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My sister 48 years operated last year inMay ovarian cancer six cycle of chemotherapy now last month cA125 was 15. Before that 10.
I am an 24 years unmarried girl, I have been suffering from Vitamin D Deficiency level 21, and breast lumps, 2 years ago, I had removed a lump in left breast, I don't want to operate again, can I be cured totally, and lead a healthy normal married life, or I have to continue medicine for life time? Is there any permanent solution to be cured within a year?
Sir my mother is suffering from cervix cancer stage 3rdb.Now she is taking 25no of 250cgy radition along with 3 brachytherapy treatment.Sir wheather the treatment is enough or not? again after ultrasound if no maligant tumour found then will i have do anything more?
What is the symptoms of breast cancer and how can it be treated easily other than chemotherapy which causes psoriasis?
Sir my age is 23. Height 6 ft. Weight 76 kg. Sir from 8 month I am having numbness and tingling in whole body. Excessive haur growth on whole body except beard part as I have very less hair on face only on moustache and chin. Excessive hair growth on eyebrows and head hair too. Chest and abdomen enlargement. Frequent urination and more frequency of urination along with dark coloured and smelly urine. Abdominal pain even on eating and left half head shooting pain from backside. Hig bp 150/100. Sir my problems are increasing day by day .no medicines are working on me. My vitamin d level in body is decreasing day by day. 4 month ago it was 113 now it is 70 .even I used to go in sunlight and my diet is normal. Only I am eating only 1 chappati at a time due to abdominal pain. Sir I was suspecting of adrenal gland cancer so I had 2 ultrasound of abdomen 6 month ago. It came normal with right renal cortical cyst. As I am noticing reduction in my testicle size so I went to endocrinologist .sir he ordered my total testosterone serum which came 2.59 ng/ml. Cbc was normal. Lipid profile was normal. Potassium was 4.98.sugar fasting was 97. Sir do I can still have chance of adrenal gland cancer?
My grandmother has breast cancer. The biopsy result is'Invasive duct carcinoma grade 2' And her PET-CT scan result is'Hypermetabolic retroareolar right breast mass FDG avid regional lymph nodes. No FDG avid distant lesions. Her-2 result is negative. ER and PgR result is positive 90%? Strong. Doctor told that tumor is locally advanced. We have started her treatment and doctor suggested below plan - 1- 11 chemotherapy once in a week 5 chemo are already done. Doctor told that if she can't tolerate chemo then we can stop before 11. The reason doctor gave behind chemo treatment is to shrink a tumor and tumor is stick to skin so chemo will make it loose. 2- Surgery 3- 5 chemotherapy every 21 days of interval 4- Radiation 5- Hormonal treatment for 5 years My grandma is physically fit and she doesn't have BP and diabetics and any other health issues except acidity. Last week my grandma fell down and her x-ray report is'Diffuse osteopenia. Anterior wedging of L1, L2 & L3 vertebra, could represent osteoporosis collapse. She has severe pain in the back. Recently I have taken a 2nd opinion and the doctor suggested that she doesn't need chemotherapy as her ER test is positive. She told that only hormones tablet will help to shrink a tumor and she may not need surgery. She told if we give chemo to her at the age of 75, it may create health problems for her later. I'm in dilemma now. Shall we continue with chemo treatment or switch to hormone treatment? If yes then what about its side effects? If we switch to hormone treatment then the chemo which is given will create any problem? Will it be right to switch to hormone treatment after 5 chemo cycle? What are the chances of metastasis in hormone treatment? What if we have to switch to chemo again after hormone treatment? Will cancer cell become drug resistant because of first chemotherapy? Chemo drugs go in an entire body so if there are any cancer cells in initial stage then it will kill it so chances of metastasis will be less. Is it true? Does hormone treatment also help to prevent metastasis? Let me know if you need more details.
Lung cancer is also known as pulmonary carcinoma or cancer of the lung. It occurs when DNA mutations develop in the cells/ tissues of the lungs leading up to uncontrolled growth in the tissues of the lung. By far, it is known to be the most common cancer in Asia.
1. Type: lung cancers can present as one of the following types:
- Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Most common type of lung cancer and constitutes nearly 85% of all lung cancers. The sub-types of NSCLC are as follows:
- Large cell carcinoma
- Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) (Epidermoid)
- Adenocarcinoma – accounts for majority of the NSCLC.
- Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): It is also known as oat meal cancer and tends to spread (metastasize) quickly. This constitutes about 15% of the lung cancers.
- Mesothelioma: It is a rare cancer that develops in the mesothelial cells of the pleural or peritoneal surfaces. It usually arises in the pleural membrane lining the lungs, known as pleural mesothelioma. One that arises from the peritoneum is called the peritoneal mesothelioma and the one that arises from the pericardium is known as pericardial mesothelioma. Lastly, it can also arise from the tunica vaginalis known as testicular mesothelioma. People working with or prior exposure to asbestos are mostly at risk of developing mesothelioma. The latency period between time of exposure and development of mesothelioma can be somewhere between 20 to 40 years. Maximum of the patients who develop mesothelioma are men.
2. Gender: It affects the male populace predominantly. It is more common in men than in women and in those of lower economic status. However, the incidence of lung cancer, in women too, is on the rise of late.
3. Etiology: Cigarette/ Tobacco smoking remains the most important cause of lung cancer accounting for 85 – 90% of the cases. Incidence/ risk is proportionate to the number of cigarettes smoked irrespective of the age. Also, environmental toxins including smoke from burning black tar, exhaust gases from automobiles etc. too contribute actively to various lung diseases including cancer. People working in asbestos manufacturing factories who are exposed to asbestos dust are also likely to get lung cancer. Tuberculosis too is an additive risk factor. Again, people who have received ionizing radiation especially to treat Hodgkin Lymphoma or other malignancies also run the risk of developing lung cancer. Above-mentioned causes apart, genetic factors may also play a role.
4. Features: Lung cancer clinically presents in the following ways mainly.Signs & symptoms of malignant mesothelioma are as enumerated below
1. Difficult/ labored breathing (Dyspnea)
2. Chest pain
3. Palpable chest wall mass
4. Discordant chest wall expansion
5. Weight loss (Cachexia)
6. Loss of appetite (Anorexia)
7. Night sweats
Signs & symptoms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are as enumerated below. Majority of patients are symptomatic at diagnosis
8. Chronic cough
9. Difficult/ labored breathing (Dyspnea)
10. Chest pain
11. Blood stained sputum (Hemoptysis)
13. Weight loss (Cachexia)
14. Loss of appetite (Anorexia)
16. Bone pain
17. Pleural or pericardial effusion
18. Superior vena cava syndrome
19. Brachial plexopathy
20. Neurologic pain
21. Hypercalcemia of malignancy
Signs & symptoms of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are as enumerated below
Symptoms as per the points 8 – 18 depicted above for NSCLC are applicable for SCLC as well. Additionally, patients suffering from SCLC may have:
23. Horner syndrome
5. Screening: is generally recommended for asymptomatic/ symptomatic populations as surveillance for high risk individuals – who are either current or former smokers (quit smoking within the last 15 years), have at least a 30 pack year smoking history and those who do not have any prior history of lung cancer. The goal of screening, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose lung cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly radiologic with a low dose helical computed tomography (CT) scan being more effective in detecting early stage lung cancer than a chest radiograph can.
6. Diagnosis: Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow up imaging/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis. Following are the diagnostics employed mainly:
- Blood: Hb may be low, TLC, ESR and polymorphs increased. Adenocarcinomas are likely to express thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) or carcinoembyonic antigen (CEA). On the other hand, mesotheliomas are likely to express Wilms Tumor -1 (WT-1) protein and Calretinin.
- Imaging: Thoracoscopy, Bronchoscopy, X-Ray, CT Scan etc all. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) / CT scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan help detect metastasis, if any.
- Biopsy: It clinches the histologic diagnosis, and the nature of the disease.
7. Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as contextually appropriate. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as would be feasible contextually.
8. Prognosis: preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage lung cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. The primary determinant of prognosis in NSCLC is the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed. For non-metastatic cancers, however, it is the nodal status that determines the stage and hence the prognosis.
9. Prevention: rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Cigarette smoking is to be avoided by all means as it is the single major cause of lung cancer. Even exposure to cigarette smoke (passive or secondhand) is also an established cause of lung cancer and is known to increase the risk of lung cancer in non-smokers as well. Preventing exposure to secondhand smoke can be helpful in decreasing the incidence and mortality from primary lung cancers. Above-mentioned apart, other important risk factors such as exposure to ionizing radiation, environmental carcinogens like smoke from burning black tar, exhaust gases from automobiles, outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposure to asbestos, arsenic, beryllium, nickel, cadmium, chromium etc all too are known to increase the risk for lung cancer and mortality thereof. In fact, cigarette smoking is known to potentiate the effect and hence the lung cancer risk of many of the above-mentioned carcinogens, multi-fold, in smokers. Thus, either eliminating or reducing the exposure to the above-mentioned carcinogens can lead to a decrease in the risk of lung cancer and incidences thereof. Furthermore, randomized clinical trials indicate that high intensity smokers (only) who take supplementation of beta-carotene have an increased risk/ incidence of lung cancer. Vitamin E supplementation, on the other hand, does not affect the risk of lung cancer as indicated by the trials. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.