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Treatment of Cone Biopsy
Treatment of Treatment of Breast Cancer
What are the reason behind cancer and why should chemotherapy cause baldness? Is chemo drugs are toxic and cause other side effects too?
I am having multiple fibroadenoma in both breasts, which are very small. I had undergone surgery for fibroadenoma removal four times in the past approximately 6 years ago, which were bigger in size. I am having a doubt that" is this fibroadenoma will become cancerous tumor in the future and is there any diet restrictions to get it reduced. Can you please clarify my doubt.
I am 18 years old. I want to know that the weight gainer like proteins that are available at medicine shops nd the gym trainers also advice us to take are good for health or they are bad for health? I also want to know that these proteins causes cancer or not?
Ovaries are the primary reproductive organs in the female body which produces the eggs that need to be fertilized to form a fetus in the womb. Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the ovaries and spreads till the pelvis and the abdomen. This cancer is usually cured by either a surgery or chemotherapy.
Ovarian cancer is mostly caused due to a genetic mutation which transforms the healthy cells of the ovaries into abnormal cancerous cells. The abnormal cells then generally form a tumor which spreads further inside the female body. The type of cell in which the cancer begins determines the type of ovarian cancer you have. Ovarian cancer types include:
- Epithelial tumors: it is the most common type of ovarian cancer which begins from the thin layer that covers the ovaries.
- Stromal tumors: this type begins in those tissues which contain the hormone producing cells.
- Germ cell tumors: this usually happens among relatively younger women, and it originates from the egg producing cells of the ovaries.
Factors that boost your risk of getting an ovarian cancer are listed below:
- Age: the risk of ovarian cancer is greater in women who are between 50 to 60 years. However, ovarian cancer is such a condition that can occur at any age.
- Estrogen hormone replacement therapy: this therapy tends to alleviate menopausal symptoms and renews the hormones of a woman's body. If you are undergoing this therapy then you are at a risk of developing ovarian cancer.
- Congenital: the risk of ovarian cancer can sometimes also be due to an inherited gene mutation and can be passed on from the parents to the offspring.
- Menstrual risk: if you had started menstruating before the age of 12 or had a menopause before the age of 52 then the risk of you developing ovarian cancer increases.
- Other risk factors: these factors do not pose a subsequent amount of threat of having an ovarian cancer, but they slightly increase the risk. These are activities like: regular smoking, fertility treatments, never being pregnant, use of an intrauterine device and polycystic ovary syndrome.
While sexual problems are common among colorectal cancer patients, they are not necessarily caused by surgical treatment, Dutch researchers report. The patients may already have sexual issues before surgery.
Noting that there was not much information available on colorectal cancer patients? sexual function and quality of sexual life before surgery, the researchers aimed to describe these aspects for both patients and their partners. They also wanted to use standardized sexual health assessments and compare the scores of those patients and partners to mean norm scores.
To do this, they recruited 136 patients who had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but had not yet undergone surgical treatment. One hundred six of the patients? partners were also involved.
To measure sexual function and quality of life, the researchers used several questionnaires.
Male patients and male partners completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), which assesses erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction.
All of the women were given the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which is used to evaluate arousal, lubrication, orgasmic function, sexual desire, sexual pain, and intercourse satisfaction.
Participants with partners completed the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), which addresses the quality of sexual life. They were also given the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ), which examines relationship issues.
Finally, all participants completed an adapted version of the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire, which provides data on any comorbidities.
Mean norm scores were provided in the manuals of each questionnaire.
The researchers found that when compared to mean norm scores, both male and female colorectal patients had lower scores on the sexual functioning and quality of sexual life domains on the given assessments. Female patients had lower sexual functioning and lower quality of sexual life than male patients. The partners also had lower scores in these areas when compared to mean norm scores. Male partners had lower scores than male patients.
The lower scores could be explained by stress, as there were not many differences between the scores of colon cancer patients and those with rectal cancer. Past research has shown high levels of stress in cancer patients and a link between psychological issues (such as stress, anxiety, and depression) and sexual dysfunction.
In spite of the lower scores, however, the participants? scores on relationship functioning were comparable to the corresponding mean norm scores, suggesting that the sexual issues did not seem to damage relationships.
The findings could help healthcare providers consider the sexual needs of colorectal cancer patients. ?More information provision and/or psychosexual guidance may be needed preoperatively in order to give license to couples to discuss sexual problems and to search for adequate professional support during any point in treatment, especially as the majority of patients do not take the initiative to discuss the treatment options for possible sexual dysfunction,? the authors wrote.