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Cervical Cancer is most treatable when it is diagnosed and treated early. Problems found can usually be treated, depending on their severity and on the woman's age, past medical history, and other test results. Most women who get routine cervical cancer screening and follow up as told by their provider can find problems before cancer even develops. Prevention is always better than treatment.
Other HPV cancers are also more treatable when diagnosed and treated early. Although there is no routine screening test for these cancers, you should visit your doctor regularly for checkups.
Your doctor might recommend the HPV test if:
Your Pap test was abnormal, showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)
You're age 30 or older
The HPV test is available only for women; no HPV test yet exists to detect the virus in men. However, men can be infected with HPV and pass the virus along to their sex partners.
What is a HPV Test?
The HPV test is a screening test for cervical cancer, but the test doesn't tell you whether you have cancer. Instead, the test detects the presence of HPV, the virus that causes cervical cancer, in your system. Certain types of HPV - including types 16 and 18 - increase your cervical cancer risk.
Knowing whether you have a type of HPV that puts you at high risk of cervical cancer means that you and your doctor can better decide on the next steps in your health care. Those steps might include follow-up monitoring, further testing, or treatment of abnormal or precancerous cells.
Pap- HPV Test:
HPV spreads through sexual contact and is very common in young women, so, frequently, the test results will be positive. However, HPV infections often clear on their own within a year or two. Cervical changes that lead to cancer take several years - often 10 years or more - to develop. For these reasons, you might follow a course of watchful waiting instead of undergoing treatment for cervical changes resulting from an HPV infection.
A combination Pap-HPV test is performed in your doctor's office and takes only a few minutes. You'll lie on your back on an exam table with your knees bent, your doctor will gently insert an instrument called a speculum into your vagina. The speculum holds the walls of the vagina apart and a flat scraping device called a spatula or a soft brush is used to take samples of your cervical cells. This doesn't hurt, and you may not even feel the sample being taken.
Results of your HPV test are given as positive or negative
Positive HPV test:A positive test result means that you have a type of high-risk HPV that's linked to cervical cancer. It doesn't mean that you have cervical cancer now, but it's a warning sign that cervical cancer could develop in the future. Your doctor will probably recommend a follow-up test in a year to see if the infection has cleared or to check for signs of cervical cancer.
Negative HPV test: A negative test result means that you don't have any of the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer.
Depending on your test results, your doctor may recommend one of the following as a next step:
Normal monitoring:If you're over age 30, your HPV test is negative and your Pap test normal, you'll follow the generally recommended schedule for repeating both tests in five years.
Colposcopy: In this follow-up procedure, your doctor uses a special magnifying lens (colposcope) to more closely examine your cervix.
Biopsy:In this procedure, sometimes done in conjunction with colposcopy, your doctor takes a sample of cervical cells (biopsy) to be examined more closely under a microscope.
Removal of abnormal cervical cells:To prevent abnormal cells from developing into cancerous cells, your doctor may suggest a procedure to remove the areas of tissue that contain the abnormal cells.
Seeing a specialist: If your Pap test or HPV test results are abnormal, your healthcare provider will probably refer you to a gynecologist for a colposcopic exam. If test results show that you might have cancer, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in treating cancers of the female genital tract (gynecologic oncologist) for treatment.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.
My girlfriend blood in urine in female after having an intercourse with me, she blended only once now she has just pain, what should be the reason for pain, please help me please I am very much afraid abt this thing.
I have red eyes for 3 days. What should I do? Its so much paining and also come tears from eyes so much.
Hi I have a patch of skin on my lip that peels in cycles, every few days or so. It has become discolored and quite unsightly. I have it for about 2 years now. Could someone please help me out?
India is now in the midst of a diabetes epidemic, with an adult prevalence rate of nine per cent and almost 69 million people living with diabetes. In another 15 years, the figure is expected to rise to 101 million. In all this, more than 90 percent of cases are lifestyle-induced.
Individuals with diabetes do not have any symptoms for long periods of time and may have complications at the time of diagnosis. Common examples such as retinopathy (blindness), nephropathy (kidney disease), neuropathy (nerve damage) and diabetic foot (gangrene and amputations in extreme cases) affect a large proportion of individuals with diabetes. Approximately a third of those with diabetes are known to develop retinopathy. Diabetes is also known to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (heart attack and stroke); nearly half of those with diabetes die of heart attack.
A bad lifestyle is what propels this epidemic while an inadequate response from the health system results in debilitating complications. The staggering increase in cases of diabetics and prediabetics has been attributed to lifestyle changes as a result of rapid and unplanned urbanisation, an ageing population, a sedentary lifestyle and increasing consumption of unhealthy food, especially modern processed foods. Lack of opportunistic screening delays diagnosis while poor access to care and medicines, information asymmetry between doctors and patients, and a paucity of well-trained human resource, impede evidence-based management of diabetes.
Health promotion strategies
Prevention remains central in halting the current pace of the diabetes epidemic. Our focus should be on both individual and policy-level interventions. Health promotion strategies should be aimed at maintaining normal body weight by improving physical activity and following a balanced and healthy diet. Evidence from the [INTERNATIONAL] Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) shows that small reductions in weight by the moderate-intensity activity of at least 150 minutes per week and reduced fat consumption on most days prevented progression to diabetes by 58 percent among those with prediabetes.
In general, brisk walking for at least 30 minutes a day and following a healthy diet every day which has at least 3-5 servings of locally available and inexpensive fruits and vegetables, and less refined sugar and saturated fat can prevent or postpone the occurrence of diabetes. Doing yoga may also help prevent diabetes; in individuals with diabetes, it may even help them have better control of blood sugar. In addition, every adult above 30 years should be screened for diabetes and hypertension during a planned or unplanned visit to a physician or hospital.
Policy measures also call for reinforcement of health systems. Higher taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat junk foods and planning urban infrastructure to promote physical activity have become all the more imperative now.
Diabetes is no longer a disease predominantly affecting the rich and is fast spreading to rural communities. The poor are even more vulnerable. Thus, India has a population where the number of people with diabetes has increased substantially over time and is set to continuously grow; a large number of people disabled by complications, and an equivalent number who are unaware of the condition.
Early diagnosis and prevention is the key to controlling the disease and minimise the risk of disability. In this, we need a multi-pronged approach that involves collaboration among national leaders, clinicians, public health researchers and allied health professionals.
My wife is having 2.9x2.1x1.8cm mass lesion in left breast of birads category 5. Advised biopsy by the report. What should be the best treatment available in india. I am very much worried. An early detailed reply will be appreciated.
Am 25 yrs old, I want to get pregnant, I did all the test whatever required for pregnancy- Everything is normal. Scan, HSG etc. Also for my husband. But still I didn't get pregnant. My height- 5.2' weight- 62 BP-70/120- Please advice.
I am 22 years old. I got my left toe hurt last week when a gas filled LPG cylinder slipped from my hand and it's base fell on the phalanges of the thumb toe of my left foot. Now there is no pain but after the toe injury my left thigh swell. Then next day my left arm started paining and then the pain travelled to my left portion of the neck. It is like when I am moving I feel fine but when I make no movements it pains like there is no blood flowing in those parts. I feel numb and I could not even sleep properly for past week because it always is paining in my left portion of body. I felt my left part cold as compared to my right one last night. Please advice what is happening.
I have excessive hairs on my body. How to remove all my body hairs permanently without any side effects. I have excessive hairs on my arms, chest, legs, and shoulders.
In general, anterior cruciate ligament injuries or ACL injuries, are understood as tears in any of the several knee ligaments joining the upper leg bone and the lower leg bone. This can vary from minor injuries, such as small ligament tears, to more serious cases like complete tears or when the ligament and one of the bones gets displaced from the other. These injuries usually occur during sports activities, like soccer, basketball, football, gymnastics, tennis, volleyball, etc. An untreated ACL injury can lead to a condition called an ACL deficiency. This can cause a lot of problems with regard to knee movements as the bones may rub against each other, causing a lot of pain. In some cases, the cartilage covering the ends of the bones may get damaged, eventually tearing and trapping the cushion pads supporting the knee joints.
Signs and symptoms of anterior cruciate ligament may include:
- You are unable to move properly.
- You experience immense pain while walking up and down stairs.
- You are unable to engage much in physical activities.
- Your knee begins to swell gradually.
- You can sense a loud popping sensation when moving your knee.
- You experience feelings of instability.
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries generally occur during sports. Here are some common possible instances that might happen during a game:
- Sudden arrest in motion
- An unsteady landing from a jump
- Direct blows to the knee from tackles
- Sudden shifts in direction
Treatment of ACL injuries normally involves the following:
1. Immediate medical attention along with intense first aid care
2. Sincere adherence to the R.I.C.E model of self care
- Rest: proper rest for a couple of weeks or months depending upon the severity of the injury
- Ice: using ice packs to help cool the nerves
- Compression: ice treatment further helps in compression
- Elevation: when lying down in bed, it is strongly recommended that you keep your affected leg at a slightly higher position, through the use of pillows or cushions
3. Success rehabilitative therapy for several weeks
4. Anterior cruciate ligament surgery or reconstruction