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The lower part of uterus, which eventually leads into the vagina in the female reproductive system in humans is called the cervix uteri or in simple words, cervix. The inflammation of this part of the reproductive system is called Cervicitis.
Inflammation in the cervix is caused due to irritation, infection or injury to the cells, which align the cervix. Any one of a number of infections, mainly sexually transmitted diseases can cause cervicitis, of which the most common are chlamydia , mycoplasma , ureaplasma and gonorrhea. Chlamydia accounts for almost 40% of the total cases. Less common causes of cervicitis are Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis) and Genital herpes. Other than STDs, causes for Cervicitis include allergies, bacterial imbalance, injury or irritation resulting from pessaries, tampons, hormonal imbalance and even cancer or its treatment (radiation therapy).
Some cases of cervicitis in women can be symptomless. However, in most cases, symptoms are present, and they include:
1. Persistence of gray or white vaginal discharge that may or may not smell
2. Vaginal bleeding under certain conditions eg. in between periods or after sex
5. Difficulty or pain during urination
6. In rare cases, fever or pain in the abdomen
Cervicitis has no typical form of treatment. Treatment may not be needed in cases where the cause is not a sexually transmitted infection. On suspicion of an infection, the main objectives of the treatment are the removal of the infection and obstructing its spread to the fallopian tubes and uterus, or in case of pregnancy, to the baby.
The medical prescription issued by your doctor would depend on the organism, which is causing the infection. It may include Antibiotics, Antifungal medications or Antiviral medications. Cryosurgery, a process, which freezes the abnormal cells in the cervix using freezing temperatures, may also be performed by your doctor. In severe cases, where there is damage to the cervical cells, your doctor can apply silver nitrate (destroys abnormal cells).
Recommendations from your doctor may also ask your partner to be treated so as to prevent recurrence of the disease and to avoid intercourse as long as the treatment is in process. Treatment is mandatory if you are tested to be HIV positive. Moreover, having cervicitis makes you more prone to receive the virus from a HIV positive partner. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Mai Dr. Arun Kumar Goel, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Vaishali, Ghaziabad mein Cancer Surgery department ka head hoon, aur breast oncology unit ka director bhi hoon.
Mere main area of interest me breast cancer ka management ek pramukh area hai, breast cancer mahilaon ka sabse common cancer hai jo major cities hai metropolitan Delhi- NCR, Bombay aur aisi cities mein. Aur iska jo incidence hai woh badhta ja raha hai jiske kai karan hai, isme breast cancer ke ilaj mein pichle 30-40 saalon mein bahut tarakki hui hai aur aaj ke din hum dekhte hain ki breast cancer ke marijoo ka survival rate hai woh 90% se upar hai, lekin itna achha survival achieve karne ke liye hame jo hai uski diagnosis bahut jaldi karni padti hai. Toh yeh ek bahut sabse important baat hai, jo sabse common symptom hai breast cancer ka woh hai breast mein ek lump ya ganth ka hona. Ab breast ki ganthe kuch cancerous hoti hai kuch non-cancerous hoti hai, lekin jab bhi koi ganth ho toh yeh possibility zaroor sochna chahiye ki kahi cancer to nahi hai aur turant ek cancer specialist ya breast surgeon se opinion lena chahiye. Cancer ki diagnosis banane ke liye usme kuch janche hoti hai jisme mammography ya ultrasound hota hai, fine needle aspiration cytology ya biopsy hoti hai aur kabhi kabhi breast ka MRI bhi kiya jata hai. Toh agar cancer confirm hota hai toh phir uske baad kuch staging test karte hain yeh dekhne ke liye ki bimari sharir mein kahin faili toh nahi hai, jyadatar cases me bimari localised hoti hai aur uska ilaj jo hai sabse pehle operation ya surgery ke dwara kiya jata hai jo meri main feild hai. Jyadatar logo ko breast cancer surgery mein jo pareshani hoti hai ki pehle ilaj hota tha usme purye breast ko remove kiya jata tha jise hum log mastectomy kehte thye, lekin agar mareez early stage mein aata hai ganth bahut badi nahi hai to pura breast nikalna zaroori nahi hai, hum log breast conservation surgery ke dwara breast ko bchaa sakte hain. Isme aage aur kafi advances huye hai aur aaj kal hum log jo approach follow karte hain jis bolte hain oncoplastic breast conservation surgery, jisme jo cosmetic results pehle se bhi bheter hai. Agar kuch marijoo mein pura breast nikalna zaroori bhi hota hai toh reconstruction bhi kiya ja sakta hai. Aur ek nai approach jo surgery mein aaj kal hum log use kar rahe hai jise kehte hain Sentinel lymph Node Biopsy, yeh armpit ki jo ganthe hoti hain nodes unke management ke liye ek latest approach hai aur iss approach ka istemal karne se jo hathon mein sujan aane ka risk hai Lymphedema wo kafi kam ho jati hai. Toh surgery basically jo ho jati hai uske baad kuch marijoo mein additional treatment ki zaroorat ho sakti hai jaise chemotherapy hai, radiotherapy hai, ya kuch dawaiya hai jo hormonal intervention karti hain. Toh surgery ke baad kafi marijoo mein jo pehela ilaj hoga woh chemotherapy hota hai, jo 4 se 8 cycle tak diya ja sakta hai. Radiotherapy jin marijoo mein hoti hai woh bhi again aaj kal karib 3 hafte mein puri ho jati hai jo ki pehle usme 6 se 7 hafte lagte thye, aur nahi radiation technology ke through jo side effects hai radiation ke wo kafi kam ho gaye hain. Isi prakar hormonal therapy jo hai woh yeh radiation or chemo khatam hone ke baad di jati hai jis mein sirf ek tablet hoti hai jo marijoo ko ghar pe regular istemal karna padta hai aur wo 5 se 10 saal tak use ki ja sakti hai. Ek aur important cheez yeh hai ki jo bhi cancer ke marij hote hain unko ek regular follow up pe chalna padta hai, toh ilaj pura hone ke baad har 3 mahine baad unhe apne surgeon ke pass follow up ke liye jana chahiye, jisme examination jo hai woh ek bahut important part hai. Phir uske baad kuch testing ho sakti hai jaise chhati ka x-ray hai, ultrasound hai, mammography hai, aur agar koi aur takleef hoti hai tu Bol Scan, MRI, CT ya Pet Scan bhi kiya ja sakta hai. Iske alawa breast cancer ke marijoo mein jo ek aur cheez hoti hai hum log ek jo usko promote karte hain woh hai support group ka concept, jisme breast cancer ke survival aapas mein milte hain, ek doosre se cheeze discuss karte hain aur support bhi provide kar sakte hain aur isse unki jo future life hai wo kafi better rehti hai. Toh mein yahi kahunga ke cancer se aapko waise bhi nahi darna chahiye aur breast cancer ke jo aaj ke din success rate hai wo bahut hi acchi hai toh bina darre janch karaye aur apna ilaj pura kare.
Dhanyavad, Thank you.
Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyoma or myoma, are benign growths on the uterus, occurring mostly during the years of childbearing. Few of the common symptoms of fibroids are leg pain or backache, constipation, difficulty in emptying the bladder, frequent urination, pain or pressure in the pelvic region, menstrual periods stretching over a week and excessive menstrual bleeding.
Certain genetic changes of the uterus which are different from the ones normally present in the muscle cells of the uterus can cause this disorder.
Substances which help the body maintain its tissues trigger fibroid growth as well.
Family history, excessive consumption of alcohol and red meat while going low on foods such as dairy products, fruits, green vegetables and vitamin D, obesity, usage of birth control pills and early onset of the menstruation cycle are other factors that may escalate the risks of one suffering from fibroids.
Be careful and take a closer look: Fibroids are fundamentally non-cancerous and they hardly interfere with pregnancy. Often, they do not exhibit notable symptoms and are prone to shrinkage after menopause. Hence giving them and yourself some time might be the best option.
Medications generally aim at the hormones controlling the menstrual cycle and treating symptoms such as pelvic pressure and excessive menstrual bleeding. However, they do not treat fibroids completely but work towards contracting them. They include-
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists to block estrogen and progesterone production
Progestin-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) to alleviate severe bleeding caused due to fibroids
Tranexamic acid to ease excessive menstrual periods
Progestins or oral contraceptives to regulate menstrual bleeding
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to ease pain associated with fibroids
Surgeries to Treat Fibroids:
Depending on symptoms and whether medical therapy has failed, the patient may have to undergo surgery. The following surgical procedures may be considered:
Hysterectomy: removing the uterus. This is only considered if the fibroids are very large, or if the patient is bleeding too much. Hysterectomies are sometimes an option to prevent fibroids coming back.
Endometrial ablation: removing the lining of the uterus. This procedure may be used if the patient's fibroids are near the inner surface of the uterus; it is considered an effective alternative to a hysterectomy.
UAE (Uterine artery embolization): this treatment cuts off the fibroid's blood supply, effectively shrinking the fibroid.
Magnetic-resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery: an MRI scan locates the fibroids, and sound waves are used to shrink the fibroids.
My wife aged 28, diagnosed with breast cancer with stage 3B. Initially, they have given 5 neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed with modified radical mastectomy with LD flap reconstruction on 9th of this month. Surgeon, told that everything is fine and there was no treatment for 1 month but our doctor told there is large gap after surgery and started 6 chemo cycle yesterday and told as the wound is wet the disease will come back. He also told that as the gap is large he cannot give radiation therapy. Again today he told he can start radiation after 2 weeks. I am unable to understand her situation.
The symptoms caused due to herniated disc can be very severe and can also cause a bit of disability. The disc of the spine is like a cushion and separates the set of bones on the backside. The discs are shock absorbers of the spine and are mainly composed of 2 parts, a soft jelly-like centre called the nucleus and a tough outer covering called the annulus.
Effects of Herniated Disk
A herniated or cracked disc is a severe condition and it seems to happen most commonly in the lower back or neck. It happens when a fraction of the soft centre gets pushed through the destabilized area due to degeneration, trauma or by putting pressure on the spinal column.
Nerves located at the back of every disc are responsible for transmitting pain, motor impulse, bladder control etc. in our body. While a disc gets herniated, the external covering of the disc tears and creates a bulge. The soft jelly gets shifted from the centre of the disk to the region where the damage has occurred on the disc. Most commonly, the bulge occurs in areas where the nerve is located and it causes strain and irritation of the affected nerve. It has been observed that individuals may or may not feel any painful sensations even if their disc gets damaged. Other symptoms may be weakness of muscle groups or difficulty in controlling the bladder.
When is surgery recommended for herniated disc?
Surgery for herniated disc is recommended only after options like rest and pain relievers do not work. If the pain persists even after these options, then it becomes important to go for surgery. Surgery is also considered early if there is weakness of muscle groups or acute problem in bladder control. At times, emergency surgery is also required to avoid paralysis in a patient.
However, there are certain risks involved in this surgery like infection, bleeding or nerve damage. There are chances that the leftover disc may bulge out again. If you are a patient suffering from degenerative disc disease, then there are chances that problem occurs in other discs. It is very important that a patient maintains healthy weight to prevent any further complications.
The main factor that increases the risk of herniated disc is excess body weight, which causes a lot of stress on the lower back. A few people become heir to a tendency of developing this condition. Even individuals with physically demanding jobs are prone to this condition.
Activities like bending sideways, pushing, twisting, repetitive lifting can increase the risk of a herniated disk. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
Also known as slipped disc, herniated disc or sciatica. The discs are the shock absorbers of your spine. When they are injured the inner soft part of the disc can protrude out through a tear in the outer lining of the disc. This disc material can press on the nerves in the spinal column, injuring them through direct pressure and causing inflammation.
The most common age to develop a disc prolapse is between the ages of 30-50 years., twice as many men as women are affected. Prolpased discs occur mainly in the low back (lumbar) spine. Less than I in 20 cases of back pain are due to a disc prolapse, most are due to mechanical back pain. (see section back pain).
A slipped disc is characterised by sudden, severe back pain that is often made worse by movement and which can usually be eased by lying down flat.
Nerve root pain (sciatica) can also occur because a nerve is trapped or irritated by a prolapsed disc. Although the problem is in the back, patients experience pain along the course of the nerve, for example, down a leg to the calf or foot.
With a prolapsed disc, the sciatic nerve is most commonly affected. The sciatic nerve is a large nerve that is made up from several smaller nerves that come out from the spinal cord in the lower back and travels down each leg. The irritation or pressure on the nerve may also cause pins and needles, numbness or weakness in part of a buttock, leg or foot.
In rare cases, cauda equina syndrome can occur. This is a disorder where the nerves at the very bottom of the spinal cord are trapped. It can cause low back pain as well as problems with bowel and bladder function and weakness in one or both legs. These symptoms need urgent medical treatment to prevent permanent damage to the nerves that supply the bladder and bowel.
A large number of people can have a prolapsed disc without any symptoms if it doesn’t trap or irritate the nerve.
A doctor will normally be able to diagnose a prolapsed disc from the symptoms and by examining the patient.
In most cases, no tests are needed, as the symptoms often settle within a few weeks.
Tests such as x-rays or scans may be advised if symptoms persist. In particular, an MRI scan can show the site and size of a prolapsed disc. This information is needed if surgery is being considered