spread by close contact with others. Most cases happen during the winter or colder months.

What causes pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

There are many causes of infections in the throat. Viruses are the most common cause and antibiotics will not help. Causes of throat infections include: 

  • Viruses (most common)

  • Bacteria (such as strep)

  • Fungal infections

  • Parasitic infections

  • Cigarette smoke

  • Other causes

What are the symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

The symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis depend greatly on what’s causing it. For some people, symptoms may start quickly. For others, symptoms start slowly. These are the most common symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis:

The symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis may look like other medical conditions or problems. Always check with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How are pharyngitis and tonsillitis diagnosed?

In most cases, it is hard to tell the difference between a viral sore throat and a strep throat based on physical exam. It is important, though, to know if the sore throat is caused by strep bacteria, as this calls for antibiotics to help prevent the complications that can happen with these bacteria.

As a result, most people, when they have the above symptoms, will get a strep test and throat culture to find out if it is an infection caused by strep. This will involve a throat swab in the healthcare provider’s office.

Quick tests, called rapid strep tests, may be done. This may immediately show as positive for strep and antibiotics can be started. If it is negative, part of the throat swab will be kept for a throat culture. This will further identify strep in 2 to 3 days. Your healthcare provider will discuss the treatment plan with you based on the findings.

How are pharyngitis and tonsillitis treated?

Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment based on:

  • How old you are

  • His or her overall health and medical history

  • How sick you are

  • How well you can handle specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

  • How long the condition is expected to last

  • Your opinion or preference

If bacteria are not the cause of the infection, the treatment is usually more for comfort. Antibiotics will not help treat viral sore throats. Treatment may include:

  • Acetaminophen or ibuprofen (for pain)

  • Increased fluid intake

  • Throat lozenges

  • Gargling with warm salt water

Antibiotics are prescribed if the cause of the infection is bacterial.

What are the complications of pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

Most cases of pharyngitis and tonsillitis will run their course without any complications. But, if the disease is caused by strep, rare complications, including rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, and kidney disease can happen. Treatment with antibiotics can prevent these complications.

When to call your healthcare provider?

If a sore throat is severe and includes trouble swallowing, drooling, or neck swelling, see a healthcare provider right away.

Key points about pharyngitis and tonsillitis

  • Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections in the throat that cause inflammation

  • Pharyngitis and tonsillitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and cigarette smoking

  • Most infections are caused by viruses. Antibiotics do not cure a viral infection, and should not be used

  • If a bacterial infection is diagnosed, it will be treated with antibiotics

  • Pharyngitis and tonsillitis can be treated with pain relievers, increased fluid intake, throat lozenges, and gargling with warm salt water

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MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Children


What is oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in children?

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. It is mostly diagnosed in childhood. Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures. They are more troubling to others than they are to themselves.

What causes ODD in a child?

Researchers don’t know what causes ODD. But there are 2 main theories for why it occurs:

  • Developmental theory. This theory suggests that the problems start when children are toddlers. Children and teens with ODD may have had trouble learning to become independent from a parent or other main person to whom they were emotionally attached. Their behavior may be normal developmental issues that are lasting beyond the toddler years.
  • Learning theory. This theory suggests that the negative symptoms of ODD are learned attitudes. They mirror the effects of negative reinforcement methods used by parents and others in power. The use of negative reinforcement increases the child’s ODD behaviors. That’s because these behaviors allow the child to get what he or she wants: attention and reaction from parents or others.

Which children are at risk for ODD?

ODD is more common in boys than in girls. Children with the following mental health problems are also more likely to have ODD:

  • Mood or anxiety disorders
  • Conduct disorder
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

What are the symptoms of ODD in a child?

Most symptoms seen in children and teens with ODD also happen at times in other children without it. This is especially true for children around ages 2 or 3, or during the teen years. Many children tend to disobey, argue with parents, or defy authority. They may often behave this way when they are tired, hungry, or upset. But in children and teens with ODD, these symptoms happen more often. They also interfere with learning and school adjustment. And in some cases, they disrupt the child’s relationships with others.

Symptoms of ODD may include:

  • Having frequent temper tantrums
  • Arguing a lot with adults
  • Refusing to do what an adult asks
  • Always questioning rules and refusing to follow rules
  • Doing things to annoy or upset others, including adults
  • Blaming others for the child’s own misbehaviors or mistakes
  • Being easily annoyed by others
  • Often having an angry attitude
  • Speaking harshly or unkindly
  • Seeking revenge or being vindictive

These symptoms may look like other mental health problems. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is ODD diagnosed in a child?

If you notice symptoms of ODD in your child or teen, you can help by seeking a diagnosis right away. Early treatment can often prevent future problems.

A child psychiatrist or qualified mental health expert can diagnose ODD. He or she will talk with the parents and teachers about the child’s behavior and may observe the child. In some cases, your child may need mental health testing.

How is ODD treated in a child?

Early treatment can often prevent future problems. Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and health. It will also depend on how bad the ODD is.

Children with ODD may need to try different therapists and types of therapies before they find what works for them. Treatment may include:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy. A child learns to better solve problems and communicate. He or she also learns how to control impulses and anger.
  • Family therapy. This therapy helps make changes in the family. It improves communication skills and family interactions. Having a child with ODD can be very hard for parents. It can also cause problems for siblings. Parents and siblings need support and understanding.
  • Peer group therapy. A child develops better social and interpersonal skills.
  • Medicines. These are not often used to treat ODD. But a child may need them for other symptoms or disorders, such as ADHD.

How can I help prevent ODD in my child?

Researchers don’t know what causes ODD. But certain approaches can help prevent the disorder. Young children be helped by early intervention programs that teach them social skills and how to deal with anger. For teens, talk therapy (psychotherapy), learning social skills, and getting help with schoolwork can all help reduce problem behaviors. School-based programs can also help to stop bullying and improve relationships among teens.

Parent-management training programs are also important. These programs teach parents how to manage their child’s behavior. Parents learn positive reinforcement methods, and also how to discipline their child.

How can I help my child live with ODD?

Early treatment for your child can often prevent future problems. Here are things you can do to help:

  • Keep all appointments with your child’s healthcare provider.
  • Take part in family therapy as needed.
  • Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about other providers who will be involved in your child’s care. Your child may get care from a team that may include counselors, therapists, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists. Your child’s care team will depend on his or her needs and how serious the disorder is.
  • Tell others about your child’s conduct disorder. Work with your child’s healthcare provider and school to develop a treatment plan.
  • Reach out for support. Being in touch with other parents who have a child with ODD may be helpful. If you feel overwhelmed or stressed out, talk with your child’s healthcare provider. He or she may direct you to a support group for caregivers of children with ODD.

When should I call my child’s healthcare provider?

Call your child’s healthcare provider right away if your child:

  • Feels extreme depression, fear, anxiety, or anger toward him or herself or others
  • Feels out of control
  • Hears voices that others don’t hear
  • Sees things that others don’t see
  • Can’t sleep or eat for 3 days in a row
  • Shows behavior that concerns friends, family, or teachers, and others express concern about this behavior and ask you to seek help


Key points about ODD in children

  • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a type of behavior disorder. Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures.
  • Developmental problems may cause ODD. Or the behaviors may be learned.
  • A child with ODD may argue a lot with adults or refuse to do what they ask. He or she may also be unkind to others.
  • A mental health expert often diagnoses ODD.
  • Therapy that helps the child interact better with others is the main treatment. Medicines may be needed for other problems, such as ADHD.
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