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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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My child baby age 6 month & her first tooth starting so she faced highly loose motion problem so please suggest me wht we do.
My son is 12years old his height is 132cm his growth has stopped and height is also not increasing he has white spots on face what should we do to increased his height.
Hi My 3 years baby have suffering cough last 3 month at the night or early morning Indication 1. rapid breathing many time 2 cough and sneezing 3. Chest sound My family doctor says he is suffering from asthma and recommend montair 4 and one inhaler I am confused please help me what I do. I am giving montair 4 last 3 month expectorant also given Family history asthmatic in childhood (father) Please give me right direction. Thanks.
My daughter, aged 6.5 years underwent bilateral femoral osteotomy in Dec 2015 and Jan 2016. She was in hip spica cast for a total of eight weeks, followed by hip brace for four weeks. But her knees were flexed inwards after she came off the spica cast . After regular therapy for the past five months, it has opened out from 150 degrees to about 50 degrees now, Hips are in abducted attitude. Abduction is possible to about 50-60 degrees, but hip abduction movts seems to be quite painful for her. Her recent xray which was done few days back show " left femoral head dislocated inferiority" Her adductor muscles and hamstrings are tight. Kindly advise regarding further treatment possible to correct the dislocation. Thanks a lot.
HPV Vaccination quadrivalent (Gardasil) (whether Nonavalent now in India) in Kolkata, cost, availability, how to get same for my daughter 12 years (is there any side effects), how many does required, time interval, any other concern, prerequisites.
Hi my son age is 2.8, in the mid night he wants soaked rusk in milk, I don't know how to avoid that please give some suggestion to avoid his habit,
I am not getting proper nutrition or what that my weight is not increasing I eat so much but after that also please solve this problem.
CHILD PSYCHIATRY: Attention Deficit Disorders
Attention deficit disorder is characterized by the main features of distractibility, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. It occurs in both children and adults, and interferes with the person's ability to function normally in their day-to-day activities, such as work, school, and at home. While we do not yet fully understand the causes behind these problems, there are many readily available and effective treatments for attention deficit problems.
Diagnosing this disorder can be difficult since it is common for many people to have some of the symptoms of this disorder to some degree, such as difficulty paying attention or being easily distracted. Also, some of the symptoms of ADHD can manifest as anxiety or depression. Therefore, prevalence rates for this disorder are difficult to precisely pin down. However, according to recent epidemiological statistics, approximately 4 percent of the population has ADHD. About one-half to two-thirds of children who are diagnosed will continue to have some difficulties with ADHD during their adulthood.
The diagnosis of ADHD or ADD cannot be done online. This informational resource can help you better understand these problems and give you more confidence when contacting a mental health professional for appropriate treatment.
It is normal for children to be easily distracted at various stages throughout their development for short periods of time. Most children grow out of such stages naturally on their own. Do not become alarmed if you find that you or your child may match many of the symptoms listed -- this is likely one of the most overly diagnosed mental health problems today.
In order for ADHD or ADD to be diagnosed properly, it is important that the problems to be noted happen in multiple settings, that they have been consistently observed for 6 months or longer, and that many such symptoms of lack of attention, impulsivity, or hyperactivity are easily apparent.
We have developed the information here to act as a comprehensive guide to help you better understand the symptoms, causes, and treatments for attention deficit problems, whether you're an adult or a child. We've developed this resource to help you discover more information about these problems on your own.
manifest themselves in a manner and degree that is inconsistent with the child's current developmental level. That is, the child's behavior is significantly more inattentive or hyperactive than that of his or her peers of a similar age.
Attention deficit disorder (with or without hyperactivity) is known by a cluster of co-occurring behavioral symptoms. Check to see if any of these symptoms sound familiar to you.
ADHD or ADD is characterized by a majority of the following symptoms being present in either category (inattention or hyperactivity). These symptoms need to manifest themselves in a manner and degree that is inconsistent with the child's current developmental level. That is, the child's behavior is significantly more inattentive or hyperactive than that of his or her peers of a similar age.
Symptoms of Inattention:
§ often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
§ often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
§ often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
§ often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)
§ often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
§ often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework)
§ often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools)
§ is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
§ is often forgetful in daily activities
Symptoms of Hyperactivity:
§ often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
§ often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
§ often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)
§ often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
§ is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"
§ often talks excessively
Symptoms of Impulsivity:
§ often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
§ often has difficulty awaiting turn
§ often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)
Symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months. Some of these symptoms need to have been present as a child, at 7 years old or younger. The symptoms also must exist in at least two separate settings (for example, at school and at home). The symptoms should be creating significant impairment in social, academic or occupational functioning or relationships.
There are three variations in which this disorder is diagnosed.
§ Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type: when both criteria for A1 and A2 are met for the past 6 months.
§ Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type: when criterion A1 is met but Criterion A2 is not met for the past 6 months.
§ Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: when criterion A2 is met but criterion A1 is not met for the past 6 months.
My baby is 8 month old and I slowly started introducing solid food to him, I was exclusively breastfeeding him for first 6 months and now once a day I am breastfeeding him .how many times can I feed breastfeed in a day. Baby is also not more interested in feeding.
Fever remains the most common concern prompting parents to present their child to the emergency department. Fever has traditionally been defined as a rectal temperature over 100.4 F or 38 C. Temperatures measured at other body sites are usually lower. The threshold for defining a fever does vary significantly among different individuals, since body temperatures can vary by as much as 1 F. Low-grade fevers are usually considered less than 102.2 F (39 C).
Fever itself is not life-threatening unless it is extremely and persistently high, such as greater than 107 F (41.6 C) when measured rectally. Risk factors for worrisome fevers include age under 2 years (infants and toddlers) or recurrent fevers lasting more than one week. Fever may indicate the presence of a serious illness, but usually a fever is caused by a common infection, most of which are not serious. The part of the brain called the hypothalamus controls body temperature. The hypothalamus increases the body's temperature as a way to fight the infection. However, many conditions other than infections may cause a fever.
Fever in Children - Causes:
Causes of fever include:
- Bacterial infections
- Viral infections, like influenza (the "flu")
- Illicit drugs
- illnesses related to heat exposure
- Rarely, inflammatory diseases
When to seek medical care:
- The child is younger than 6 months of age (regardless of prematurity).
- One is unable to control the fever.
- One suspects a child may become dehydrated from vomiting, diarrhea, or not drinking (for example, the child has sunken eyes, dry diapers, tented skin, cannot be roused, etc.).
- The child has been to a doctor but is now getting worse or new symptoms or signs have developed.
Although you may have done your best to care for your child, sometimes it is smart to take your child to the emergency department. The child's doctor may meet you there, or the child may be evaluated and treated by the emergency doctor.
Take a child to an emergency clinic when any of the following happen:
- One has serious concerns and is unable to contact the child's doctor.
- One suspects the child is dehydrated.
- A seizure occurs.
- The child has a purple or red rash.
- A change in consciousness occurs.
- The child's breathing is shallow, rapid, or difficult.
- The child is younger than 2 months of age.
- The child has a headache that will not go away.
- The child continues to vomit.
- The child has complex medical problems or takes prescription medications on a chronic basis (for example, medications prescribed for more than two weeks' duration)
Home Remedies for Fever in Children:
The three goals of home care for a child with fever are to control the temperature, prevent dehydration, and monitor for serious or life-threatening illness.
- The first goal is to make the child comfortable by reducing the fever below 102 F (38.9 C) with medications and appropriately dressing the child. A warm water bath can also be helpful .
- To check a child's temperature, one will need a thermometer. Different types of thermometers are available, including glass, mercury, digital, and tympanic (used in the ear).
- Glass thermometers work well but may break, and they take several minutes to get a reading.
- Digital thermometers are inexpensive and obtain a reading in seconds.
- Oral temperatures may be obtained in older children who are not mouth breathing or have not recently consumed a hot or cold beverage.
- Monitoring and documenting the fever pattern is achieved using a thermometer and a handmade chart.
- Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are used to reduce fever.
- Follow the dosage and frequency instructions printed on the label.
- Remember to continue to give the medication over at least 24 hours or the fever will usually return.
- Children should not be overdressed indoors, even in the winter.
- Overdressing keeps the body from cooling by evaporation, radiation, conduction, or convection.
- The most practical solution is to dress the child in a single layer of clothing, then cover the child with a sheet or light blanket.
- A sponge bath in warm water will help reduce a fever.
- Such a bath is usually not needed but may more quickly reduce the fever.
- Put the child in a few inches of warm water, and use a sponge or washcloth to wet the skin of the body and arms and legs.
- The water itself does not cool the child. The evaporation of the water off the skin cools the child. So, do not cover the child with wet towels, which would prevent evaporation.
- Contrary to the popular folk remedy, never apply alcohol in a bath or on the skin to reduce fever. Alcohol is usually dangerous to children.
- The second goal is to keep the child from becoming dehydrated. Humans lose extra water from the skin and lungs during a fever.
- Encourage the child to drink clear fluids but without caffeine (and not water). Water does not contain the necessary electrolytes and glucose. Other clear fluids are chicken soup, other rehydrating drinks available at the grocery or drugstore.
- A child should urinate light-colored urine at least every four hours if well hydrated.
- If diarrhea or vomiting prevents one from assessing hydration, seek medical attention.
- The third goal is to monitor the child for signs of serious or life-threatening illness.
- A good strategy is to reduce the child's temperature below 102 F (39 C).
- Also, make sure the child is drinking enough clear fluids .
- If both these conditions are met and the child still appears ill, a more serious problem may exist.
- If a child refuses to drink or has a concerning change in appearance or behavior, seek medical attention.